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论行星大气层的演化规律及温室效应与宇宙膨胀的关系

已有 1009 次阅读 2019-5-8 11:05 |系统分类:论文交流| 全球变暖, 温室效应, 温室气体减排, 行星大气演化, 地震

摘要:本文分析论证了行星大气层的演化规律,得出了温室效应产生的主要原因是宇宙的减速膨胀以及地球植被的不断减少的结论,指出了应对温室效应的最有效措施是“保护及大面积增加陆地植被和海洋植物”


Abstract: In this paper, the evolution law of planetary atmosphere is analyzed, and the conclusion is drawn that the main causes of Greenhouse Effect are the decelerating expansion of the universe and the decrease of vegetation on the earth. It is pointed out that the most effective measure to deal with Greenhouse Effect is to protect and increase land vegetation and marine plants in a large area.

关键词:全球变暖、温室效应、温室气体减排、行星大气演化

Keywords: Global warming, greenhouse effect, greenhouse gas reduction, planetary atmosphere evolution

由公式(9.2)或(9.5)[1]可知随着宇宙的减速膨胀原子在不断变大。原子变大则原子之间的距离变大,原子之间的吸引力变小,由此导致或加快岩浆内挥发性物质脱离岩浆的束缚成为气体释放出来;另外,还会导致岩浆气化分离出来的气体成分的变化既分离出来的气体的分子量越来越大(这个过程与石油的炼油过程类似,即随着温度的增高,从原油蒸发出来的油品的分子量越来越大)。地下岩浆最开始主要分离出分子量小的气体如氢气和氦气,接着主要分离出氮气等中等分子量的气体,再接着主要分离出二氧化碳和二氧化硫等大分子量的气体。上述推论得到了美国加州大学2018年4月6日发表在Scicence上一文[2]结果的证明,该文发现生态系统中多达26%的氮气来自于地球岩石圈基岩(本文认为来自地下岩浆),其余来自大气。

另外,随着宇宙的膨胀,原子不断变大,行星和行星大气层也都在不断膨胀。所以,大气层顶层的大气分子离行星质心的距离不断变大,受到的引力越来越小以及获得的太阳能越来越多。所以分子运动平均速度加快并导致空气从大气层流失的速度越来越快,从大气层流失的气体成分的分子量也越来越大;首先流失氢气和氦气等小分子量的气体,接着流失氮气、氧气、甲烷以及水蒸气,最后流失二氧化碳和二氧化硫等大分子量的气体。

由于行星的地下岩浆温度会不断下降,温度的下降会导致分离出气体的速度的下降,当地下岩浆凝固成固体后,岩浆基本停止释放气体。火星大气层目前还残留极少量的二氧化碳说明火星地下岩浆已经接近凝固成固体了。月球表面基本为真空,说明月球地下岩浆已经基本凝固成固体了。

所有行星的原始大气层都应当是从行星的岩浆里面分离出来的气体构成的,并且随着宇宙的膨胀和地下岩浆温度的下降,都应当经历上述从主要分离出氢气到最后主要分离出二氧化碳的过程;以及经历先流失氢气到最后流失二氧化碳的过程。行星的引力质量越小、比重越小、离太阳的距离越近则完成上述大气层变化的所有流程的时间就越早,周期也越短。

火星的引力质量只有地球的约10%,比重(3.94g/cm3)为地球的71.6%,火星大气层目前只残留极少量的二氧化碳说明火星地下岩浆已经接近凝固成固体了,火星大气层已经接近走完上述大气层变化的所有流程。火星原本也有大气层和海洋。随着宇宙的膨胀,火星和火星大气层也都跟着膨胀,大气分子受到的引力不断变小,大气分子流出大气层的流速不断加快,海洋的水份的蒸发也不断加快。最终由于火星地下岩浆的接近凝固以及火星引力太小,火星的大气层几乎全部流失,与此同时火星海洋也不断蒸发变成气体并最终全部脱离了火星。火星的引力质量是太阳系九大行星中最小的,所以先行了一步(推测月球上曾经也有过大气层,但由于引力质量实在太小,所以随着宇宙的膨胀和月球地下岩浆的冷却与凝固月球大气层很快便丧失了)。

金星的引力质量比火星大,是地球的约80%,金星的比重(5.19g/cm3)为地球的94.2%。目前金星大气主要由二氧化碳(96%)组成,金星大气压为地球的90倍。推测金星大气层以前也经历过以氢气为主,接着以氮气和氧气为主的阶段,然后才进入到二氧化碳和温室效应不断增加的阶段。随着宇宙的膨胀和地下岩浆的冷却与凝固金星大气层的变化接着应当是二氧化碳的不断流失和大气压的不断下降,最后也会变到只剩下稀薄的二氧化碳如同现在的火星大气层一样。

