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The Relationship Between Earthquakes and Cosmic Expansion

已有 813 次阅读 2019-6-6 11:54 |系统分类:论文交流| Earthquakes, Volcanic Eruptions, Atmospheres, Cosmic Expansion


Abstract

In this paper, the relationship between earthquakes ,volcanic eruptions and cosmic expansion is

analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn that the expansion of the universe is the cause of all planetary

earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The energy of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions comes

from the reduction of planetary kinetic energy due to the decelerating expansion of the universe.

As the expansion of the universe slows down, everything in the universe is expanding, the atoms

and molecules of all matter in the universe continue to grow, and the magma continues to produce

gases and swell. As Earth internal pressure continue to rise, the mechanical energy accumulated in

Earth can eventually be released in the form of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The gases re-

leased by the magma formed the planet's primitive atmosphere, which constantly replenished the

lost air caused by escaping into space and maintained the atmosphere. Once all the underground

magma is cooled and solidified, the volcanic eruption and the earthquake will disappear immedi-

ately and the atmosphere will then disappear soon.

Keywords

Earthquakes, Volcanic Eruptions, Atmospheres, Cosmic Expansion



1. Introduction

Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are natural phenomena caused by the expansion of the universe. Because the decelerating expansion of the universe is the process of space energy density decreasing, the decrease of energy density of space will lead to the expansion of all objects in the universe (including atoms, molecules, planets, etc.) [1].

The earth was originally a magmatic ball without a crust. As the expansion of the universe slows down, the atoms of magma become larger and larger, the molecules of some volatile substances in magma, such as hydrogen and Helium, break free of the bondage of magma and become free molecules. After leaving the magma, these free molecules gathered on the surface of the earth by gravity and formed the original atmosphere of the earth. Because atmospheric molecules obey the Maxwell rate distribution law, there is always a certain proportion of gas molecules whose rate exceeds the second cosmic velocity at any time, so the atmosphere is constantly losing atmospheric molecules into space. Without a constant replenishment of gases, the atmosphere of the earth would not have lasted for billions of years. It is the gases released by underground magma that constantly replenish the air lost by the atmosphere, so that the earth's atmosphere can be maintained for such a long time.

As the universe expansion slows down the magmatic atoms continue to grow, the molecular weight of gases released from magma is increasing, and the composition of the atmosphere is constantly changing. With the cooling of the earth, the surface of the earth forms a solid whole crust-lithosphere. The rupture of the earth’s lithosphere into several plates, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are caused by the continuous decelerating expansion of the universe, resulting in the continuous expansion of the atoms that make up the earth (mainly underground magma). As shown in Equation(9.2)[1], or(9.5)[1],  with the decelerating expansion of the universe, the atoms of all matter in the universe are increasing, so the magma and solid lithosphere inside the earth are expanding. Under the same conditions, the expansion rate of fluid magma is larger than that of solid rock, so the hydraulic pressure of magma in the earth will continue to increase. In addition, as mentioned earlier, the decelerating expansion of the universe will lead to the continuous gas production of magma (in the early days of Earth, underground magma mainly releases small molecular gases such as hydrogen and Helium, but now mainly releases nitrogen [2], carbon dioxide. Macromolecular gases such as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide), so the pressure inside the earth will increase also. With the pressure rising inside the earth, the whole lithosphere on the surface of the earth is eventually cracked into several large plates, which is the reason for the formation of the plates of the earth .

With the continuous decelerating expansion of the universe, the magma in the interior of the earth is expanding and ejecting from the gap between the plates, so that the gap between the plates is widening, which is why the continents are constantly moving away from each other or the reason of continental drift.

The gas generation of magma should be the main cause of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Because the magma is very dense, the separated gas will form high pressure bubbles that are not easy to flow and break in the magma. With the continuous accumulation of high pressure bubbles and the increase of pressure of magma in the earth, the junction of the plates will be broken and cracks will occur, resulting in the flow of high-pressure bubbles near the cracks into the cracks and bubble rupture (explosion) at the cracks. The magma mixed with high-pressure bubbles also moves to and out from the crater (volcanic eruption) under the pressure of magma in the earth.

Because magmatic gas is produced in the high temperature environment of mantle and core, these gas molecules should be ionized and are charged ions. Because the pressure in the mantle is very high, these gases are high temperature and high-pressure electric charged gases. The sudden release of a large quantity of high temperature and high pressure charged gases in the ground is bound to produce the phenomenon caused by the big explosion, strong current and high temperature strong airflow, namely the earthquake phenomenon. The mass accumulation and leakage of this kind of high temperature and high pressure electric charged gas in the underground will inevitably have an influence on the air temperature, meteorology, geomagnetic field and geomorphology above the ground, that is to say, it will lead to the occurrence of natural anomalies before the earthquake.

