蒋高明的博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/蒋高明 中国科学院植物研究所研究员,从事植物生态学研究

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中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之二十一:优化空间发展格局

已有 550 次阅读 2018-4-12 20:33 |个人分类:生态科普|系统分类:科普集锦| 生态文明建设, 连载, 优化空间发展格局, 主体功能区

 

中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之二十一

优化空间发展格局

本书由北京语言大学出版社出版,2014(教学课件光盘版) 作者 蒋高明

3.1优化空间发展格局

3.1 Optimizing spatial development pattern

 

中国有句成语叫“三生有幸”,用来强调自己感到十分幸运与高兴。可以做一下发挥,生产、生活、生态,这三生,是与人类生存息息相关的三个方面,只有这三者都“有幸”,人类才能真正获得幸福。过去过度强调经济,强调生产,结果导致生态环境恶化;没有了良好的生态环境,人们的生活质量严重下降,甚至付出生命的代价。在这样的恶性循环中,很难看到生产发展的意义。人类在什么样的环境下生活,采用什么样的生产方式才能与自然和谐相处,决定了人类社会是否能够持续发展下去。在生态环境压力日益增大的今天,中国面临着优化发展的重大选择。

The Chinese idiom “a stroke of luck” can be applied here to express one’s happy feelings. Production, life and ecology are three aspects closely related to human survival, and humankind cannot gain real happiness unless these three aspects develop in a healthy way. In the past, the development of the economy and production came first, leading to the deterioration of ecological environment and the quality of people’s life, and even to the loss of human life. In such a vicious circle, we can hardly see the point of developing production. Whether human society can develop sustainably is decided by the environment in which people live, and the mode of production they adopt. In the face of the increasing pressure from the ecological environment, China has to decide whether to optimize development or not.

3.1.1优化国土空间开发格局

3.1.1 Optimizing development pattern of China’s geographical space

 

江苏有个如皋市,该市有个长寿乡,因百岁以上老人数量多,在全国都很有名气。有位老人,105岁了,身体还很硬朗,还能够下地干活。这样的老人在当地有很多。然而,这个长寿之乡,今天却面临着严重的环境污染问题。长寿乡老人的后代们,没有他们祖辈或父辈那样“有幸”,一些人60多岁、50多岁、40多岁,甚至30多岁,就得癌症提前离开了人世。他们白发的父辈看着黑发的孩子离去,“白发人送黑发人”,这在中国人看来是最大的悲哀。

In the city of Rugao, Jiangsu Province, lies a town of longevity, well-known in China for the large number of people living to an age of over 100. I have heard a healthy old man who works in the fields at the age of 105, and he is just one typical example of the numerous local old people. However, the place is facing the problem of serious environmental pollution, now. The descendants of these old people are not as lucky as their fathers or grandfathers, for some of them died from cancer at an early age—just over 60, 50, 40 or even 30 years old. Their white-haired fathers or grandfathers can do nothing but watch them die. It is extremely painful for Chinese to see “the young black-haired die before the old white-haired in a family”.

 

具有讽刺意味的是,如皋市在家门口发展的产业,是医疗器械产业,是给人治病的产业。但是他们在生产医疗设备的时候,却生产了大量的污染物,那些污染物,染红了长寿乡的大小河流,也使他们患上了癌症。他们生产的医疗器械并不能拯救他们的健康。而当地的百岁老人显然不是靠医疗手段获得长寿的,是曾经有过的宜人环境给了他们健康与长寿。

Ironically, the major industry in Rugao is medical apparatus and instruments, which are used to treat and cure diseases. When medical equipment is produced, a large amount of waste is discharged. The waste pollutes the rivers and water of the town of longevity, causing people to contract cancer. The medical equipment they produce cannot make them healthy and save their lives. The over-hundred-year-old people in the town apparently enjoy longevity not because of medicine, but thanks to the suitable environment they live in.

