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WHO《狂犬病实验室技术》第五版正式出版(可全文免费下载)

已有 2074 次阅读 2019-3-13 10:50 |个人分类:狂犬病防治|系统分类:科普集锦| WHO, 狂犬病, 实验室, 技术


WHO(世界卫生组织)《狂犬病实验室技术》第四版是1996年出版的。20多年来,相关领域的技术已取得长足进步,相关的研究人员多年来一直期盼着该书的更新版能早日面世。

WHO组织领导了第五版《狂犬病实验室技术》的编辑和出版。从WHO官方网站获悉,WHO狂犬病实验室技术(Laboratory techniques in rabies》第五版(二卷本,英文版)已正式在线出版,其中第一卷已在2018年提供全文免费下载,第二卷则在今年1月开始提供全文免费下载。

正如该书第五版的序言所说:FAO(联合国粮农组织),OIE(世界动物卫生组织)和WHO与会员国一起确定了2030年在全球达到狂犬病死亡率为零的目标。狂犬病的实验室诊断技术对于实现这一目标至关重要。改进的诊断将强化对该病的监测,从而促进那些有最迫切需要的地区实现对狂犬病的控制。

该书是WHO官方出版物。该书的出版是全球所有狂犬病相关研究人员的福音。该书提供了当前最权威、最科学、最全面、最实用的狂犬病实验室技术。我们中国的狂犬病研究人员也要充分利用好这本书。

以下提供该书序言和前言的英文原文和中文参考译文,全书(两卷)目录,以及英文版全文下载的链接地址。

书名:

Laboratory techniques in rabies      

 Fifth edition (第五版) Volume 1 ,2(第一卷,第二卷)

Edited (编辑)by 

 Charles E. Rupprecht  LYSSA LLC Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Anthony R. Fooks   (Animal and Plant Health Agency Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom

Bernadette Abela-Ridder   Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland

 

Foreword  序言

For more than 5,000 years, humans have lived in fear of a bite from a rabid animal, so much so that the first written account of rabies, in the 23rd century BC, set the penalty for an owner’s dog biting another individual at “two-thirds of a mine of silver”, or about a half-day’s work. Today, our focus is more on preventing rabies and advocating for its elimination, rather than imposing penalties, and our understanding of the virus has greatly improved since the 23rd century BC.

5,000多年来,人类一直生活担心被患狂犬病动物咬伤的恐惧之中,以至于公元前第23世纪对狂犬病的第一次书面描述就是:一只狗咬了另一个人,对狗的主人的惩罚,是赔偿一个银块(当时的货币)的三分之二,或大约半天的劳作。 今天,我们的重点更多地放在预防狂犬病和倡导消除狂犬病,而不是实施惩罚。而且自公元前23世纪以来,我们对该病毒的认识已经有了很大的进步。

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have prioritized action against rabies and, together with Member countries, have set a goal of zero rabies deaths by 2030. Diagnostics are crucial in attaining this goal.

FAO(联合国粮农组织),OIE(世界动物卫生组织)和WHO(世界卫生组织)优先采取行动防治狂犬病,并与会员国一起确定了2030年达到狂犬病死亡率为零的目标诊断对于实现这一目标至关重要。

New laboratory techniques and advancements in science have yielded better diagnostic techniques and control strategies to aid the more than 3 billion people, mainly children, in Asia and Africa who are threatened by the virus every day. Rabies is a preventable disease, yet despite the availability of efficacious and affordable vaccines, more than 60,000 people worldwide die agonizing deaths every year from the disease.

新的实验室技术和科学进步已经产生了更好的诊断技术和控制策略,以帮助亚洲和非洲每天受到该病毒威胁的30多亿人,其中主要是儿童。 狂犬病是一种可以预防的疾病,尽管有有效且价格合理的疫苗可供使用,但全球每年仍有超过6万人死于这种疾病

No diagnostic tests are available to detect the rabies virus before the onset of clinical disease, and further research on diagnostic techniques in the field of rabies is therefore paramount. The impact of suitable laboratory capacity on surveillance and elimination of the disease worldwide is evident.