Because the atoms and molecules of the early earth's magma were very small and the magma was very heavy and dense, the high pressure bubbles formed by the magma could contain very large elastic potential energy, so the volcanic eruptions and earthquakes of the early earth were much more violent than those of today. In addition, because the earth's early magma was very dense, it was able to be pushed out to form mountains along the seams between plates under the interior pressure of the earth. When the earth's crust has not yet completely cooled and solidified, under the pressure of gas bubbles of the earth, the earth's crust can also partially bulge to form mountains.

We can calculate the amount of magma the earth's volcanoes have spewed out over billions of years. If the earth (the magma) is not expanding how can one explain the source of so much extra magma? If the magma does not continuously release gases by the cosmic expansion , how can earth's atmosphere keep for billions of years and constantly change its composition[3]? If it is not the decelerating expansion of the universe that constantly converts the kinetic energy of the earth into the energy of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, then where has the energy come from that caused volcanic eruptions and earthquakes for billions of years? If the underground magma is not expanding, why is the specific weight of magma ejected from the volcano getting smaller and smaller (this can be proved by measuring the specific weight of the rocks around the crater at different ages)?

 

                                              

blob.png

Figure 1. 6-angled basalt volcanic rocks from the ancient crater 18 million years ago in Changle North Rock, Shandong Province. The volcanic rocks are much denser than the volcanic rocks in the crater of the volcano, shown in photoe 2, about 13,000 years ago

1. 山东省昌乐北岩1800万年前远古火山口的6棱玄武岩火山石。这些火山石的密度明显比图2所示的距今约13千年前火山口的火山石的大得多

 

blob.png

Figure 2. Volcanic rocks from Shishan volcanic group about 13,000 years ago, in Haikou, Hainan province, The volcanic rocks are much less dense than the six-sided basalt rocks in the ancient volcanic crater of 18 million years ago shown in photo 1, and the pores in the volcanic rocks are much larger and denser

2. 距今约13千年前的位于海南省海口市的石山火山群的火山石。这些火山石的密度明显比图1所示的1800万年前远古火山口的6棱玄武岩火山石的要小得多,所含的气孔也大得多密得多

 

The energy sources of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are the energy released by the decrease of the inertia mass of the earth caused by the decelerating expansion of the universe, as shown in formulas (4.3) [1] and (4.4) [1].. The energy of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, like the energy of nuclear reaction, obeys the mass energy formula (4.2) [1]. This is the only reasonable answer that can be given at present with regard to the energy sources of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.

It can be predicted that volcanic eruptions and earthquakes on Earth will continue until all of the earth's magma condenses into solids (like the current moon or Mars, the moon and Mars, because the mass is much smaller than the earth, its internal magma has solidified, the volcanic eruptions and earthquakes on the moon and Mars have stopped, and the atmosphere of the moon and Mars are basically disappeared) or the universe stops expanding and begins to contract.

2. Interpretations of various seismic phenomena

2.1. Interpretations of various phenomena associated with the occurrence of earthquakes

According to Liang Guanghe's article [4], earthquakes will be accompanied by the following phenomena: underground Big Bang, abnormal electromagnetic phenomena and metal formation. According to the theory of this paper, the above seismic phenomena are explained below.

2.1.1. The interpretation of the phenomenon of Underground Big Bang

According to the theory in this paper, earthquakes are mainly caused by the continuous decelerating expansion of the universe, resulting in the continuous separation of gases (now mainly nitrogen and carbon dioxide) from underground magma. Because the magma is very thick, the separated gas forms high pressure bubbles that are not easy to flow and break in the magma and accumulate under the earth's crust. With the increase of the  bubbles, the energy of these high pressure bubbles increases continuously. These high-pressure bubbles are constantly looking for breakthroughs under the earth's crust to release energy. Because the freezing junction of the plates is relatively weak, it is easy to break through and lead to the rupture of high pressure bubbles. The rupture of high pressure bubbles result in the sudden release of elastic potential energy (explosion), which leads to earthquakes. The explosion points of these high-pressure bubbles can be located below the crust (palintectic earthquake) or near the ground in the crust (shallow focus earthquakes).

