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中美高层次人才“绿卡”比较

已有 4777 次阅读 2010-2-22 08:56 |个人分类:我看世界|系统分类:观点评述|关键词:人才,绿卡| 人才, 绿卡

 

作者:王孝养

   绿卡Green Card)是国际上对永久居留资格的一种俗称。永久居留资格是一国政府依据本国的法律规定,给予符合一定条件的外国人在本国永久居留而不受居留期限限制的一种资格。近几年,中国的移民政策也跟国际接上了轨,也有了高层次人才的绿卡签证,这对中国的教育、科学技术发展和社会进步将起到积极的推动作用。有人说中国"绿卡"不好拿,门槛太高。这两天笔者饶有兴致地将中国的高层次人才绿卡和美国的高层次人才绿卡的门槛高低作了个比较。

      首先看看中国高层次人才和投资移民“绿卡”的条件(见中国公安部网站http://www.mps.gov.cn/n16/n1555903/n1555963/n1556053/n1640345/1713542.html):

一、省(部)级国家机关邀(聘)请的高级顾问以及执行中央或者地方与外国签署的国家级和省(部)级科技合作项目、重点工程协议、人才交流项目的高科技、高层次管理人员;

二、对国家及社会等有重大或者突出贡献的人员以及执行政府间无偿援助协议的人员;

三、国家和省(部)级科研机构、重点高等院校聘用的学术、科研带头人以及有关单位聘用的具有副教授、副研究员以上职称或者享受同等待遇的学术、科研骨干;

四、在企业、事业单位中担任副总经理以上职务或者享受同等待遇的高级管理人员和重要专业技术人员;

五、在西部地区或者中部地区国家扶贫开发工作重点县投资100万美元以上,在其他地区投资300万美元以上的人员以及符合上述条件的外国企业或者其他经济组织派遣来中国的管理人员和专业技术人员;

六、国际重要科学奖项的外国籍华人获得者和其他杰出、重要外国籍华人。

上述人员的配偶和不满18周岁的子女。

       再看看美国具有特别能力者或杰出教授或研究人员“绿卡”的条件(翻译件,原件见附页和美国移民局网站http://www.uscis.gov/

     一.具有特别能力者〈Persons of Extraordinary Ability

      条件:指在科学、艺术、教育、商业和体育领域中具有超出普通人能力的人。国际大奖的获得者或国内符合一定条件者〈条件附后,见申请文件〉。例如:运动员、演艺人员、艺术家等。

  如果未获得国际公认的大奖,则应具备以下所列中至少三个条件并提供相应证明:

1)由于其杰出成就获得过低于国际公认大奖的其他全国性或国际性奖励;

2)作为必须具有杰出成就方能加入的专业协会或组织之成员;

3)其专业成就为专门著作、行业出版物或重要媒体所记载或报导;

4)曾经或现在仍然作为其行业评判或评选的评判员或评委委员;

5)在有关领域取得过开创性成就;

6)发表过专业著作或者在行业出版物或主要媒体上撰写过专业文章;

7)其作品参加过艺术展出;

8)身为某一著名机构的负责人或重要人物;

9)身处高薪阶层;

10)表演艺术有极好的商业收入。

二.杰出教授或研究人员〈Outstanding Professors and Researchers

        条件:在某一学术研究领域中取得杰出成就的教授或研究人员。至少三年以上的教学或研究经验。曾接受过有任职期的研究职位。

        如果是在美国大学担任教授,该学校须证明这一职位是终身职位或者将成为终身职位。如果雇主是私立机构,则应证明该雇主曾取得过突出的研究成果并雇有另外3名以上的全职研究员。除次之外,申请人还需符合以下所列中至少两个条件并提供有关证明。

1 因为学术成就而获得奖励。

2 作为必须具有杰出成就方能参加的有关学术协会的成员。

3 其工作或成就被他人在专业出版物中予以专门记载或介绍。

4 作为行业评委的成员。

5〉在科学或学术研究上取得过开创性成就。

6〉其学术著作或登载其学术文章的专业学术期刊为全世界发行。

      把最容易做到的中美的高层次人才绿卡的条件做个比较:

      中国绿卡的第三条“国家和省(部)级科研机构、重点高等院校聘用的学术、科研带头人以及有关单位聘用的具有副教授、副研究员以上职称或者享受同等待遇的学术、科研骨干”是比较容易达到的,通常,只要博士毕业2年,发表几篇SCI论文,和/或申请到科研基金即可拿到副高的职称。

