zhangzuocug的个人博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/zhangzuocug

博文

26个人文地理模型

已有 3828 次阅读 2014-10-17 08:07 |个人分类:札记|系统分类:科研笔记| 模型, 人文地理

26个人文地理模型

1.      John Borchert- Urban-Stages of Evolution of American Metropolis

1967); recognized four epochs in the evolution of the American metropolisbased on the impact of transportation & communication:
• 1) Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830) - associated with low technology
• 2) Iron Horse Epoch (1830-70); steam-powered locomotive & spreading rails
• 3) Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920); full impact of Ind. Rev. (steel),hinterlands expand
• 4) Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920-70); gas-powered internal combustion engine
• High Technology Epoch (1970-today ); expansion of service & informationindustries (not part of Borchert's model)

???

2.      Ester Boserup- Rural LandUse- Boserup Hypothesis

Boserup Hypothesis - Stage 1 forest-fallow Stage 2 bush-fallow Stage 3fallow shortens Stage 4 annual cropping Stage 5 multi-cropping - from extensiveto intensive
The population growth forces an increased use of technology in farming andrequires a conversion from extensive to intensive subsistence agriculture.Contrast Mathusian

???

3.      Manuel Castells and PeterHall-Industry/Development-Technopoles

Technopoles - high tech industry locates near sites of higher education toutilize highly skilled workers eg Boston and MIT have attracted a lot oftechnology base industry

???

4.      WalterChristaller-Rural/Urban Land Use-Central Place Theory

Explains the distribution of central places in the urban hierarchy. Modelyielded practical conclusions, like the fact that ranks of urban places form ahierarchy, places of the same size and number of functions would be far awayfrom each other, and larger cities would be farther away from each other thansmaller cities.
Weaknesses of Central Place Theory: It does not include the fact thatdevelopment of places is very temperamental. It does not apply to industrial orpostindustrial areas.

???

5.      Chauncy Harris and ELHullman-Urban-Multiple Nuclei Model

Modern cities develop by peripheral spread of many nodes not one CBD,though the CBD still exists and is important. Cities within cities. Individualnodes of special function (commercial, industrial, port, residential) coalesceat margins. Figure 11.26(c), 11.31, 11.32

???

6.      Homer Hoyt-Urban-UrbanSector Model (1939)

Sectors, not rings. Certain areas of the city are more attractive forvarious activities, originally because of an environmental factor or even bymere chance. As a city grows, activities expand outward in a wedge, or sector,from the center. Once a district with high-class housing is established, themost expensive new housing is built on the outer edge of that district, fartherout from the center. The best housing is therefore found in a corridorextending from downtown to the outer edges of the city. Industrial and retailingactivities develop in other sectors, usually along good transportation lines.
Refinement of concentric zone theory. Said to explain Chicago

???

7.      August Losch-Development-Agglomeration/Spatial Influence

Refinement of Central Place Theory (Christaller) - wanted to determine the"maximum profit" location

???

8.      HalfordMacKinder-Political-Heartland Theory

Explains why NATO and the Warsaw pact existed and control of EasternEurope
1.Who rules Eastern Europe commands the Heartland
2. Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island
3. Who rules the World Island commands the World
Fellmann p 437 Figure 12.21 Compare Spykman

???

9.      Mahan-Political-Sea PowerTheory

Mahan identified three critical elements of seapower:
(1) weapons of war, primarily battleships and their supply
bases;
(2) a near monopoly of seaborne commerce from which to
draw wealth, manpower, and supplies; and
(3) a string of colonies to support both of the above. His
theories, however, rested on two serious fallacies.
First, his overreliance upon the notion of concentrating
forces falsely denied the importance of coastal defense,
and undervalued commerce raiding. These assumptions
forced strategists to search for a decisive, war winning
battle, often in vain. Second, he overstated the strategic
benefits of controlling seaborne commerce and colonies.
Whereas in peacetime these components of empire
frequently contributed to wealth and consequently to
long
term strength, in war they often proved to be
liabilities. Mahan's timeless principles, as enacted along
the lines of late nineteenth century navalism, had the
effect of turning America's strategic vision of itself on its
side; instead of remaining an unassailable continental
power with maritime reach, it became an overstretched
maritime power with global vulnerabilities.