2.1.2. The interpretation of electromagnetic phenomena accompanying earthquakes.

To sum up, the electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes are listed below:

a) generation of strong current; b) sudden changes in electromagnetic fields near the earthquake area; c) production of seismic light

According to Liang Guanghe's article [4], the current produced by earthquake is very strong. The current generated by the magnitude 6 earthquake is as high as 100000 amperes and the current generated by the magnitude 7 earthquake is as high as 1 million amperes. The maximum current of a common household meter generally does not exceed 60 amperes. How does such a big current come into being? Because the seismic gas is produced in the mantle and core, and the gases are ionized at high temperature in both the mantle and core. Therefore, when an earthquake occurs, the rapid flow of a large number of ionized gases in the crust will form a strong current and produce a strong magnetic field, which will make the electromagnetic field of the earthquake area change suddenly. When an earthquake occurs, a large number of high temperature ionic gases will be released from the ground into the air, which will lead to the generation of seismic light.

2.1.3. The interpretation of metals generated by earthquakes

Because seismic gases are produced in the mantle and core, the temperature of these gases is very high. When earthquakes occur, the flow of a large number of high temperature gases in the crust will cause the minerals the gases pass through to melt and produce reduction reactions to form metals. In this respect, the effect of earthquake and underground nuclear explosion should be similar, both of which are the effect of melting metal ore at high temperature.

2.2. The interpretations of main natural anomalies before earthquakes

Because there will be a large number of high temperature and high pressure charged gas accumulation and activity in the underground before earthquake occurs, there will be a lot of abnormal natural phenomena. The accumulation and slow release of high temperature and high pressure charged gases will not only affect the local electromagnetic field, but also change the local temperature and weather. In addition, the accumulation and release of these high temperature and high pressure charged gases will also lead to the change of pressure in the local range of underground, resulting in deformation of stratum and abnormal sound. The change of groundwater pressure and the deformation of stratum will lead to the change of groundwater level.

2.2.1.  The interpretation of groundwater anomalies

Groundwater includes well water, spring water, etc. The main anomalies are muddy, bubbling, flower turning, temperature rise, discoloration, flavor change, sudden rise, sudden drop, wellbore deformation, sudden depletion or outpouring of spring water source, and so on. The anomaly of groundwater is caused by the accumulation and release of underground high temperature and high pressure charged gas before the earthquake, which changes the hydraulic pressure of groundwater and results in the formation deformation. The slow release of underground high temperature and high pressure charged gases will lead to the entry of dust particles from underground minerals or soil into the water, resulting in muddy, bubbling, warming, discoloration or odour of well water or spring water. Because the pressure change of high temperature and high pressure charged gas in the underground will change the hydraulic pressure of groundwater and cause the deformation and movement of formation, that will lead to sudden rise, sudden drop of well water or spring water, well deformation, sudden depletion or outpouring of springs and other phenomena.

2.2.2. The interpretation of biological anomalies

Before the earthquake, in addition to the abnormal behavior of animals, some plants also had abnormal reactions, such as unseasonable germination, flowering, and fruit, or large area withering and abnormal lush, and so on. The anomaly of animals is mainly due to the active flow of charged gases in the underground mantle of the earthquake area before the earthquake and the accumulation and slow release of the high temperature and high pressure charged gases which cause the disturbance of the geomagnetic field and the abnormal sound and peculiar smell. The anomaly of plants is mainly due to the slow release of underground high temperature and high pressure charged gases in the earthquake area before the earthquake. Because the temperature of seismic gases is very high, the release of these gases can change the temperature of soil and air in the earthquake area, leading to the unseasonable germination, flowering and fruiting of plants. Because the main components of seismic gases are nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which are nutrients needed by plants, the slow release of these gases can cause plants to flourish. But if the gas released is too thick, it will cause the plant to wither in large areas.

2.2.3. The interpretation of Meteorological anomalies

Before earthquakes, the weather is also often abnormal. Usually the weather is sultry and people are anxious and irritable, there are long drought or heavy continuous rain, yellow fog and dark sun, strange wind, hail in June and so on. Before earthquake, the accumulation and slow release of underground high temperature and high pressure charged gases in the earthquake area will of course have an impact on the weather in the earthquake area. The sultry weather before the earthquake is mainly caused by the increase of temperature caused by the release of underground hot gases and the evaporation of groundwater caused by underground hot gas. If there is little groundwater in the earthquake area, the released heat will lead to a long drought. If the groundwater in the earthquake area is rich, the released heat will lead to the evaporation of groundwater, resulting in heavy continuous rain or hail in June. The strange wind should be caused by the rise of underground hot gas. The gas released from the ground is charged gas, the charged gas absorbs dust particles in the process of underground flow, so the release of the underground charged gas will result in yellow fog and dark sunlight.

2.2.4. The interpretation of underground sound anomalies

The underground sound anomalies refer to the special sounds from the underground before the earthquake, such as the sound of cannon or thunder, the sound of heavy car driving, the sound of big wind etc. Before earthquake occurs, the pressure produced by the gas accumulated in the underground will lead to the small deformation of the crust in the earthquake area, which will cause the deformation or fracture of the underground rock bed and produce sound of cannon or thunder. The flow of released gas in the underground, in particular in the underground cavity, can result in the sound like heavy vehicle running and the sound like strong wind.

