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科技写作漫谈 (79):引言撰写中的几个误区 精选

已有 7124 次阅读 2010-9-20 07:35 |个人分类:科技写作|系统分类:论文交流

 引言要积极地引导和鼓励读者阅读论文的其他部分, 要令读者阅读完引言后充满激情,渴求更多。

撰写引言时应避免以下误区:

空洞而虚伪的信息

引言中缓慢的开始,在本该激发兴趣的地方使用空洞的陈述,将会使读者延误和厌烦。例如:

l         In the age of genomes, large-scale data are produced by numerous scientific groups all over the world.

l         Significant progress in the chemical sciences in general, and crystallography in particular, is often highly dependent on extracting meaningful knowledge from a considerable amount of experimental data. Such experimental measurements are made using a wide range of instruments.

l         Because of the long-term trend towards smaller and smaller consumer goods, the need for the manufacture of microcomponents is growing.

庞大且虚假的阐述

引言中试图通过阐述大问题(而不是解决方案)的形式来构建令人兴奋的成果。作者认为某一领域的研究热度足够让读者兴奋。该症状的单词有:exponential(指数的), considerable(相当大的), surge(热潮), growing(剧增), increasing(越来越多)然而,读者已习惯了这些过度的陈述,并冷眼跳过这些陈词滥调。读者中的重要群体¾审稿人,立刻怀疑这是一篇我也是式的论文:作者显然是在跟着潮流跑。许多人可能认为这个问题很重要,但这并不意味着你的贡献是重要的。例如:

l         There has been a surge, in recent times, towards the increasing use of . . .

l         There has been considerable interest in recent years in this technology, and, as trends indicate, it is expected to show continuing growth over the next decade . . .

       最好是从读者的期望开始:解释摘要中所提及的问题,并说明背景,这样可以确保简洁。

没有价值的介绍

目次表式的结束在引言中不应该出现,除非是在长篇论文中作者难以翻页查阅整体结构。例如:

The rest of this paper is organized as follows: section 2 discusses related works. Section 3 presents the technology, and shows how our approach is conducted using our scheme. Section 4 presents the results of our experiments, and shows how the efficiency and accuracy of our approach compares with others. Finally, we offer our conclusions and discuss limitations.

为什么要在引言中展示故事的结尾(最重要的研究成果),而不是将其留在结论中展示?很简单,因为读者如果没有被适当地激发起来,就有可能不阅读论文的其余部分。然而,需要注意的是:不要把论文中各个章节的句子复制并粘贴到引言中,因为读者有可能在正文中还记得阅读过这些文字并且会反感作者的草率。

引言与摘要应各有侧重

看看下面论文的摘要和引言是如何地不同(同样,忽视缩略语并重点关注异同点)

Abstract   The GCB and ABC DLBCL subgroups identified in this data set had significantly different 5-yr survival rates after multiagent chemotherapy (62% vs. 26%; P0.0051), in accord with analyses of other DLBCL cohorts. These results demonstrate the ability of this gene expression-based predictor to classify DLBCLs into biologically and clinically distinct subgroups irrespective of the method used to measure gene expression.”

Introduction  We demonstrate that this method is capable of classifying a tumor irrespective of which experimental platform is used to measure gene expression. The GCB and ABC DLBCL subgroups defined by using this predictor have significantly different survival rates after chemotherapy.

摘要中因为有关键的数据结果,因而比引言更为准确。但是,这个事实性摘要并没有阐述个人化的故事:These results demonstrate是一种被动阐述,而引言中We demonstrate(我们证明)”是积极语态。

摘编自《科技英语写作进阶》(任胜利, 莫京, 安瑞 . 科学出版社, 2009年出版)



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