 

针对全国广泛存在的环境污染问题,中国政府从问题出现的源头寻找解决方案,发现当年发展经济的时候,并没有进行合理的国土开发规划。工厂随意建设,一些厂区就建在村庄或者城市里。污染物一出厂区,就进入农区或城区,其弊端是显而易见的。

To solve the common environmental pollution problem in the country, the government tries to look for the source of the problem and fix it. It was found out that territorial development was not well-planned when all the attention was focused on economic development: the location of factories was chosen randomly. Some factories were built in villages or cities, and the waste discharged polluted these places directly. The root of the trouble is obvious.

 

国土是生态建设的空间载体,是人类赖以生存和发展的家园。中共十八大之后,中央加大了优化国土空间开发格局的力度。优化国土空间开发格局,才能让生产空间集约高效,生活空间宜居适度,生态空间山清水秀,给自然生态留下更多休养生息的空间,给农业留下更多的良田,给子孙后代留下天蓝、地绿、水净的美好家园。

Territory is the spatial carrier of ecological construction, and the home to human survival and development. After the 18th CPC National Congress, the central government enhanced the optimization of China’s geographical space as the only way to ensure that the space for production would be used intensively and efficiently, the living space livable and appropriate in size, and that the ecological space unspoiled and beautiful; and more space should be left for nature to achieve self-renewal. More farmland should be allotted to farmers in order to leave to our future generations a beautiful land with green fields, clean water and blue sky.

 

在规划国土空间开发格局时,政府要按照土地的生态功能与生产功能,根据不同主体功能区资源环境承载能力和现有开发密度,评估当地的发展潜力,统筹谋划未来人口分布和产业布局,进而规划国土利用方式和城镇化格局。20116月,《全国主体功能区规划》由国务院正式发布实施。主体功能区规划,强调了生态环境的保护功能,将国土空间划分为优化开发、重点开发、限制开发和禁止开发四类。

When planning the development pattern of China’s geographical space, the government should evaluate the potential development of the local place and make an overall plan of future population and industrial distribution according to the ecological and productive function of the territory and in line with each main function region’s carrying capacity of resources and environment and its existing development density. In June 2011, the National Main Function Region was officially issued by the State Council. It emphasizes the protection function of the ecological environment, dividing China’s geographical space into four categories: optimized development region, key development region, restricted development region and forbidden development region.

 

《全国主体功能区规划》对四类地区的规划是宏观的、原则性的。如优化开发区域,正是中国人口密集和环境污染十分严重的地区,包括环渤海地区、长江三角洲地区、珠江三角洲地区等大区域,全国最著名的京、上、广、深四大都市,就属于这类地区。这类地区显然已不堪重负,控制人口,优化产业,环境修复与治理是今后这类地区的发展重点。而对于重点开发区域、限制开发区域和禁止开发区域,国家已有了明确指导和规定。在具体实践中,要依据全国主体功能区的规划要求,严防污染企业打游击战,避免污染企业向其他未污染地区移动。主体功能区定位明确后,财政政策、投资政策、产业政策、人口政策、土地政策、环境政策和绩效考核政策等,都将随之调整。这些调整将有利于当地政府协调生态环境保护和经济发展的矛盾,让中国生态环境保护工作跨上一个新的台阶。

The National Main Function Region provides an overall and principal plan for the four regional types. For instance, the most thickly-populated and seriously-polluted region in China, coincides with the optimized development region which covers three zones of the Bohai Bay Rim, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta, the locations of the famous cities in China, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen. Apparently the region is overburdened, and so its major developing work should revolve around population control, industrial optimization, environmental recovery and management. As for the key development, restricted development and forbidden development regions, the government has already formulated guidelines and regulations. In practice, according to the requirements of the National Main Function Region, it is necessary to prevent polluting factories from dodging practice and prohibit them from moving to unpolluted regions. After the position of the main function areas is fixed, the fiscal, investment, industrial, population, land, environmental policies and performance appraisal should be adjusted accordingly. These adjustments will help the local government mediate contradictions between the protection of the ecological environment and economic development, in order to upgrade the environmental protection work in China to a higher level.

 




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