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《寒旱区科学》2020年第4期中英双语摘要

已有 224 次阅读 2020-12-14 12:42 |系统分类:论文交流


0189−0199  Dynamic behavior of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway embankment in permafrost regions under trained-induced vertical loads … Tuo Chen, ZhiJian Wu, YanHu Mu, Wei Ma, JianZhou Wang                              

Abstract:  The unfrozen water content and ice content of frozen soil change continuously with varying temperatures, resulting in the temperature dependence of mechanical properties of frozen soil. Thus the dynamic behavior of embankment in permafrost regions under train loading also alters with seasons. Based on a series of strong-motion tests that were carried out on the traditional embankment of Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) in permafrost regions, the acceleration waveforms recorded at the embankment shoulder and slope toes were obtained. Testing results show an obvious attenuation effect on the vertical train loading from road shoulder to slope toes. Furthermore, numerical simulations of a traditional embankment under vertical train loading in different seasons were conducted, and the dynamic behavior of the embankment was described. The results show that the vibration attenuation in the cold season is greater than that in the warm season. The maximum acceleration of vibration drops to about 5% when the train vibration load is transferred through the embankment into the permafrost, and the high-frequency components are absorbed when the vibration transmits downward. Moreover, the dynamic stress under the dynamic train loading decreases exponentially with an increasing depth in different seasons. The results can be a reference for design and maintenance of embankments in permafrost regions.

Citation: Chen T, Wu ZJ, Mu YH, et al., 2020. Dynamic behavior of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway embankment in permafrost regions under trained-induced vertical loads. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 12(4): 0189−0199. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00189.

列车垂向动荷载作用下青藏铁路多年冻土区路基动力响应研究  陈拓,吴志坚,穆彦虎,马巍,王建州

冻土是对温度变化特别敏感且性质不稳定的土体,冻土中未冻水含量和冰含量随温度的改变而改变并进一步影响其力学特性,因此多年冻土区路基在机车荷载作用下的动力响应会随着季节更替而呈现不同的特征。基于青藏高原多年冻土区典型铁路路基断面强震动测试,通过对路肩和坡脚的强振动加速度时程进行分析,表明列车垂向动荷载传递具有显著的衰减效应。利用监测的振动数据,采用非线性动力时程分析方法,对列车垂向动荷载作用下路基动力响应进行了数值分析,研究了不同季节路基动力响应特征。结果表明列车垂向动荷载在寒季的振动衰减大于暖季,当路基表面机车动荷载传递到下伏多年冻土层时,最大振动加速度衰减至5%,同时振动中的高频成分随着荷载向下传递而被吸收。结果还表明,列车动荷载作用下路基动应力沿深度方向呈现指数衰减规律,动应力大小与路基整体刚度具有一定的相关性。研究结果对青藏高原多年冻土区路基运营维护具有一定的参考意义。               


0200–0216  Comparison of sampling schemes for spatial prediction of soil organic carbon in Northern China … XuYang Wang, YuQiang Li, YuLin Li, YinPing Chen, Jie Lian, WenJie Cao

 

Abstract: Determining an optimal sample size is a key step in designing field surveys, and is particularly important for detecting the spatial pattern of highly variable properties such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Based on 550 soil sampling points in the nearsurface layer (0 to 20 cm) in a representative region of northern China's agro-pastoral ecotone, we studied effects of four interpolation methods such as ordinary kriging (OK), universal kriging (UK), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and radial basis function (RBF) and random subsampling (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500) on the prediction accuracy of SOC estimation. When the Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI) and Shannon's Evenness Index (SHEI) was 2.01 and 0.67, the OK method appeared to be a superior method, which had the smallest root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean error (ME) nearest to zero. On the contrary, the UK method performed poorly for the interpolation of SOC in the present study. The sample size of 200 had the most accurate prediction; 50 sampling points produced the worst prediction accuracy. Thus, we used 200 samples to estimate the study area's soil organic carbon density (SOCD) by the OK method. The total SOC storage to a depth of 20 cm in the study area was 117.94 Mt, and its mean SOCD was 2.40 kg/m2. The SOCD kg/(Cm2) of different land use types were in the following order: woodland (3.29) > grassland (2.35) > cropland (2.19) > sandy land (1.55).

Citation: Wang XY, Li YQ, Li YL, et al., 2020. Comparison of sampling schemes for spatial prediction of soil organic carbon in Northern China. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 12(4): 02000216. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00200.