在临床疾病发作之前还没有可用于检测狂犬病病毒的诊断方法,因此对狂犬病诊断技术的进一步研究很有必要。充裕的实验室能力对全球监测和消除该病的作用是显而易见的。

The OIE’s Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals provides internationally agreed standards for the production and control of validated veterinary diagnostic methods and vaccines for use in animals. The fourth edition of WHO’s Laboratory techniques in rabies has been a guiding reference for many rabies laboratories. The first edition (1954) stated that “rabies research is far from static” and, since its publication more than 60 years ago, OIE and WHO have worked to evaluate subsequent advancements in laboratory techniques in rabies. This fifth edition provides insight into validated methods recommended for use in diagnostic laboratories, but it also includes research. While not currently applicable to all settings, these research methods may stimulate the development of improved techniques for diagnosis of rabies in the future. Improved diagnostics will strengthen surveillance of the disease, leading to enhanced control of rabies where it is most needed.

OIE世界动物卫生组织)已出版陆生动物诊断试验和疫苗手册,该手册为经过验证的兽医诊断方法和动物疫苗的生产和控制提供了国际公认的标准。而WHO的《狂犬病实验室技术》第四版已成为许多狂犬病实验室的指导性参考书。该书1954年出版的第一版指出,“狂犬病研究远未停止”。自该书60多年前出版以来,OIEWHO一直致力于评估《狂犬病实验室技术》的后续进展。第五版提供了对推荐用于诊断实验室的经过验证的方法的见解,但它也包括用于研究的技术。虽然目前不可能适用于所有情况,但这些研究方法一定会促进狂犬病诊断技术在未来的改进。改进的诊断将强化对该病的监测,从而促进那些有最迫切需要的地区实现对狂犬病的控制。


FAO(联合国粮农组织),OIE(世界动物卫生组织),WHO(世界卫生组织)


Preface 前言

Rabies has an enormous impact on both agriculture and conservation biology, but its greatest burden is undeniably on public health. As such, routine methods for rapid risk assessment after human exposures to rabies as well as applications for laboratory-based surveillance, production of biologicals and management of this infectious disease are critical. Given its mandate to improve human health and control disease among its Member States, WHO has led the production of this fifth edition of Laboratory techniques in rabies.

狂犬病对农业和保护生物学(维护生物多样性)具有重大影响,但其造成的最大危害无疑是在公共卫生方面。 因此,和这种传染病相关的常规实验室技术是至关重要的,这些技术应用于在人类暴露于狂犬病后进行快速风险评估,基于实验室的流行病学监测,生物制品的生产,以及该传染病的管理。 WHO承担着在其成员国中改善人类健康和控制疾病的任务,所以组织领导了第五版《狂犬病实验室技术》的编辑和出版。

During the more than 60 years that have elapsed since the first edition was published, methods of viral diagnosis, characterization of pathogens and production of biologicals have advanced. At that time, only a single etiological agent was recognized as causing rabies. Detection of Negri bodies was the standard for diagnosis. Nerve tissue-based vaccines were the norm. Combination use of vaccines and rabies immunoglobulins in human prophylaxis was not standard. Global elimination of canine rabies was merely a dream. Rabies in wildlife was managed via population reduction. All of that has changed for the better.

在自第一版出版以来已经过去的60多年中,病毒诊断、病原体鉴定和生物制品生产的方法已经取得进展。 当年,只有一种病原体被认为可引起狂犬病。 检测Negri体是诊断的标准。 用神经组织生产疫苗是常态。 在人类预防中联合使用疫苗和狂犬病免疫球蛋白不是标准的治疗方案。 全球消除犬狂犬病还仅仅只是一个梦想。管理野生动物中的狂犬病的方法是减少群体数量。 所有这一切都在向好的方向变化。

In the ensuing decades, further advancements in detection, prevention and control of lyssaviruses have been monitored by regular meetings of WHO experts, international research groups and countries in which rabies is endemic. The second edition of the manual was published in 1966, the third in 1973 and the fourth in 1996. The late Martin Kaplan and Hilary Koprowski were instrumental in editing the previous editions, as was input on the fourth edition by François-Xavier Meslin, now retired from WHO. Initial plans for preparation of this edition were made in 2016 and its contents were discussed at the WHO Expert meeting on rabies (Bangkok, Thailand) and modified in response.

