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openSUSE Leap 15.0 released

已有 223 次阅读 2018-5-28 04:28 |个人分类:Linux相关|系统分类:科研笔记

 Download:

https://software.opensuse.org/distributions/leap


Release notes

Release Notes REPORT BUG#

openSUSE Leap is a free and Linux-based operating system for your PC, Laptop or Server. You can surf the Web, manage your e-mails and photos, do office work, play videos or music and have a lot of fun!

Publication Date: 2018-05-27, Version: 15.0.20180527.210ad38

The release notes are under constant development. To find out about the latest updates, see the online version athttps://doc.opensuse.org/release-notes. The English release notes are updated whenever need arises. Translated language versions can temporarily be incomplete.

If you upgrade from an older version to this openSUSE Leap release, see previous release notes listed here:http://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Release_Notes.

Information about the project is available at https://www.opensuse.org.

To report bugs against this release, use the openSUSE Bugzilla. For more information, seehttp://en.opensuse.org/Submitting_Bug_Reports.

Installation REPORT BUG#

This section contains installation-related notes. For detailed upgrade instructions, see the documentation athttps://doc.opensuse.org/documentation/leap/startup/html/book.opensuse.startup/part.basics.html.

1.1 Using Atomic Updates With the New System Role Transactional Server REPORT BUG#

The installer now supports a new system role Transactional Server that is an outcome of the openSUSE Kubic effort. This system role features a new update system that applies updates atomically (as a single operation) and makes them easy to revert should that become necessary. These features are based on the package management tools that all other SUSE and openSUSE distributions also rely on. This means that the vast majority of RPM packages that work with other system roles of openSUSE Leap 15.0 also work with the system role Transactional Server.

Note

Note: Incompatible Packages

Some packages modify the contents of /var or /srv in their RPM %post scripts. These packages are incompatible. If you happen upon such package, file a bug report.

To provide these features, this update system relies on:

  • Btrfs snapshots.  Before a system update is started, a new Btrfs snapshot of the root file system is created. Then, all the changes from the update are installed into that Btrfs snapshot. To complete the update, you can then restart the system into the new snapshot.

    To revert the update, simply boot from the previous snapshot instead.

  • A read-only root file system.  To avoid issues with and data loss because of updates, the root file system must not be written to otherwise. Therefore, the root file system is mounted read-only during normal operation.

    To make this setup work, two additional changes to the file system needed to be made: To allow writing user configuration in /etc, this directory is automatically configured to use OverlayFS. /var is now a separate subvolume which can be written to by processes.

Important

Important: Transactional Server Needs At Least 12 GB of Disk Space

The system role Transactional Server needs a disk size of at least 12 GB to accommodate Btrfs snapshots.

To work with transactional updates, always use the command transactional-update instead of YaST and Zypper for all software management:

  • Update the system: transactional-update up

  • Install a package: transactional-update pkg in PACKAGE_NAME

  • Remove a package: transactional-update pkg rm PACKAGE_NAME

  • To revert the last snapshot, that is the last set of changes to the root file system, make sure your system is booted into the next to last snapshot and run: transactional-update rollback

    Optionally, add a snapshot ID to the end of the command to rollback to a specific ID.

When using this system role, by default, the system will perform a daily update and reboot between 03:30 am and 05:00 am. Both of these actions are systemd-based and if necessary can be disabled using systemctl:

systemctl disable --now transactional-update.timer rebootmgr.service

For more information about transactional updates, see the openSUSE Kubic blog posts https://kubic.opensuse.org/blog/2018-04-04-transactionalupdates/ and https://kubic.opensuse.org/blog/2018-04-20-transactionalupdates2/.

1.2 Minimal System Installation REPORT BUG#

The minimal system installation lacks certain functionality that is often taken for granted:

  • It does not contain a software firewall front-end. You can install the package firewalld additionally.

  • It does not contain a YaST. You can install the pattern patterns-yast-yast2_basis additionally.

1.3 Installing on Hard Disks With Less Than 12 GB of Capacity REPORT BUG#

The installer will only propose a partitioning scheme if the available hard disk size is larger than 12 GB. If you want to set up, for example, very small virtual machines images, use the guided partitioner to tune partitioning parameters manually.

1.4 UEFI—Unified Extensible Firmware Interface REPORT BUG#

Prior to installing openSUSE on a system that boots using UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface), you are urgently advised to check for any firmware updates the hardware vendor recommends and, if available, to install such an update. A pre-installation of Windows 8 or later is a strong indication that your system boots using UEFI.

