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各国陆生哺乳动物狂犬病风险指南(更新版)

已有 1680 次阅读 2020-10-7 12:08 |个人分类:狂犬病防治|系统分类:科普集锦| 狂犬

各国陆生哺乳动物狂犬病风险指南

(英国政府官方网站2020年9月15日更新)Updated 15 September 2020

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/rabies-risks-by-country/rabies-risks-in-terrestrial-animals-by-country#contents 

   按语:这是英国公共卫生部最近更新的对世界各国狂犬病风险的官方评估,可供我们在世界各国旅行、学习或工作时用作参考。

 

1 .风险分类

下面所示的国家或动物风险代表英国公共卫生部Public Health England)的风险评估用于对暴露风险进行评估。它们包括家畜和野生动物是否有狂犬病、是否有适当的监控系统以及英国旅行者行为方式的考虑

无风险(No risk)国家本地陆生动物无狂犬病。蝙蝠中可能存在相关的丽沙病毒

低风险(Low risk)国家狂犬病发生在野生动物,但不会发生在伴侣动物蝙蝠中可能存在相关的丽沙病毒

高风险(High risk)国家狂犬病发生在野生动物和伴侣动物(或没有数据证明相反情况)蝙蝠中可能存在相关的丽沙病毒

2. 蝙蝠 

在那些宣布陆生动物没有狂犬病的国家蝙蝠可能携带类似狂犬病的病毒。

因此,在世界上任何地方,暴露于蝙蝠或蝙蝠的分泌物都应被视为具有潜在的狂犬病风险。

世界上所有国家都被认为是蝙蝠暴露的高风险国家,除了英国和爱尔兰,它们的蝙蝠暴露风险较低。

3.灵长类动物和啮齿动物

从灵长类或啮齿类动物传播狂犬病给人类的风险比暴露于其他动物,特别是食肉动物的风险要低得多。

在陆生动物中存在狂犬病的所有国家(不论是低风险等级还是高风险等级),暴露于灵长类动物和啮齿动物的风险都被认为低。

4. 其他陆生哺乳动物

对于所有其他陆生动物,请使用下面列出的国家的风险等级分类。 

5. 世界各国(A to Z)的狂犬病风险等级

 No risk-无风险,Low risk-低风险,High risk-高风险)

 

A

Country Risk Level

Afghanistan High risk

Albania High risk

Algeria High risk

American Samoa No risk

Andaman and Nicobar Islands High risk

Andorra No risk

Angola High risk

Anguilla No risk

Antarctica No risk

Antigua and Barbuda No risk

Argentina High risk

Armenia High risk

Aruba No risk

Ascension Island No risk

Australia No risk

Austria No risk

Azerbaijan High risk

Azores No risk

B

Country Risk Level

Bahamas No risk

Bahrain Low risk

Balearic islands No risk

Bali High risk

Bangladesh High risk

Barbados No risk

Belarus High risk

Belgium No risk

Belize High risk

Benin High risk

Bermuda No risk

Bhutan High risk

Bolivia High risk

Borneo High risk

Bosnia and Herzegovina High risk

Botswana High risk

Brazil High risk

British Virgin Islands No risk

Brunei Darussalam Low risk

Bulgaria Low risk but foxes are high risk

Burkina Faso High risk

Burma High risk

Burundi High risk

C

Country Risk Level

Cabrera No risk

Cambodia High risk

Cameroon High risk

Canada Low risk but foxes, skunks and racoons are high risk

Canary Islands No risk

Cape Verde No risk

Cayman Islands No risk

Central African Republic High risk

Ceuta (north African territory of Spain) High risk

Chad High risk

Channel Islands No risk

Chile Low risk

China High risk

Christmas Island No risk

Cocos (Keeling) Islands No risk

Colombia High risk

Comoros High risk

Congo (Republic) High risk

Congo (Democratic Republic of) High risk

Cook Islands No risk

Corsica No risk

Costa Rica High risk

Côte d’Ivoire High risk

Croatia Low risk but foxes are high risk

Cuba High risk

Cyprus No risk

Czech Republic No risk

Czech Republic, within 50km border Poland/Slovakia Low risk but foxes are high risk