中国北方土壤有机碳空间预测的采样方案比较研究  王旭洋,李玉强,李玉霖,陈银萍,连杰,曹雯婕

确定最优样本数量一直是野外取样设计过程中的关键步骤,尤其对于土壤有机碳等土壤属性的空间预测尤为重要。本研究基于中国北方农牧交错带典型区域内550个样点的表层土壤(0~20 cm)有机碳数据,通过比较四种不同插值方法(普通克里金法、泛克立金法、反距离加权法和径向基函数插值法)和各样本子集(50100200300400500)对土壤有机碳空间预测精度的影响。结果表明当Shannon多样性指数(SHDI)和Shannon均匀度指数(SHEI)分别为2.010.67时,普通克里金法预测结果的均方根误差(RMSE)表现为最小,且平均误差(ME)最接近0,所以普通克里金法为本研究的最优插值方法,相反泛克立金法的插值结果精度表现最差;此外,当样本量分别为20050时,土壤有机碳插值精度分别表现为最优和最差。因此我们采用200个取样点和普通克里金法预测了该区域表层土壤有机碳密度,其0~20 cm土壤有机碳总储量为117.94 Mt,平均土壤有机碳密度为2.40 kg/m2,不同土地利用类型的土壤有机碳密度(kg·C/m2)表现为:林地(3.29>草地(2.35>农田(2.19>沙地(1.55)。

02170233  Assessing spatial and temporal variability in water consumption and the maintainability oasis maximum area in an oasis region of Northwestern China … XueXiang Chang, WenZhi Zhao, XueLi Chang, Bing Liu, Jun Du

 

Abstract: Water consumption is a key role in improving the efficiency and sustainability of water management in arid environments. In this study, we explored an approach based on meta-analysis, MODIS NDVI products, land-use spatial distribution, and soil water physical parameters to gain insight into long-term and large scale distribution of land use and water consumption, maintain maximum Zhangye Oasis area according to Heihe River runoff, and suitable water resource management in Zhangye Oasis. This approach was initiated in order to improve the efficiency of irrigation and water resource management in arid regions. Results showed that Heihe River runoff can maintain a maximum Zhangye Oasis area of 22.49×104 hm2. During the 20002016 growing seasons, actual oasis water consumption ranged from 11.35×108 m3 to 13.73×108 m3, with a mean of (12.89±0.60)×108 m3; if maintaining agricultural production and oasis stability was chosen, oasis water consumption ranged from 10.24×108 m3 to 12.37×108 m3, with a mean of (11.62±0.53)×108 m3. From the perspective of water resources management and ecosystem stability, it is necessary to reduce the area of Zhangye Oasis or choose the minimum water consumption method to manage the oasis, to ease the pressure of water shortage and maintain stable and sustainable development of the Zhangye Oasis. These results can provide future practical guidance for water resource management of coordinated development of the economy and the environment in an arid area.

Citation: Chang XX, Zhao WZ, Chang XL, et al., 2020. Assessing spatial and temporal variability in water consumption and the maintainability oasis maximum area in an oasis region of Northwestern China. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 12(4): 0217−0233. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00217.

 中国西北绿洲耗水量时空变化评价和可维持绿洲最大面积  常学向,赵文智,常学礼,刘冰,杜军

在干旱区,水资源消耗在提高水分利用效率和促进水资源有效管理方面起着关键作用。基于Meta分析、MODIS NDVI产品、土地利用空间分布、土壤水分物理参数,研究了张掖绿洲尺度2000年至2016年的土地利用和水资源消耗空间变化,并根据黑河径流量确定了张掖绿洲可维持的最大面积,以期为提高张掖绿洲灌溉水利用效率和促进张掖绿洲水资源可持续管理提供理论依据。结果显示:黑河径流量能够维持的张掖绿洲最大面积为22.49×104 hm2。在2000~2016年生长季,实际耗水量在11.35×108 m313.73×108 m3之间变化,平均为(12.89±0.60×108 m3;如果选择维持农业产量和绿洲稳定的管理方式,绿洲耗水量应在10.24×108 m312.37×108 m3之间变化,平均为(11.62±0.53×108 m3。从水资源管理和生态系统稳定的角度来看,为了缓解张掖绿洲缺水的压力、保持张掖绿洲的稳定和可持续发展,有必要缩小张掖绿洲的面积,或者选择用水量最小的方式对绿洲进行管理。该研究结果可为今后干旱区经济与环境协调发展的水资源管理提供实践指导。