因为地球比重与金星接近位置也与金星靠近,所以地球内部岩浆物质的成分与金星的应当类似。地球的引力质量稍大于金星,离太阳的距离也稍大于金星,所以,地球大气层的变化可能正在步金星的后尘。地球岩浆早就从某个时间开始释放二氧化碳(从过去及现在火山喷发的气体成分可知)。随着宇宙的减速膨胀,地球岩浆释放二氧化碳的速度在不断加快。地球大气层二氧化碳的增加促进了地球植物的不断增多,植物依靠光合作用分解二氧化碳的速度也不断加快。植物分解二氧化碳释放出氧气并将碳变成生物质固化起来。在地球历史上这些生物质的很大一部分在火山或地震等地质变化的作用下被埋藏在地下变成了煤炭和石油,所以历史上地球的二氧化碳的产生速度与分解速度一直处于一种平衡状态。随着宇宙的减速膨胀地下岩浆释放二氧化碳的速度在不断加快(可测量不同年代火山口附近岩石的比重证明从火山喷出的岩浆的比重越来越小,形成的火山石的气孔越来越大越来越多。这说明地下岩浆分离出来的气体也在增多)。另一方面随着地球人口的不断增加地球植被及海洋植物在不断减少,地球植物分解二氧化碳的速度在不断下降。最终地球上地下岩浆释放二氧化碳的速度超过了地球植物分解二氧化碳的速度,从而导致地球大气层二氧化碳含量的增长和温室效应的增强。另外,由于二氧化碳比氧气和氮气重,地下岩浆释放出的二氧化碳会呆在大气层的底部从而迫使氧气和氮气往上升并脱离地球。所以,如果地球植被及海洋植物被不断破坏而减少,随着宇宙的减速膨胀,地球大气层二氧化碳的比例会越来越高,会逐步变得像目前的金星一样,最后变得像目前的火星一样。

地球每年经光合作用产生的生物质约2200亿吨,其中蕴含的能量相当于2007年全世界能源消耗总量的约10倍。这一数据说明地球生物经光合作用从大气中吸收分解二氧化碳(碳固化)的速度是人类生产和生活活动排放二氧化碳(碳排放)速度的10倍以上。所以,地球温室效应的增加主要并不是人类生产与生活燃烧化石能源的原因,而是自然进程(确切地说是宇宙的减速膨胀使得地球内部岩浆释放二氧化碳的速度不断加快)以及地球植物总量的不断减少造成的。金星上面没有人类但金星大气层二氧化碳的含量高达96%这一事实就已证明了上述论点。地球上如果没有了植物,地球很快将变成类似金星这样的星球。由此可知,应对温室效应的首要任务应当是保护地球陆地植被及海洋植物并大量植树造林及大量种植海洋水生植物,其次是减少温室气体的排放。另外,是研发可以大规模将大气中的二氧化碳固化的实用技术。

木星质量是地球的318倍,目前木星大气层由86%的氢和14%的氦组成的。按照自然的进程,随着宇宙的膨胀和地下岩浆的不断冷却与凝固,木星大气同样将经历以氮气为主,接着以二氧化碳为主,到最终丧失所有大气的所有过程。

质量越大、比重越大以及离太阳越远的行星其大气层的变化越滞后周期也越长,但都将经历上述所有过程并且最终都将丧失所有的大气(包括水),除非宇宙在不太遥远的将来停止膨胀开始收缩。

通过以上分析我们可得出以下结论:

1、地球以及所有行星大气是处在动态平衡之中的。一方面由于宇宙的减速膨胀导致地下岩浆不断释放气体到大气层,另一方面大气分子不断从大气层逃逸到太空中。一旦行星地下岩浆凝固成固体,那么行星的大气层将很快消失,行星将变得如同火星或月球一样。

2、地球上植物生长所需的二氧化碳以及氮等所有元素很大一部分都是从地下岩浆分离出来的(由宇宙的减速膨胀导致的),其余来自大气层(其实大气层的大气全都来自于地下岩浆)。

3、地球温室效应的增加的主要是宇宙的减速膨胀使得地球内部岩浆释放二氧化碳的速度不断加快以及地球植物总量的不断减少造成的。

4、应对温室效应的首要任务应当是保护地球陆地植被及海洋植物并大量植树造林及大量种植海洋水生植物。

 

参考文献

[1]王建安,《论以太的存在及其在物理学中的重要地位和作用》 2018,中国预印本服务系统:

http://prep.nstl.gov.cn/preprint/main.html?action=showFile&id=2c928282641b5f6b016560ea058e0344