D

Country Risk Level

Democratic Republic of the Congo High risk

Denmark No risk

Djibouti High risk

Dominica No risk

Dominican Republic High risk

E

Country Risk Level

East Timor Low risk

Easter Island No risk

Ecuador High risk

Egypt High risk

El Salvador High risk

Equatorial Guinea High risk

Eritrea High risk

Estonia Low risk

Ethiopia High risk

F

Country Risk Level

Faeroe Islands No risk

Falkland Islands No risk

Fiji No risk

Finland No risk

Formentera No risk

France No risk

French Guiana High risk

French Polynesia No risk

G

Country Risk Level

Gabon High risk

Galapagos Islands No risk

Gambia, The High risk

Georgia High risk

Germany No risk

Ghana High risk

Gibraltar No risk

Greece No risk

Greenland High risk

Grenada Low risk

Guadeloupe No risk

Guam No risk

Guatemala High risk

Guinea High risk

Guinea-Bissau High risk

Guyana High risk

H

Country Risk Level

Haiti High risk

Hawaii No risk

Honduras High risk

Hong Kong(CHINA) Low risk

Hungary Low risk but foxes are high risk

I

Country Risk Level

Ibiza No risk

Iceland No risk

India High risk

Indonesia High risk

Iran High risk

Iraq High risk

Ireland No risk

Isle of Man No risk

Israel High risk

Italy Refer to website

J

Country Risk Level

Jamaica No risk

Jan Mayen and Svalbard (Norway) High risk

Japan No risk

Jordan High risk

K

Country Risk Level

Kazakhstan High risk

Kenya High risk

Kiribati No risk

Korea, North High risk

Korea, South High risk

Kosovo High risk

Kuwait Low risk

Kyrgyzstan High risk

L

Country Risk Level

Laos High risk

La Reunion No risk

Latvia Low risk but foxes are high risk

Lebanon High risk

Lesotho High risk

Liberia High risk

Libya High risk

Liechtenstein No risk

Lithuania High risk

Luxembourg No risk

M

Country Risk Level

Macau SAR High risk

Macedonia High risk

Madagascar High risk

Madeira Islands No risk

Majorca No risk

Malawi High risk

Malaysia High risk

Maldives No risk

Mali High risk

Malta No risk

Margarita Island High risk

Marshall Islands No risk

Martinique No risk

Mauritania High risk

Mauritius No risk

Mayotte No risk

Melilla (north African territory of Spain) High risk

Menorca No risk

Mexico High risk

Micronesia No risk

Moldova High risk

Monaco No risk

Mongolia High risk

Montenegro High risk

Montserrat No risk

Morocco High risk

Mozambique High risk

Myanmar (Burma) High risk

N

Country Risk Level

Namibia High risk

Nauru No risk

Nepal High risk

Netherlands No risk

Netherlands Antilles No risk

New Caledonia No risk

New Zealand No risk

Nicaragua High risk

Niger High risk

Nigeria High risk

Niue No risk

Norfolk Island No risk

Northern Mariana Islands No risk

Norway (mainland only) No risk

O

Country Risk Level

Oman High risk

P

Country Risk Level

Pakistan High risk

Palau No risk

Palestine High risk

Panama High risk

Papua New Guinea No risk

Paraguay High risk

Peru High risk

Philippines High risk

Pitcairn Islands No risk

Poland High risk

Portugal No risk

Puerto Rico High risk

Q

Country Risk Level

Qatar Low risk

R

Country Risk Level

Republic of Korea (S. Korea) High risk

Reunion No risk

Romania High risk

Russian Federation High risk

Rwanda High risk

S

Country Risk Level

Saint Helena No risk

Saint Kitts and Nevis No risk

Saint Lucia No risk

Saint Martin/Sint Maarten No risk

Saint Pierre and Miquelon No risk

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No risk

Samoa No risk

San Marino No risk

Sao Tome & Principe Low risk

Saudi Arabia High risk

Senegal High risk

Serbia High risk

Seychelles No risk

Sierra Leone High risk

Singapore No risk

Slovakia Low risk but foxes are high risk

Slovenia Low risk but foxes are high risk

Solomon Islands No risk

Somalia High risk

South Africa High risk

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands No risk

Spain - mainland, Balearic and Canary Islands No risk

Spain - north African territories of Ceuta and Melilla High risk

Sri Lanka High risk

Sudan (North and South) High risk

Suriname High risk

Svalbard High risk

Swaziland High risk

Sweden No risk

Switzerland No risk

Syria High risk

T

Country Risk Level

Tahiti No risk

TaiwanCHINA) Low risk

Tajikistan High risk

Tanzania High risk

Thailand High risk

Tibet High risk

Timor-Leste Low risk

Togo High risk

Tokelau No risk

Tonga No risk

Trinidad and Tobago Low risk

Tunisia High risk

Turkey High risk

Turkmenistan High risk

Turks and Caicos Islands No risk

Tuvalu No risk

U

Country Risk Level

Uganda High risk

Ukraine High risk

United Arab Emirates Low risk

United Kingdom No risk in animals. Low risk in bats

United Kingdom - imported animal Contact RIgS

United States of America Low risk but foxes, skunks and racoons are high risk

Uruguay High risk

Uzbekistan High risk

V

Country Risk Level

Vanuatu No risk

Venezuela High risk

Vietnam High risk

Virgin Islands No risk

W

Country Risk Level

Wake Island and the US Pacific Islands No risk

Wallis and Futuna Islands No risk

Western Sahara High risk

Y

Country Risk Level

Yemen High risk

Z

Country Risk Level

Zambia High risk

Zanzibar High risk

Zimbabwe High risk



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