蒋高明的博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/蒋高明 中国科学院植物研究所研究员,从事植物生态学研究



已有 479 次阅读 2018-4-13 14:58 |个人分类:生态科普|系统分类:科普集锦| 生态文明建设, 中国, 连载, 草业特区, 空间集约



本书由北京语言大学出版社出版,2014(教学课件光盘版) 作者 蒋高明



3.1.2 Intensive and effective production space



In the past 15 years, I have carried out a lot of research work in the Inner Mongolia grassland and successfully restored 120,000 mu of degraded sandland. The total area of grassland in China is 6 billion mu, and accommodates a population of 160 million; the total area of farmland is 1.8 billion mu, and sustains a population of 494 million. But it provides most of the vegetables, eggs, and meat for the 686 million people in the cities. The biomass of the grassland in the whole country is just 300 million tons, while the biomass (straw and food) of farmland is about 1.2 billion tons. The productivity of the grassland amounts to only 25% of that of agriculture. With the help of modern agricultural production techniques, the NPP (net primary productivity) of grassland can increase by 10 to 20 times. If 10% of grassland increases its productivity to the level of agricultural areas, 90% of the grassland can be properly protected. Meanwhile, 600 million mu of “farmland” can be built in addition to the 1.8 billion mu of farmland. Guided by this approach, it is imperative to set up ecological forage industry special zones.



Establishing an ecological forage industry special zone requires us to make full use of ecological principles, learn from modern agricultural concepts and engineering technology in an independent district (county) or specific area. By means of scientific planning, reasonable layout and careful management it is possible to set up an agricultural production park in which grass and animal husbandry are the mainstay supplemented by a variety of biological industry. It is also a large “experimental field” of ecological civilization construction in a pasturing area.



The word “special” is mainly manifested in four aspects, namely, new concept of development, powerful core technical system, unique industrial structure of green economy and innovative administrative system. Construction requires an area that is large enough (over 10,000 square kilometers) to give full play to its ecological function. At the same time, the ecological products should find their way into a market in the big cities, and only then can we realize the harmonious development of ecology, production, and life. This idea was highly valued by the leaders of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. A research group was set up by CAS with an investment of 10 million Yuan to carry on the preliminary study so that the project implementation can be promoted.



The innovative idea of the construction of the forage industry special zone is "intensive management, natural conservation". From primitive times to modern society, human productive activities have caused some damage to nature. Inefficient and decentralized economic activities have invaded the habitat of wild animals, not only expediting the extinction of many species but also damaging our own homeland. Therefore, it is desirable in the future to improve the efficiency of land use and to make more room for nature. And that is the idea of intensive and effective management.



The original meaning of “intensive” is that, in agricultural activities, more means of production and labor are used in an area to increase yield per unit area through intensive farming. The modern generalized meaning of “intensive operation” refers to all kinds of social and economic activities by humans. In other words, this mode of operation can enhance economic performance by improving the quality and quantity of management elements, by focusing on the investment and by adjusting the mode of combination. “Intensive” is a term roughly equivalent to “extensive”. Aiming at high benefits (including social and economic), Intensive operation achieves maximum return on investment with minimum cost (economic and ecological cost) by recombination of management elements.



In light of these ideas, the division of main function region can be considered in a new way. There is no doubt that eastern China is suitable to develop intensive production, for it has the advantages of concentrated population, great investment in technology and capital, convenient transportation and logistics. Besides, it faces the sea on the east, which enables it to develop an export-oriented economy, while getting hold of the necessary industrial and agricultural raw materials from the hinterland of the west. On the contrary, due to the relatively small investment and fragile ecological environment, western China is suitable to develop intensive agriculture to a moderate degree and to increase the productive benefits as long as the environment is well protected. Meanwhile, the development of intensive agriculture should be based on the present situation of ecological environment and of not violating the regulations of environmental protection and food safety. In order to make moderately intensive agriculture and conform to the principle of ecological cycle, we need to develop ecological agriculture is necessary.




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