Background: Some UEFI firmware has bugs that cause it to break if too much data gets written to the UEFI storage area. However, there is no clear data of how much is too much.

openSUSE minimizes the risk by not writing more than the bare minimum required to boot the OS. The minimum means telling the UEFI firmware about the location of the openSUSE boot loader. Upstream Linux kernel features that use the UEFI storage area for storing boot and crash information (pstore) have been disabled by default. Nevertheless, it is recommended to install any firmware updates the hardware vendor recommends.

1.5 UEFI, GPT, and MS-DOS Partitions REPORT BUG#

Together with the EFI/UEFI specification, a new style of partitioning arrived: GPT (GUID Partition Table). This new schema uses globally unique identifiers (128-bit values displayed in 32 hexadecimal digits) to identify devices and partition types.

Additionally, the UEFI specification also allows legacy MBR (MS-DOS) partitions. The Linux boot loaders (ELILO or GRUB 2) try to automatically generate a GUID for those legacy partitions, and write them to the firmware. Such a GUID can change frequently, causing a rewrite in the firmware. A rewrite consists of two different operations: Removing the old entry and creating a new entry that replaces the first one.

Modern firmware has a garbage collector that collects deleted entries and frees the memory reserved for old entries. A problem arises when faulty firmware does not collect and free those entries. This can result in a non-bootable system.

To work around this problem, convert the legacy MBR partition to GPT.

1.6 Installing the Nvidia Driver Manually REPORT BUG#

On openSUSE Leap 15.0, you need to uninstall the package drm-kmp-default first, before you can manually install Nvidia drivers using the .run shell script archive:

zypper rm drm-kmp-default

If you install the RPMs provided by Nvidia, you will not be affected by this issue, because in that case, the packagedrm-kmp-default is replaced during the driver installation automatically.

If you decide to uninstall Nvidia's driver later, make sure to reinstall the package drm-kmp-default.

For more information, see https://bugzilla.suse.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1044816.

1.7 Scaling the Installer UI on Computers with High-DPI Displays REPORT BUG#

The YaST installer does not scale its UI for High-DPI displays by default. If you have a computer with a high-DPI display, you can set YaST to scale its UI automatically for the display. To do so, add the parameter QT_AUTO_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTOR=1 to the bootloader command line.

System Upgrade REPORT BUG#

This section lists notes related to upgrading the system. For detailed upgrade instructions, see the documentation athttps://doc.opensuse.org/documentation/leap/startup/html/book.opensuse.startup/cha.update.osuse.html.

Additionally, check Section 3, “Packaging Changes”.

2.1 Upgrading from openSUSE Leap 42.3 REPORT BUG#

2.1.1 Postfix Admin Uses Backwards-Incompatible Directory Layout REPORT BUG#

Starting with the version 3.2, as shipped in openSUSE Leap 15.0, Postfix Admin (package postfixadmin) uses a new and backwards-incompatible directory layout:

  • The configuration files moved to /etc/postfixadmin.

  • The PHP code moved to /usr/share/postfixadmin.

  • The Smarty cache moved to /var/cache/postfixadmin.

Postfix Admin no longer reads configuration files from their previous locations and the configuration is not migrated automatically. Therefore, you need to migrate the following items manually:

  • Move config.local.php from /srv/www/htdocs/postfixadmin to /etc/postfixadmin.

  • If you made customizations to config.inc.php, ideally merge these customizations into/etc/postfixadmin/config.local.php. We recommended keeping config.inc.php unmodified.

  • In the Apache configuration, add or enable the alias /postfixadmin:

    • To make the alias available on all virtual hosts, run:

      a2enflag POSTFIXADMIN && rcapache2 restart
    • To make the alias available only on a specific virtual host only, add the alias to the config of that virtual host.

Packaging Changes REPORT BUG#

3.1 Deprecated Packages REPORT BUG#

Deprecated packages are still shipped as part of the distribution but are scheduled to be removed the next version of openSUSE Leap. These packages exist to aid migration, but their use is discouraged and they may not receive updates.

To check whether installed packages are no longer maintained: Make sure that lifecycle-data-openSUSE is installed, then use the command:

zypper lifecycle

Desktop REPORT BUG#

This section lists desktop issues and changes in openSUSE Leap 15.0.

4.1 KDE on Wayland Is Not Supported with Proprietary Nvidia Driver REPORT BUG#

The KDE Plasma Wayland session is not supported with the proprietary Nvidia driver. If you are using KDE and the proprietary Nvidia driver, stay with the X session.

4.2 No Default Compose Key Combination REPORT BUG#

In previous versions of openSUSE, the compose key combination allowed typing characters that were not part of the regular keyboard layout. For example, to produce å, you could press and release ShiftRight Ctrl and then press a twice.

In openSUSE Leap 15.0, there is no longer a predefined compose key combination because ShiftRight Ctrl does not work as expected anymore.