[2] B. Z. Houlton1,*,,  S. L. Morford1,2,*, R. A. Dahlgren1 , Science  06 Apr 2018: Vol. 360, Issue 6384, pp. 58-62


The formula (9.2) or (9.5) [1] tells us that as the universe expansion slows, all the atoms are getting bigger and bigger. As the atoms become bigger, the distance between the atoms becomes larger and the attraction between atoms becomes smaller, resulting in or accelerating the release of volatile substances from the bondage of magma to become gas. In addition, the decelerating expansion of the universe can also lead to the change of gas components separated from magma gasification (The molecular weight of the gas separated from the magma is increasing. This process is similar to the refining process of petroleum, i.e., the molecular weight of the oil evaporated from the crude oil increases with the increase of temperature)

Underground magma initially isolated mainly small molecular gases, such as hydrogen and helium, then medium molecular gases, such as nitrogen, methane, and water, finally large molecular gases such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide.

The above inference is proved by the results of the paper published in Science on April 6, 2018 by the University of California [2]. It is found that up to 26% of nitrogen gas in the ecosystem comes from the lithospheric bedrock of the Earth (but the author of this paper believes that the nitrogen gas comes from underground magma, not the lithospheric bedrock) and the rest from the atmosphere.

In addition, with the decelerating expansion of the universe, the atoms are getting bigger and bigger, the planets and the atmosphere of the planets are expanding. So the gravity of the molecules at the top of the atmosphere is getting smaller and smaller, and solar energy that the molecules receives is getting more and more. So the speed of air reduction of the atmosphere is getting faster and faster, and the molecular of the gas that is being lost from the atmosphere is getting bigger and bigger. First, small molecules such as hydrogen and helium are lost, and then nitrogen, oxygen, methane and water vapor are lost, finally carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide are lost.

Because the temperature of the underground magma of the planets continue to decline, the drop in temperature will lead to a decrease in the rate at which the magma releases out the gases. Little carbon dioxide remains in the Martian atmosphere, suggesting that the Martian magma is nearing solid. The lunar surface is almost vacuum, indicating that the lunar underground magma has been basically solidified into solid.

All primitive atmospheres of planets should be composed of gases separated from the magma of the planets (first the separation of hydrogen, and finally the separation of carbon dioxide). With the decelerating expansion of the universe and  the temperature drop of the underground magma, every planet should experience all the processes of the atmospheric loss (first the loss of hydrogen, and finally the loss of carbon dioxide). The smaller the gravitational mass of the planet, the smaller the specific gravity, the shorter the distance from the sun, the earlier the planet to complete all the processes of the above atmospheric loss and the shorter the period.

The gravitational mass of Mars is only about 10% of the earth, and the specific gravity (3.94g/cm3) is 71.6% of the earth. Now only a little carbon dioxide remains in the Martian atmosphere, suggesting that the Martian magma is nearing solid and Mars has almost completed all of the above processes of the atmospheric loss. Mars should had an atmosphere and an ocean before. With the decelerating expansion of the universe, the atmosphere of Mars and Mars are expanding, the gravitational force on atmospheric molecules is getting smaller, the velocity of atmospheric molecules flowing out of the atmosphere is accelerating, and the evaporation of water in the ocean is also accelerating. As a result of the near solidification of the magma and the low gravity of Mars, the atmosphere of Mars was almost completely lost. At the same time, the Martian ocean evaporates into gases, all of which eventually leave Mars. Mars's gravitational mass is the smallest of the nine planets in the solar system, so it has been the first to complete all the processes of the atmospheric loss. It is assumed that there was once an atmosphere on the moon, but because the gravitational mass is too small, the lunar atmosphere was quickly lost with the decelerating expansion of the universe and solidification of lunar underground magma.

Venus has a greater gravitational mass than Mars, which is about 80% of the earth, and the specific gravity of Venus (5.19 g/cm3) is 94.2% of the earth. At present, the atmosphere of Venus is mainly composed of carbon dioxide (96%), the atmospheric pressure of Venus is 90 times of the earth. It is assumed that the atmosphere of Venus experienced the hydrogen dominated stage, then the nitrogen dominated stage, and then entered the stage of carbon dioxide and greenhouse effect increasing. The changes in the atmosphere of Venus should be followed by the constant loss of carbon dioxide and the constant decline of atmospheric pressure with the decelerating expansion of the universe and solidification of the underground magma. The atmosphere of Venus will eventually reduce to just a thin layer of carbon dioxide that is now the atmosphere of Mars.

Because the earth's specific gravity and location are close to Venus, the matter composition of the magma inside the earth should be similar to that of Venus. The gravitational mass of the earth is slightly larger than that of Venus, and the distance from the sun is slightly larger than that of Venus, so the earth's atmosphere change may be following the footsteps of Venus. The earth's magma began to release carbon dioxide long time ago that can be known from the gas composition of volcanic eruptions in the past and the present.