0234–0241  Theoretical expressions for soil particle detachment rate due to saltation bombardment in wind erosion … XuYang Liu, WenXiao Ning, ZhenTing Wang

Abstract: Saltation bombardment is a dominate dust emission mechanism in wind erosion. For loose surfaces, splash entrainment has been well understood theoretically. However, the mass loss predictions of cohesive soils are generally empirical in most wind erosion models. In this study, the soil particle detachment of a bare, smooth, dry, and uncrusted soil surface caused by saltation bombardment is modeled by means of classical mechanics. It is shown that detachment rate can be analytically expressed in terms of the kinetic energy or mass flux of  saltating grains and several common mechanical parameters of soils, including Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, cohesion and friction angle. The novel expressions can describe dust emission rate from cohesive surfaces and are helpful to quantify the anti-erodibility of soil. It is proposed that the mechanical properties of soils should be appropriately included in physically-based wind erosion models.

Citation: Liu XY, Ning WX, Wang ZT, 2020. Theoretical expressions for soil particle detachment rate due to saltation bombardment in wind erosion. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 12(4): 02340241. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00234.

跃移冲击导致土壤风蚀的颗粒分离速率理论公式  刘旭阳,宁文晓,王振亭

在土壤风蚀中,跃移冲击是一种主要起尘机制。对于松散地表,已从理论上很好地理解了击溅现象。然而,在大多数的风蚀模型中,粘性土的质量流失预测通常是经验性的。本研究根据经典力学原理,建立了裸露、平坦、干燥且无结皮的土壤表面在跃移冲击下的颗粒分离过程理论模型。结果表明,分离速率可以用跃移颗粒的动能或质量通量以及土壤的泊松比、杨氏模量、粘聚力和摩擦角等几个常用力学参数来解析表示。新的表达式能够描述粘性土表面的粉尘释放率,有助于量化土壤的抗蚀性。因而,很有必要在土壤风蚀物理模型中恰当引入土壤的力学性质。

0242–0251  Validation of AIRS-Retrieved atmospheric temperature data over the Taklimakan Desert … YuFen Ma, RuQi Li, Men Zhang, MinZhong Wang, Mamtimin Ali

 

Abstract: The Taklimakan Desert, the world's second largest desert, plays an important role in regional climate change. Previous studies on its spatial temperature features suffered from sparse conventional detection data, but the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) provides excellent temperature retrievals with high spatiotemporal resolution. Validation of AIRS temperature retrievals over desert regions with high land-surface emissivity, the key contributor to inversion error, is essential before using these data in regional weather/climate modeling. This paper examines the correlation coefficients, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean BIAS between AIRS-retrieved atmospheric temperature data and radiosonde observations (RAOBs) in the Taklimakan Desert hinterland and oases in the morning and at dusk. Firstly, the AIRS retrievals are consistent with RAOBs and are more consistent in the morning than at dusk. The consistency is better over a small-scale desert oasis than over a large-scale oasis in the morning and exhibits the opposite trend at dusk. The correlation coefficient over the hinterland is high in the morning but negative at dusk due to high desert-surface emissivity. Second, the RMSEs, which are all smaller than 3 K, are generally higher over desert sites than over oasis sites and slightly lower over a small-scale oasis than over a large-scale oasis in the morning. At dusk, the RMSEs are higher over desert sites than over oases and slightly higher over a small-scale oasis than over a large-scale oasis. Furthermore, the RMSEs are generally higher in the morning than at dusk over a large-scale oasis and lower in the morning than at dusk over a small-scale oasis. Third, the absolute mean BIAS values are mostly lower than 1 K. In the morning, relative to RAOB temperatures, the retrieval temperatures are higher over desert sites but lower over oasis sites. At dusk, the retrieval temperatures are lower than RAOB temperatures over both desert and oasis sites. The retrieval temperatures are higher than RAOB temperatures over desert sites in the morning but slightly lower at dusk. Most absolute mean BIAS values are higher in the morning than at dusk over both oasis and desert sites. Finally, the consistency between the AIRS and RAOB temperature data is high from 700 hPa to 100 hPa in the morning and from 700 hPa to 300 hPa at dusk. The difference between the AIRS and RAOB temperature data is generally higher in the morning than that at dusk. The RMSE differences between the AIRS and RAOB data are slightly lower in the morning than at dusk and are lower in the middle layers between 700 hPa and 150 hPa than in the layers above 150 hPa during both the morning and night. The BIAS is lower in the morning than at dusk below 300 hPa but higher in the upper layers. Moreover, the BIAS value is positive in the middle layers between 500 hPa and 150 hPa and negative at other levels at both times. Generally, the AIRS retrieval temperatures are reliable and can be used in further studies in the Taklimakan Desert.