  • To define a system-wide custom compose key combination, use the file /etc/X11/Xmodmap and look for the following lines:

    [...] !! Third example: Change right Control key to Compose key. !! To do Compose Character, press this key and afterwards two !! characters (e.g. `a' and `^' to get 342). !remove  Control  = Control_R !keysym Control_R = Multi_key !add     Control  = Control_R [...]

    To uncomment the example code, remove the ! characters at the beginning of lines. However, note that the setup from Xmodmap will be overwritten if you are using setxkbmap.

  • To define a user-specific compose key combination, use your desktop's keyboard configuration tool or the command-line tool setxkbmap:

    setxkbmap [...] -option compose:COMPOSE_KEY

    For the variable COMPOSE_KEY, use your preferred character, for example raltlwinrwinmenurctl, or caps.

  • Alternatively, use an IBus input method that allows typing the characters you need without a Compose key.

4.3 Use update-alternatives to Set Login Manager and Desktop Session REPORT BUG#

In the past, you could use /etc/sysconfig or the YaST module /etc/sysconfig Editor to define the login manager and desktop session. Starting with openSUSE Leap 15.0, the values are not defined using /etc/sysconfig anymore but with the alternatives system.

To change the defaults, use the following alternatives:

  • Login manager: default-displaymanager

  • Wayland session: default-waylandsession.desktop

  • X desktop session: default-xsession.desktop

For example, to check the value of default-displaymanager, use:

sudo update-alternatives --display default-displaymanager

To switch the default-displaymanager to xdm, use:

sudo update-alternatives --set default-displaymanager \   /usr/lib/X11/displaymanagers/xdm

To enable graphical management of alternatives, use the YaST module Alternatives that can be installed from the packageyast2-alternatives.

4.4 No Screen Lock When Using GNOME Shell But Not GDM REPORT BUG#

When using GNOME Shell together with a login manager other than GDM, such as SDDM or LightDM, the screen will not blank or lock. Additionally, switching users without logging out is not possible.

To be able to lock the screen from GNOME Shell, enable GDM as your login manager:

  1. Make sure that the package gdm is installed.

  2. Set GDM as the display manager:

    sudo update-alternatives --set default-displaymanager \   /usr/lib/X11/displaymanagers/gdm
  3. Reboot.

4.5 Scaling the SDDM UI on Computers with High-DPI Displays REPORT BUG#

The default login manager for KDE, SDDM, does not scale its UI for High-DPI displays by default. If you have a computer with a high-DPI display, you can set SDDM to scale its UI automatically for the display using the configuration file /etc/sddm.conf:

[X11] EnableHiDPI=true ServerArguments=-nolisten tcp -dpi DPI_VALUE

Replace DPI_VALUE with an appropriate DPI value, such as 192. For best scaling results, use a DPI value that is a multiple of the default 96 DPI.

4.6 Scaling the YaST UI on Computers with High-DPI Displays REPORT BUG#

YaST does not scale its UI for High-DPI displays by default. If you have a computer with a high-DPI display, you can set YaST to scale its UI automatically for the display. To do so, set the environment variable QT_AUTO_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTOR=1.

4.7 Using Automatic Scaling in Qt Applications in Setups Which Mix High-DPI/Regular-DPI Monitors REPORT BUG#

Qt supports automatic per-monitor scaling on X. It uses the DPI value of the virtual X screen to calculate the font size for the primary monitor. By default, this value is 96 DPI. It uses the relative DPI of the primary monitor to derive font DPI for all other monitors.

Two widely used desktops will override this behavior of Qt, therefore this note does not apply to them:

  • GNOME will set Xft.dpi to the configured multiple of 96 DPI.

  • KDE Plasma disables the automatic scaling of Qt and uses a manual scaling configuration.

On other desktops, this behavior of Qt can lead to undesirable situations such as the following: If the primary display is High-DPI (>= 144 DPI), fonts in Qt applications that request scaling, such as VLC, are effectively scaled to half the desired size on all monitors. Applications which do not request scaling, such as YaST (with default settings), use the same DPI value on all monitors. Hence, they will look smaller on the High-DPI monitor.

You can use one of the following workarounds for this issue:

  • Use a monitor with a regular DPI value as the primary monitor. Applications that request scaling are then scaled appropriately on the High-DPI monitor.

  • Set an appropriate font DPI (Xft.dpi). You can do so either with the configuration utility of your desktop. Alternatively, after every login run the following command:

    echo Xft.dpi:DPI_VALUE | xrdb -nocpp -merge

    Replace DPI_VALUE with an appropriate DPI value for the primary monitor.

