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科技写作(113):主谓一致及搭配问题 精选

已有 7779 次阅读 2013-6-8 17:26 |个人分类:科技写作|系统分类:科研笔记

    l  主语和谓语动词的单复数形式必须一致。

1  The blood, urine, and stool of each patient was examined.

修改后的例1  The blood, urine, and stool of each patient were examined. (该句的主语是“blood, urine, and stool,”而非“patient”,因此主语是复数,则谓语动词也应该为复数形式。)

2  Our data suggest that Klein’s hypothesis is correct.

“data”, “spectra” “media”分别是“datum”, “spectrum” “medium”的复数形式,所以应该作为复数对待。

   一些常见词的单、复数形式(单数/复数):alga/algae, analysis/analyses, bacterium/bacteria, criterion/criteria, datum/data, flagellum/flagella, genus/genera, hypothesis/hypotheses, larva/larvae, matrix/matrices, medium/media, nucleus/nuclei, phenomenon/phenomena, serum/sera, spectrum/spectra, stimulus/stimuli.

l  主语和谓语动词的搭配须合理。

3 The concentration of the protein was measured.

修改后的例3  The concentration of the protein was determined. (浓度不同于温度或数量,不能测量,而应计算或确定。)

l  避免悬垂或错置的模糊修饰。

修饰语要尽可能靠近被修饰语,特别是在读者有可能误解修饰语修饰句中其他成分的情况下。悬垂修饰多发生在句首(一般为引导性从句或短语),但也会在句尾出现,通常含有带–ing的词或不定式短语。修改一个含悬垂修饰的句子,既可以通过让真正的或逻辑上的行为者做主句的主语,也可以将悬垂短语改为完全引导从句,由行为者做从句的主语。

4  Having tested positive for HIV, we disqualified the patients for participation in the study. (修饰语模糊,感觉好像我们”HIV检测为阳性。)

修改后的例 4  Having tested positive for HIV, the patients were disqualified for participation in the study.  

 Patients that tested positive for HIV were disqualified for participation in the study.

5  While incubating at 30℃, we added another 10ml of buffer K to the samples. (“While incubating at 30℃”似乎在修饰“we”,但“we”不可能被孵化,所以这个修饰语也是模糊的。)

修改后的例5  While the samples were incubating at 30℃, we added another 10ml of buffer K to them.

 We added another 10ml of buffer K to the samples while they were incubating at 30℃.

 

练习:将下列各句修改正确,使主谓一致,主谓搭配合理。

1.      Altogether, we measured for 5 days.

2.      This structure controls the packaging of the DNA into the phage head and the release after recognizing the receptor on the host.

3.      Fig.7 was obtained during the oxidation of hydrogen at the Pt electrode.

4.      Our data indicates that more work needs to be done to prove our hypothesis.

5.      The liver, gall bladder, and spleen of each patient was examined.

6.      We confirmed that five genes were overexpressed and one gene downregulated in GEHIJs during B-3infection.

7.      Contrast medium was infused at a steady rate into the injection port, and the flow calculated from the observed change in CT number at equilibrium.

8.      These complexes form in situ.

9.      The Tibet air shower array experiment was at Yangbajing (90.522E,30.102N;4,300m above sea level ) in Tibet, China.

10.  We used a novel programme to analyse the tumor.

11.  Upon doping with oxidants, the HBC graphitic nanotubes become electrically conductive.

12.   Having determined that an anisotropy exists, the full data set was rescanned from 1 January 2004-to 31 August 2007.

 

参考答案

1. Altogether, we measured XYZ for 5 days.

2. This structure controls the packaging of the DNA into the phage head and the release of the DNA after recognizing the receptor on the host.

3. Data for Fig. 7 were obtained during the oxidation of hydrogen at the Pt electrode. 或:The effect of oxidation of hydrogen at the Pt electrode can be seen in Fig. 7.

4. Our data indicate that more work needs to be done to prove our hypothesis.

5. The liver, gall bladder, and spleen of each rabbit were examined.

6. We confirmed that eight genes were overexpressed and one gene was down-regulated in HUVECs during D2V infection.

7. Contrast medium was infused at a steady rate into the injection port, and the flow was calculated from the observed change in CT number at equilibrium.

8. These complexes form in situ.

9. The Tibet Air Shower Array experiment was conducted at Yangbajing (90.522 E, 30.102 N; 4,300 m above sea level) in Tibet, China.

10. We used a novel program to analyze the tumor. OR We used a novel programme to analyse the tumour.

11. When HBC graphitic nanotubes are doped with oxidants, they become electrically conductive.

12. Having determined that an anisotropy exists, we rescanned the full data set from 1 January 2004 to 31 August 2007.

 

摘编自《科技写作与交流》(任胜利. 科学出版社, 2012年出版)

 



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