独轮车上的博导分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/yanjx45 狂犬病、流感、结核病和人类遗传学科普园地。 提供根治 “狂犬病恐惧症” 的灵丹妙药。 奉献在中国彻底消除狂犬病的锦囊妙计。

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如何控制蝙蝠狂犬病?(WHO最新技术报告)

已有 12593 次阅读 2013-11-26 11:56 |个人分类:狂犬病防治|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:控制 蝙蝠 狂犬病 WHO 技术报告| 控制, 蝙蝠, 技术报告, ?HO, 狂犬, 狂犬

《WHO狂犬病专家谘询会第二次报告(英文版)》,已于今年7月3日正式发布(http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-347754-713177.html)。

其中第10.6节讲述蝙蝠狂犬病控制。以下是此节的译文:

 

10.6 蝙蝠狂犬病控制

在蝙蝠中消除疾病是一个巨大的挑战,因为狂犬病毒的种类过多,而且翼手目动物在全球生态学中有重大作用(如种子传播、授粉和节肢动物的捕食)。因此,目前要消除蝙蝠狂犬病是不可能的。除了由吸血蝙蝠传播的狂犬病之外,与其他蝙蝠狂犬病相关的公共卫生风险比与食肉动物狂犬病相关的风险要低得多,尽管感染的后果也是严重的。因此,应该避免采用任何不加选择地消灭所有蝙蝠的方法,尤其是应当考虑到在大多数国家蝙蝠是受保护的动物。

公众教育是预防蝙蝠传播狂犬病的关键。它应包括以下基本信息:避免与蝙蝠可能具有传染性的接触,暴露后应寻求适当的医疗照顾,防止蝙蝠在敏感建筑(如医院,学校)内筑巢居住。

吸血蝙蝠在牛群中传播的麻痹型狂犬病可以通过给牛接种疫苗进行控制。为杀灭其主要宿主物种,将抗凝剂直接涂抹在抓获的吸血蝙蝠的背部,或直接对牛肌肉注射抗凝剂(注:抗凝剂可使吸血蝙蝠因血流不止而大批死亡),此类方法都是值得怀疑或应当废弃的。在人暴露于吸血蝙蝠的病例中,推荐严格执行暴露后预防的规定。在狂犬病高度流行而抗狂犬病生物制品(免疫球蛋白)不易获得的地区,应当考虑对人群进行预防性免疫接种。

 

附原文:

10.6  Bat rabies control

Thegoal of eliminating the disease in bats is challenged by the plethora of lyssavirusspecies and the substantial role of Chiroptera in global ecology, such as inseed dispersal, pollination and arthropod predation. Elimination of bat rabies istherefore not possible at the present time. The public health risk associatedwith bat rabies (except that transmitted by vampire bats) is lower than thoseassociated with carnivores rabies, although the consequences of infection arealso severe. Therefore, any method that indiscriminately destroys bats shouldbe avoided, especially as bats are protected in most countries.

Educationof the public is the key to preventing bat-transmitted human rabies. It shouldinclude basic information on avoiding potentially infectious contact with bats,seeking proper medical attention after exposure and preventing bats fromestablishing colonies in sensitive buildings (e.g. hospitals and schools).

Vampirebat-transmitted paralytic rabies of cattle can be controlled by vaccinatingcattle. The approaches to controlling vampire bat-transmitted rabies by cullingthe primary host species with an anticoagulant, by direct application on thebacks of captured bats or by intramuscular injection of cattle, is questionableand obsolete. Strict application of post-exposure prophylaxis is recommended incases of human exposure to vampire bats. Preventive immunizationof populations living inhighly enzootic areas with limited access to anti-rabies biologicals should beconsidered.




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