在随后的几十年中,WHO专家、国际研究小组和狂犬病流行国家定期举行会议,评估在狂犬病毒的检测、预防和控制方面的新进展。 该书的第二版于1966年出版,第三版于1973年出版,第四版于1996年出版。已故的Martin KaplanHilary Koprowski在编辑早期版本方面发挥了重要作用, François-Xavier Meslin已从从WHO退休,他在第四版中发挥了重要作用。 编写第五版的初步计划于2016年制定,其内容在WHO狂犬病专家会议(泰国曼谷)上进行了讨论,并作了修改。

This fifth edition of Laboratory techniques in rabies contains 44 detailed chapters written by more than 85 authors from Africa, the Americas and Eurasia. The text was peer reviewed by Dr Matthias Schnell, Head of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Neurovirology; Professor Thiravat Hemachudha, Head of the WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Viral Zoonoses; and Dr Asefa Deressa, Team Leader of Zoonoses Research at the Ethiopian Public Health Institute. The manual focuses on the basic methods for detection of lyssavirus antigens, antibodies and nucleic acids and the relevance of their use under different operating conditions, from the basic to the advanced. The chapters on older, less sensitive techniques used to detect Negri bodies have been removed, as have those chapters on methods of vaccine production given the progress made in the commercial use of tissue culture products in human and veterinary medicine. Recommendations for the preparations of antibodies by homolo-gous or heterologous production have been replaced by newer methods in an effort to promote a next generation of less expensive and more readily available immunoglobu-lins in the future. Other basic chapters have been retained and updated and more than a dozen added. Each of the protocols described are prescriptive and should be followed point by point in the laboratory.

《狂犬病实验室技术》第五版包含44个详细章节,由来自非洲、美洲和欧亚大陆的85位作者撰写。对该书进行同行评审的有WHO神经病毒学合作中心负责人Matthias Schnell博士,WHO病毒性人畜共患病研究和培训合作中心负责人Thiravat Hemachudha教授,以及埃塞俄比亚公共卫生研究所人畜共患病研究组组长Asefa Deressa博士。该书侧重于检测狂犬病毒抗原、抗体和核酸的基本方法,以及它们在从基础到高阶的不同操作条件下应用的适用性。关于用于检测Negri体的较古老的、不太敏感的技术的章节已被删除,关于疫苗生产方法的章节也已被删除,因为组织培养的疫苗产品在人类和兽医学中的商业应用已成就斐然。通过同源或异源生产制备抗体的建议已被更新的方法所取代,以促进在未来能生产出下一代更便宜和更容易获得的免疫球蛋白。其他基本章节已保留和更新,并增加了十几个章节。所描述的每个方案都是规定性的,在实验室中应该逐条遵循。

We gratefully acknowledge the collaboration of the many eminent scholars who contributed to the current volume, and look forward to the publication of the next edition as continued advances in the field are made.

我们非常感谢为当前第五版的出版做出贡献的众多知名学者的合作,并期待随着该领域的不断进步而出版下一版。


该书第一卷包括4部分(共26章) 

第一部分:绪论

第二部分:病毒检测

第三部分:抗原鉴定

第四部分:病毒抗体鉴定

该书第二卷包括3部分(共18章)

第五部分:病毒核酸和序列测定

第六部分:生物制剂的生产

第七部分:(疫苗)效力测定


第一卷  目录 

Volume 1      Contents


 

 第二卷 目录  Volume 2    Contents FAO.jpg


 WHO狂犬病实验室技术(Laboratory techniques in rabies》第五版(二卷本,英文版)全文下载的链接地址:

Laboratory techniques in rabies 
Fifth edition. Volume 1 (
https://www.who.int/rabies/resources/9789241515153/en/)

Laboratory techniques in rabies 
Fifth edition. Volume 2  (
https://www.who.int/rabies/resources/9789241515306/en/)



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