蒋高明的博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/蒋高明 中国科学院植物研究所研究员,从事植物生态学研究

博文

中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之二十二:生产空间集约高效

已有 597 次阅读 2018-4-13 14:58 |个人分类:生态科普|系统分类:科普集锦| 生态文明建设, 中国, 连载, 草业特区, 空间集约

中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之二十二

生产空间集约高效

本书由北京语言大学出版社出版,2014(教学课件光盘版) 作者 蒋高明

 

3.1.2生产空间集约高效

3.1.2 Intensive and effective production space

 

过去15年里,我在内蒙古草原做了大量的研究工作,并成功恢复了12万亩的退化沙地草地。中国有各类草地60亿亩,但其承载人口仅1.6亿人;而18亿亩耕地却承载人口4.94亿人,并为6.86亿城市人口提供了绝大多数的粮食、蔬菜、蛋类及肉类。全国草原地上部生物量仅为3亿吨,而农田地上部生物量(秸秆+粮食)约12亿吨,全部草原仅实现了农区生产力的25%。借助现代农业生产工程技术,草地净第一性生产力可提高1020倍。如果将10%的草地生产力提高到农区水平,即可成功保护90%的草原!同时可以在18亿亩农田之外,再造6亿亩“农田”。基于这一思路,建设生态草业特区势在必行。

In the past 15 years, I have carried out a lot of research work in the Inner Mongolia grassland and successfully restored 120,000 mu of degraded sandland. The total area of grassland in China is 6 billion mu, and accommodates a population of 160 million; the total area of farmland is 1.8 billion mu, and sustains a population of 494 million. But it provides most of the vegetables, eggs, and meat for the 686 million people in the cities. The biomass of the grassland in the whole country is just 300 million tons, while the biomass (straw and food) of farmland is about 1.2 billion tons. The productivity of the grassland amounts to only 25% of that of agriculture. With the help of modern agricultural production techniques, the NPP (net primary productivity) of grassland can increase by 10 to 20 times. If 10% of grassland increases its productivity to the level of agricultural areas, 90% of the grassland can be properly protected. Meanwhile, 600 million mu of “farmland” can be built in addition to the 1.8 billion mu of farmland. Guided by this approach, it is imperative to set up ecological forage industry special zones.

 

生态草业特区,指在一个独立的旗(县)或特定区域内,充分运用生态学原理,借鉴现代化农业理念和工程技术手段,通过科学规划、合理布局、精细管理,建立以发展草牧业为主、多种生物产业为补充的农业生产园区,是牧区生态文明建设的大型试验田

Establishing an ecological forage industry special zone requires us to make full use of ecological principles, learn from modern agricultural concepts and engineering technology in an independent district (county) or specific area. By means of scientific planning, reasonable layout and careful management it is possible to set up an agricultural production park in which grass and animal husbandry are the mainstay supplemented by a variety of biological industry. It is also a large “experimental field” of ecological civilization construction in a pasturing area.

 

字主要体现在四个方面,即崭新的发展理念、强大的核心技术体系、独特的绿色经济产业结构和创新的行政管理体制。生态草业特区建设要求有足够大的面积(大于1万平方公里),以便充分展开其生态功能。同时其生态产品要在大城市找到市场,实现城乡“三生”(生态、生产、生活)和谐发展。我们这个思路获得了中国科学院和内蒙古自治区领导的高度重视。中国科学院专门成立了一个研究团队,投入1000万元进行预研究,以推进该项目的实施。

The word “special” is mainly manifested in four aspects, namely, new concept of development, powerful core technical system, unique industrial structure of green economy and innovative administrative system. Construction requires an area that is large enough (over 10,000 square kilometers) to give full play to its ecological function. At the same time, the ecological products should find their way into a market in the big cities, and only then can we realize the harmonious development of ecology, production, and life. This idea was highly valued by the leaders of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. A research group was set up by CAS with an investment of 10 million Yuan to carry on the preliminary study so that the project implementation can be promoted.

 

上述草业特区建设的创新思路就是“集约化经营,自然化保育”。人类从原始人进化到今天,生产活动对大自然造成了一定的破坏,低效的、分散的经济活动侵占了野生动物的地盘,造成了许多物种的灭绝,也牺牲了人类自己的家园。因此,提高土地利用效率,为自然腾出更多的空间,是将来要走的路。这就是集约高效经营的理念。

The innovative idea of the construction of the forage industry special zone is "intensive management, natural conservation". From primitive times to modern society, human productive activities have caused some damage to nature. Inefficient and decentralized economic activities have invaded the habitat of wild animals, not only expediting the extinction of many species but also damaging our own homeland. Therefore, it is desirable in the future to improve the efficiency of land use and to make more room for nature. And that is the idea of intensive and effective management.

 

集约,最初的含义是指农业活动中,在同一面积投入较多的生产资料和劳动力,进行精耕细作,提高单位面积产量;现代意义上的广义的集约化经营,则泛指人类的一切社会经济活动,即在同一经济活动领域内,通过经营要素质量的提高、含量的增加、投入的集中以及组合方式的调整,实现增进效益的经营方式。集约是相对粗放而言的,集约化经营以高效益包括社会效益和经济效益为目标,重组经营要素,用最小的成本(包括经济成本和环境成本)获得最大的投资回报。

The original meaning of “intensive” is that, in agricultural activities, more means of production and labor are used in an area to increase yield per unit area through intensive farming. The modern generalized meaning of “intensive operation” refers to all kinds of social and economic activities by humans. In other words, this mode of operation can enhance economic performance by improving the quality and quantity of management elements, by focusing on the investment and by adjusting the mode of combination. “Intensive” is a term roughly equivalent to “extensive”. Aiming at high benefits (including social and economic), Intensive operation achieves maximum return on investment with minimum cost (economic and ecological cost) by recombination of management elements.

 

按照上述生产空间集约经营的理念,重新来看主体功能区划分,毫无悬念的是,中国东部是适宜集约化生产活动的。这是因为那里的人口相对集中,技术和资本投入大,物流运输方便,东临大海,可以发展外向型经济,西靠广阔的内陆,可以获得必需的工农业原料。而西部由于当前已有投入小,生态环境脆弱,适宜在保护环境的前提下,发展适度的集约农业,提高生产效益。同时,基于生态环境现状,从环境保护与食品安全的角度出发,适度集约的农业要符合生态循环原则,生态农业是必由之路。

In light of these ideas, the division of main function region can be considered in a new way. There is no doubt that eastern China is suitable to develop intensive production, for it has the advantages of concentrated population, great investment in technology and capital, convenient transportation and logistics. Besides, it faces the sea on the east, which enables it to develop an export-oriented economy, while getting hold of the necessary industrial and agricultural raw materials from the hinterland of the west. On the contrary, due to the relatively small investment and fragile ecological environment, western China is suitable to develop intensive agriculture to a moderate degree and to increase the productive benefits as long as the environment is well protected. Meanwhile, the development of intensive agriculture should be based on the present situation of ecological environment and of not violating the regulations of environmental protection and food safety. In order to make moderately intensive agriculture and conform to the principle of ecological cycle, we need to develop ecological agriculture is necessary.




http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-475-1108900.html

上一篇:中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之二十一:优化空间发展格局
下一篇:《中国生态文明建设》(中英对照)连载之二十三:生活空间适宜

0

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (0 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备14006957 )

GMT+8, 2018-9-20 19:15

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部