      美国绿卡要求分别达到三个(具有特别能力者绿卡)或两个(杰出教授或研究人员绿卡)即可,而最容易做到的条件是:(1)获得过低于国际公认大奖的其他全国性或国际性奖励,比如全美国或国际会议的专门给学生和博士后的Travel award命中率较高,尤其是在比较小型的国际会议。(2)专业协会或组织之成员,一般只要博士毕业很多专业协会都可加入。(3)发表过论文,(4)给杂志审过稿,有些不太有名的杂志经常有call for reviewers, 只要填个表就可能成为审稿人,(5)“其专业成就为专门著作、行业出版物或重要媒体所记载或报导,在杂志出现有关你论文的评论或媒体报道你的成果都行。要达到上述容易做到的5项中的任何3项,通常都要博士毕业几年。

      对照中国和美国高层次或杰出人才“绿卡”的条件,其实中国的门槛并不比美国高,或者至少是相当。

   中国是人口大国,每年毕业大量的本科、硕士和博士。美国是移民国家,杰出人才“绿卡”只是职业移民中比较优先的一种。中国最缺的是具有国际视野的高端人才和让本土人才成才的环境和制度,目前中国高层次人才“绿卡”的条件总体还是适合中国国情的。 

附:

美国具有特别能力者或杰出教授或研究人员 (原件)

EB-1 Eligibility and Filing

Aliens with extraordinary ability are those with "extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics which has been demonstrated by sustained national or international acclaim and whose achievements have been recognized in the field through extensive documentation." You must be one of "that small percentage who have risen to the very top of the field of endeavor," to be granted this classification. For example, if you receive a major internationally recognized award, such as a Nobel Prize, you will qualify for an EB-1 classification. Other awards may also qualify if you can document that the award is in the same class as a Nobel Prize. Since few workers receive this type of award, alternative evidence of EB-1 classification based on at least three of the types of evidence outlined below, is permitted. The worker may submit "other comparable evidence" if the following criteria do not apply:

1.      Receipt of lesser nationally or internationally recognized prizes or awards for excellence;

2.      Membership in associations in the field which demand outstanding achievement of their members;

3.      Published material about the alien in professional or major trade publications or other major media;

4.      Evidence that the alien has judged the work of others, either individually or on a panel;

5.      Evidence of the alien's original scientific, scholarly, artistic, athletic, or business-related contributions of major significance to the field;

6.      Evidence of the alien's authorship of scholarly articles in professional or major trade publications or other major media;

7.      Evidence that the alien's work has been displayed at artistic exhibitions or showcases;

8.      Performance of a leading or critical role in distinguished organizations;

9.      Evidence that the alien commands a high salary or other significantly high remuneration in relation to others in the field;

10.     Evidence of commercial successes in the performing arts.

 

Outstanding professors and researchers are recognized internationally for their outstanding academic achievements in a particular field. In addition, an outstanding professor or researcher must have at least three years experience in teaching or research in that academic area, and enter the U.S. in a tenure or tenure track teaching or comparable research position at a university or other institution of higher education. If the employer is a private company rather that a university or educational institution, the department, division, or institute of the private employer must employ at least three persons full time in research activities and have achieved documented accomplishments in an academic field.

Evidence that the professor or researcher is recognized as outstanding in the academic field must include documentation of at least two of the following:

1.      Receipt of major prizes or awards for outstanding achievement;

2.      Membership in associations that require their members to demonstrate outstanding achievements;

3.      Published material in professional publications written by others about the alien's work in the academic field;

4.      Participation, either on a panel or individually, as a judge of the work of others in the same or allied academic field;

5.      Original scientific or scholarly research contributions in the field;

6.      Authorship of scholarly books or articles (in scholarly journals with international circulation) in the field.

Some executives and managers of foreign companies who are transferred to the U.S. may qualify. A multinational manager or executive is eligible for priority worker status if he or she has been employed outside the U.S. in the three years preceding the petition for at least one year by a firm or corporation and seeks to enter the U.S to continue service to that firm or organization. The employment must have been outside the United States in a managerial or executive capacity and with the same employer, an affiliate, or a subsidiary of the employer.

The petitioner must be a U.S. employer, doing business for at least one year, that is an affiliate, a subsidiary, or the same employer as the firm, corporation or other legal entity that employed the foreign national abroad. Definitions of terms relevant to this EB-1 category are found in 8 CFR § 204.5.



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