???

10.  Thomas Malthus-Population-Malthusian Theory and Neo-Malthusianism

Malthusian (19th century)
1. Food grows arithmetically (1,2,3,4,5....)
2. Population grows exponentially (1, 2, 4, 8, 12, .....)
3. Population checks needed - private (moral restraint, celibacy, chastity) ordestructive (war, poverty, pestilence, famine)
Fell out of favor since did not explain European population growth)
Neo-malthusian (revived 1950's, underdeveloped countries, primarily Africa)
To lift living standards, the existing government efforts to lower mortalityrates had to be balanced by government programs to reduce birth rates. Rapidpopul;ation growth diverted scarce resources away from capital investments andinto unending social welfare programs

???

11.  FriedrichRatzel-Political-Organic theory of nations

Nations act like living organisms and conform to natural laws and mustgrow and expand into new territories (Lebenraum) in order to secure theresources needed for survival. Otherwise, will wither and die. Gained anegative reputation when Hitler and the Nazis embraced geopolitics to justifytheir right for lebensraum (living space) because of their racial superiority.

???

12.  E.G.Ravenstein-Migration-Laws of Migration

Eleven laws of migration - 7 still relevant today
1. Most migrants only go a short distance.
2. Longer-distance migration favors big city destinations
3. Most migration proceeds step-by-step
4. Most migration is rural to urban
5. Each migration flow produces a counterflow
6. Most migrants are adults; families are less likely to make internationalmoves
7. Most international migrants are young males.

???

13.  WWRostow-Development-Economic Development

Countries develop through five stages:
Stage 1: Traditional - subsistence agriculture, low technology levels, poorlydeveloped commercial economies leading to low productivity per capita
Stage 2: Preconditions for takeoff- led by enterprising elite, begin toorganize political rather than kinship units, invest in transportation andother infrastructures
Stage 3: Takeoff-critical 20-30 years, rates of investment increase, newindustries established, resources exploited, growth becomes expected norm
Stage 4: Drive to Maturity-application of modern technology to all phases ofeconomic activity, diversification, economy increasingly self-sufficient
Stage 5: Age of Mass Consumption-consumer goods and services begin to rivalheavy industry, consumption levels far above basic needs

???

14.  World Systems Model

refers to perspective that seeks to explain the dynamics of the"capitalist world economy" as a "total social system"
- Important because explains the power hierarchy in which powerful and wealthy"core" societies dominate and exploit weak and poor peripheralsocieties.
Wallerstein - variation of Core Peripheral Model

The three-tier structure is the division of the world into the core, theperiphery and the semi-periphery as a means to help explain theinterconnections between places in the global economy.
Core - Processes that incorporate high levers of education, higher salaries,and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in theworld-economy.
Periphery - Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lowersalaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core processes inthe world-economy.
Semi-periphery - Places where Core and periphery processes are both occurring;places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery.

???

15.  CarlSauer-Cultural-Cultural Landscapes

Human activity superimposes itself on the physical landscape, eachcultural group leaves imprints.A combination of cultural features such aslanguage and religion; economic features such as agriculture and industry; andphysical features such as climate and vegetation. "Culture is the agent,the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result."

???

16.  NicholasSpykman-Political-Rimland Theory

N.J. Spykman could be considered as a disciple and critic
of both geostrategists Alfred Mahan, of the United States
Navy, and Halford Mackinder, the British geographer.
Spykman states that historically battles have pitted Britain
and rimland allies against Russia and its rimland allies, or
Britain and Russia together against a dominating rimland
power. In other words, the Eurasian struggle was not the
sea powers containing the heartland, but the prevention
of any power from ruling the rimland. Rimland=Coastland

???

17.  WarrenThompson-Population-Demographic Transition Model

As shown, there are four stages of transition.
STAGE ONE - birth and death rates are high but approximately balanced;pre-Modern times This situation was true of all human populations up until thelate 18th.C. when the balance was broken in western Europe.
STAGE TWO - rise in population caused by a decline in the death rate while thebirth rate remains high The decline in the death rate in Europe began in thelate 18th.C. in northwestern Europe and spread over the next 100 years to thesouth end east. Decline in death rate due to improvements in food supply anddeclining childhood mortality.
STAGE THREE - population stability through a decline in the birth rate. Ingeneral the decline in birth rates in developed countries began towards the endof the 19th.C. in northern Europe and followed the decline in death rates byseveral decades. Due to realization that children are likely to survive toadulthood, movement to urban areas, education of females.
STAGE FOUR is characterized by stability. In this stage the population agestructure has become older. In some cases the fertility rate falls well belowreplacement and population decline sets in rapidly:

???