2.2.5. The interpretation of earthquake light

Earthquake light refers to the light from the ground before earthquakes, its color is various, can be mixed color that is rare to see in daily life, such as silver blue, white purple and so on, but mainly red and white; Its shape is also different, there are banded, spherical, columnar, diffused and so on. General earthquake light appears in a large range, mostly within hours to a few minutes before the earthquake, lasting for a few seconds. Before the earthquake occurs, a large number of high temperature and high pressure charged gases will accumulate underground in the earthquake area. The earthquake light should be the discharge phenomenon caused by the release of these charged gases into the air.

2.2.6. The interpretation of earthquake gas

Earthquake gas refers to the fog from the ground before the earthquake, also known as ground fog. This fog, with white, black, yellow and other colors, sometimes colorless, often appears within a few days to a few minutes before the earthquake, and is accompanied by strange smell, sometimes is accompanied by sound or high temperature. The earthquake gas phenomenon is caused by the release of high temperature and high pressure charged gases gathered underground before or during the earthquake.

2.2.7. The interpretation of ground motion anomalies

Ground motion anomaly refers to the sloshing of the ground before the earthquake. Before an earthquake occurs, the ground is sometimes felt shaking, which is different from that of an earthquake. It wobbles very slowly and is often not recorded by the seismograph, but can be felt by many people. The ground motion anomaly is caused by the slow and uneven release of high pressure gas accumulated in underground in the earthquake area before the earthquake occurs.

2.2.8. The interpretation of abnormal ground drum

The anomaly of ground drum refers to the occurrence of bulging on the ground before the earthquake. This is also caused by the release of high pressure gases accumulated underground in the earthquake area before the earthquake.

2.2.9. The interpretation of geomagnetism anomalies

Electromagnetic anomalies refer to anomalies in household appliances such as radios, televisions, fluorescent lamps and so on before the earthquake. This is caused by the electromagnetic field generated by the release of the high pressure charged gases that are collected in the seismic zone before the earthquake.

3. The method of earthquake elimination

According to the theory of this paper, one of the conditions for the formation of earthquakes is the accumulation of underground high temperature and high pressure charged gases. So if the accumulation of this gases can be stopped and the gases can be slowly released out of the earth, then we can eliminate the earthquake. Therefore, some deep wells can be drilled in and around the cities, especially the earthquake-prone cities, to release underground gas all the year round. These deep well groups should be able to protect the city from the earthquake.

The above method can be verified by finding seismic historical data near the active volcanoes. Because active volcanoes are a natural pressure relief channel, when underground high-temperature and high-pressure charged gases gather near the crater, the gases will flow to and release through the crater. So it is impossible to have a big earthquake near the active volcano.

Because the dead volcano is equivalent to a natural pressure relief valve, when the underground high temperature and high pressure charged gases accumulate under the dead volcano, the gases will first break through the blockage of the crater and release out through the crater. So it is also unlikely that a very big earthquake will occur near the dead volcano.

4. Conclusions

Ÿ   The expansion of the universe is the root cause of all planet earthquakes and volcanic eruptions;

Ÿ   The energy of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions comes from the reduction of the kinetic energy of the planets caused by the decelerating expansion of the universe.

Ÿ   The formation and maintenance of the planet's atmosphere depends on the gases released by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Ÿ   The earthquake is caused by the explosion of high-temperature and high-pressure bubbles formed by the accumulation of charged gas molecules separated by the underground magma.

References

[1]       Jianan Wang2018On the Existence of Ether and Its Important Position and Role in PhysicsNational Science and Technology Digital Library

https://preprint.nstl.gov.cn/preprint/main.html?action=showFile&id=2c928282641b5f6b01657f450a9e039a

[2]       B. Z. Houlton1,*,†, S. L. Morford1,2,*, R. A. Dahlgren1 , Science 06 Apr 2018: Vol. 360, Issue 6384, pp. 58-62

[3]       Jianan Wang2018On the Evolution of Planetary Atmosphere and the Relationship Between Greenhouse Effect and Universe ExpansionScience and Technology Digital Library

https://preprint.nstl.gov.cn/preprint/main.html?action=showFile&id=2c928282641b5f6b0165a37c3374041c

[4]       Liang Guanghe, 2016, the new knowledge of earthquake, encyclopedia knowledge, No. 14: 6 / 13, 梁光河, 2016, 地震新知,百科知识,14: 6-13





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