As the universe expansion slows down, the speed of carbon dioxide release from the earth's magma is accelerating. The increase of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere accelerates the growth of plants on earth, and the speed of carbon dioxide decomposition by plant’s photosynthesis. Plants break down carbon dioxide to release oxygen and to solidify carbon into biomass. In earth's history most of this biomass was buried underground by volcanoes or earthquakes, and turned into coal and oil. So in the history the earth's carbon dioxide production rate and decomposition rate have been in a balance state. As the universe expansion slows down, the speed of carbon dioxide release from underground magma is accelerating. We can measure the rocks near the crater of different eras to show that the lava ejected from the volcano is getting lighter and lighter. More and more pores of the volcanic rocks are growing, and the pores are getting bigger and bigger, this suggests that the speed of gas separation from underground magma is increasing. On the other hand, with the increasing of the human population, the land vegetation and marine plants are decreasing, and the rate of decomposition of carbon dioxide by the plants is decreasing. Eventually, the earth's underground magma releases carbon dioxide faster than the earth's plants decompose carbon dioxide, leading to an increase in carbon dioxide content in the earth's atmosphere and an increase in the greenhouse effect.

In addition, because carbon dioxide is heavier than oxygen and nitrogen, the carbon dioxide released by underground magma stays at the bottom of the atmosphere, forcing oxygen and nitrogen to rise and break away from the earth. So, if the earth’s vegetation and marine plants are continually destroyed and reduced, as the universe expansion slows down the proportion of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere will become higher and higher, and the earth will gradually become a planet like the current Venus. With the decelerating expansion of the universe and solidification of the underground magma the earth will finally become a planet like the current Mars.

The earth produces about 220 billion tons of biomass per year by photosynthesis of the plants, which contains about 10 times as much energy as the world's energy consumption in 2007. This data shows that the speed of carbon dioxide absorption from the atmosphere by plant’s photosynthesis is 10 times higher than the speed of carbon dioxide emissions by human production and living activities. Therefore, the increase of the earth's greenhouse effect is not mainly the cause of fossil energy burning by human production and life, but the natural process and the reduction of the earth's vegetation.

The fact that there are no humans on Venus but that the atmospheric carbon dioxide content of Venus is as high as 96% proves the above argument. Without plants, Earth will soon become a planet like Venus.

Therefore, the first task to deal with the greenhouse effect should be to protect the land vegetation and marine plants, and to plant a large number of trees and marine aquatic plants, and the second task is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In addition, to develop practical technologies that can solidify carbon on a large scale from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is an important measures to deal with Greenhouse Effect in the Future.

 Jupiter’s mass is 318 times the mass of the earth, and Jupiter's atmosphere is now composed of 86% hydrogen and 14% helium. According to natural processes, as the universe expansion slows and the underground magma solidification goes on, Jupiter's atmosphere will also experience the nitrogen dominant process, then the carbon dioxide dominant process, and eventually the process of losing all the carbon dioxide.

The greater the gravitational mass, the greater the specific gravity, and the farther away from the sun, the more slowly the planet’s atmosphere changes. But however, all the planets will go through all of the above processes and will eventually lose all of the atmosphere (including water) with the decelerating expansion of the universe and the solidification of the underground magma.

Through the above analysis, we can draw the following conclusions:

1. All planetary atmospheres are in dynamic equilibrium. On one hand, the decelerating expansion of the universe causes the underground magma to release gases into the atmosphere, on the other hand, the atmospheric molecules escape from the atmosphere into space. Once the underground magma becomes solids, the atmosphere of the planet will soon disappear and the planet will become like Mars or the moon.

2.Much of the carbon dioxide and nitrogen needed by plants to grow on earth are released by underground magma (caused by the decelerating expansion of the universe), and the rest from the atmosphere (in fact, the atmosphere is all from underground magma)

3.The increase of Earth Greenhouse Effect is mainly caused by the decelerating expansion of the universe and the decrease of the total amount of plants on the earth.

4. The primary task of dealing with Greenhouse Effect should be to protect land vegetation and marine plants and to plant large quantities of trees and marine aquatic plants.

 

References:

[1] Jianan Wang,《On the Existence of Ether and Its Important Position and Role in Physics 2018 China preprint service system: http://prep.nstl.gov.cn/preprint/main.html?action=showFile&id=2c928282641b5f6b01657f450a9e039a

[2] B. Z. Houlton1,*,,  S. L. Morford1,2,*, R. A. Dahlgren1 , Science,06 Apr 2018: Vol. 360, Issue 6384, pp. 58-62



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