18.  J. H. von Thunen-Rural-Agriculture Model

Concentric circles -early 19th century. Distribution of agriculturalactivities depends on transportation and perishability of products
1. City center
2. Dairying and Market gardening-perishable; expensive to ship and in highdemand
3. Specialty farming
4. Cash Grains and Livestock
5. Mixed farming
6. Extensive grain farming or stock raising

???

19.  Immanuel Wallerstein-Development-CorePeriphery Model

Core - high socio-economic level; periphery-dependent on core, supplier ofraw materials and labor

???

20.  AlfredWeber-Industry/Development-Location of Industry-Least Cost Theory

Optimum Location in terms of minimization of three basic expenses -transportation, labor costs, agglomeration
Agglomeration, agglomeration economics, least transport cost location.
Five controlling assumptions
1. An area is completely uniform physically, politically, culturally, technologically
2. Manufacturing a single product to a single market of known location
3. Raw materials from more than one known source location
4. Labor infinite but immobile
5. Transportation routes are not fixed but connect origin and destination bythe shortest path; transportation costs reflect weight of item and distancemoved

???

21.  Ernest Burgess-Rural LandUse-Concentric Zone Modal

Developed to explain the sociological patterning of American cities in the1920's. Urban community as a set of nested rings
1. CBD - high density
2.Wholesale, light manufacturing - border of the CBD core
3. Low-class residential - zone in transition; deteriorated old residentialstructures abandoned by wealthy; now contain high-density, low-income slums,rooming houses, ethnic ghettos (perhaps)
4. middle-class residential - independent working people's homes occupied byindustrial workers, 2nd generation Americans (perhaps), modest but older homeson small lots
5. high-class residential - better residences, single-family homes, high rentapartments, wealthy able choose housing location and afford journey to CBD
6. commuter zone of low-density isolated residential suburbs just beginning toemerge when model proposed
Helps to determine use and value of land surrounding cities. Transportationimpacted model

???

22.  Alfred Wagener-PhysicalGeography-Theory of Continental Drift

Evidence
1. Puzzle
2. Glaciation
3. Landforms (Mountains due to plates colliding)
4. Fossils (match up on different continents)
5. Mid-atlantic ridge spread (patterned larva)
6. Magnetic (patterns in larva show reversal of magnetic field)

Lead to Theory of Plate Tectonics by Tuzo Wilson

???

23.  H. Carey-Economic-GravityModel

Interaction between urban centers; large city more likely to attractindividual than a small hamlet; Newton's model is that attraction is directlyproportional to each of the masses and inversely proportional to the distancesquared. mass of Newton's model replaced by population of each city; distancemay be either travel time or travel cost

Variety of practical studies (migration, journeys to work or to shop, telephonecall volume) that help understand "friction of distance"

???

24.  EllsworthHuntingdon-Political/Development- Environmental Determinism

Climate and terrain were a major determinant of civilization. Temperateclimate of Europe lead to greater human efficiency and better standards ofliving

Environmental determinism is the belief that the environment (most notably itsphysical factors such as landforms and/or climate) determines the patterns ofhuman culture and societal development.

???

25.  Vidal De LaBlanche-Culture- Possiblism

Human/environemtal interaction. Humans have a wide range of potentialactions within an environment - they respond based on their value systems,attitudes and culture attributes

???

26.  William Reily-Economic-Lawof Retail Gravitation

Reilly determined the relative amount of retail trade that two citieswould attract from an intermediate place in the vicinity of the breaking point.The breaking point will lie further from the larger city.

 




http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-439966-836359.html

上一篇:美国国家学术出版社所有PDF图书开放免费下载
下一篇:武侠地理?网友自制金庸大侠分布

1 马赛

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (0 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2021-10-25 00:53

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部