4.8 Screen Sharing Does Not Work in Firefox or Chromium on Wayland REPORT BUG#

Firefox and Chromium normally allow Web-based tools such as videoconferencing applications to share the entire screen or individual application windows. This functionality is currently not supported in either browser when using a Wayland session.

To be able to share your screen in Firefox or Chromium, use an X session instead.

4.9 Playing MP3 Media Files REPORT BUG#

The codecs to play MP3 media files are shipped as part of the standard repository.

To use this decoder in gstreamer-based applications and frameworks, such as Rhythmbox or Totem, install the packagegstreamer-plugins-ugly.

4.10 No Support for Type-1 Fonts in LibreOffice REPORT BUG#

LibreOffice 5.3 and higher do not support legacy Type-1 fonts (file extensions .afm and .pfb) anymore. Most users should not be affected by this, as current fonts are available either in the format TrueType (.ttf) or OpenType (.otf) formats.

If you are affected by this, convert Type-1 fonts to a supported format, such as TrueType and then use the converted fonts. Conversion is possible with the application FontForge (package fontforge) which is included in openSUSE. For information on scripting such conversions, see https://fontforge.github.io/en-US/documentation/scripting/.

4.11 FreeType Font Rendering Changes REPORT BUG#

FreeType 2.6.4 has a new default glyph hinting interpreter (version 38) that more closely matches other operating systems but may look more fuzzy to some. To restore the previous FreeType behavior, set the following environment variable at any level (system-wide, user-specific, or program-specific) of your choice:

FREETYPE_PROPERTIES="truetype:interpreter-version=35"

4.12 Enabling KDE Plasma Browser Integration REPORT BUG#

Plasma browser integration for Firefox and Chromium/Chrome allows monitoring multimedia and downloads using KDE system tools and gives quick access to tabs via the Run Command bar of the KDE Plasma desktop.

The browser integration functionality consists of two parts that need to work together:

Note that this functionality is officially still in development and openSUSE Leap 15.0 ships with an early version of it.

4.13 Loading the Emacs psgml Module REPORT BUG#

Because of conflicts with Emacs modules from the default installation, openSUSE Leap 15.0 can no longer load the psgmlmodule automatically. For more information, see the file README from the package psgml.

Security REPORT BUG#

This section lists changes to security features in openSUSE Leap 15.0.

5.1 systemctl stop apparmor Does Not Work REPORT BUG#

In the past, there could be confusion over the difference between how the very similarly named systemctl subcommandsreload and restart worked for AppArmor:

  • systemctl reload apparmor properly reloaded all AppArmor profiles. (It was and continues to be the recommended way of reloading AppArmor profiles.)

  • systemctl restart apparmor meant that AppArmor would stop, thereby unloading all AppArmor profiles and then restart which left all existing processes unconfined. Only newly started processes would then be confined again.

Unfortunately, systemd does not provide a solution within its unit file format for the issue posed by the restart scenario.

Starting with AppArmor 2.12, the command systemctl stop apparmor will not work. As a consequence, systemctl restart apparmor will now correctly reload AppArmor profiles.

To unload all AppArmor profiles, use the new command aa-teardown instead which matches the previous behavior of systemctl stop apparmor.

For more information, see https://bugzilla.opensuse.org/show_bug.cgi?id=996520 andhttps://bugzilla.opensuse.org/show_bug.cgi?id=853019.

Technical REPORT BUG#

6.1 Updated Btrfs Subvolume Layout REPORT BUG#

openSUSE Leap 15.0 introduces a new default Btrfs subvolume layout that aims for the following:

  • Simplified snapshots and rollbacks

  • Prevention of accidental data loss

  • Better performance of databases and VM images stored in /var

Instead of using multiple Btrfs subvolumes for different subdirectories of /var, openSUSE Leap 15.0 ships with a single subvolume for all of /var. This new subvolume has copy-on-write functionality disabled.

There is no defined way of upgrading to this new Btrfs subvolume layout. Therefore, if you want to take advantage of it, make sure to freshly install openSUSE Leap 15.0 instead of upgrading.

For more information on the default Btrfs subvolume layout before and after this change, seehttps://en.opensuse.org/SDB:BTRFS.

More Information and Feedback REPORT BUG#

  • Read the README documents on the medium.

  • View a detailed changelog information about a particular package from its RPM:

    rpm --changelog -qp FILENAME.rpm

    Replace FILENAME with the name of the RPM.

  • Check the ChangeLog file in the top level of the medium for a chronological log of all changes made to the updated packages.

  • Find more information in the docu directory on the medium.

  • For additional or updated documentation, see https://doc.opensuse.org/.

  • For the latest product news, from openSUSE, visit https://www.opensuse.org.

Copyright © 2018 SUSE LLC




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