Citation: Ma YF, Li RQ, Zhang M, et al., 2020. Validation of AIRS-Retrieved atmospheric temperature data over the Taklimakan Desert. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 12(4): 02420251. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00242.

AIRS反演大气温度廓线在塔克拉玛干沙漠地区的适用性  马玉芬,李如琦,张萌,王敏忠,艾力·买买提依明

塔克拉玛干沙漠是世界第二大沙漠,对区域气候变化起着重要作用。以往对它的空间温度特征的研究受到常规探测数据稀疏的影响。大气红外探测仪(AIRS)提供了高时空分辨率的高质量温度反演产品。在将这些数据用于区域天气/气候模型之前,必须对高地表发射率沙漠地区的气温反演结果进行验证。本文研究了塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地和绿洲早晚大气温度资料与探空资料的相关系数、均方根误差(RMSE)和平均偏差。首先,AIRS反演结果与RAOBs一致,并且在早晨比傍晚的一致性更高。小面积荒漠绿洲的一致性在上午好于大型绿洲,而在傍晚表现出相反的趋势。由于沙漠地表发射率较高,腹地的相关系数在早晨较高,而在傍晚为负值。第二,上午的RMSE值均小于3 K,沙漠地区的RMSE值普遍高于绿洲地区,小面积绿洲的RMSE值略低于大型绿洲的RMSE值。黄昏时,沙漠地区的RMSE高于绿洲,小绿洲的RMSE略高于大型绿洲。此外,大型绿洲的RMSE一般在早晨高于傍晚,而在小型绿洲上则在早晨低于傍晚。第三,绝对平均偏差值大多小于1 K。早晨,相对于RAOB温度,沙漠地区的反演温度较高,而绿洲地区的反演温度较低。黄昏时,沙漠和绿洲地区的恢复温度都低于RAOB温度。在早晨,反演温度高于沙漠地区的RAOB温度,但在傍晚稍低。在绿洲和沙漠地区,大多数绝对平均偏差值在早晨高于傍晚。最后,AIRSRAOB温度数据之间的一致性在早晨为700 hPa100 hPa之间,在傍晚从700 hPa300 hPa之间是一致的。空气温度和RAOB温度数据之间的差异一般在早晨高于傍晚。AIRSRAOB资料的RMSE差异在早晨略低于傍晚,在700 hPa150 hPa之间的中层的RMSE差异在早晚都低于150 hPa以上的层。在300 hPa以下,早晨的偏差比傍晚的低,但上层的偏差更大。此外,在500 hPa150 hPa之间的中间层,偏压值为正,其他层在这两个时段均为负值。总的来说,AIRS反演温度是可靠的,可用于塔克拉玛干沙漠的进一步研究。


 

0252–0260  Variation characteristics of evaporation in the Gulang River Basin during 19592013 … TingTing Wang, JianGuo Li, ZongXing Li

Abstract: Based on monthly evaporation of two meteorological stations in the Gulang River Basin of China, the inter-annual variation of evaporation during 19592013 were analyzed using Mann-Kendall and wavelet analysis. The results demonstrated that the annual evaporation show a fluctuating increase over the past 50 years approximately, with an average increase rate of 4.26 mm per decade. The overall trend was decreaseincreasedecrease. According to the cumulative anomaly curve, the turning point of the annual evaporation occurred in 1979, in which the evaporation increased in the early stage and decreased in the later stage. Meanwhile, the seasonal variation of the evaporation shows that it decreased in Spring and Autumn, and increased in Summer and Winter, especially obvious for the later. The evaporation abruptly changed in Spring and Summer in 2008 and in Winter in 1994. In addition, all evaporation increased after the changes. However, the evaporation in Autumn abruptly changed in 1986 and 1999, which show a trend of increase-decrease-increase. Wavelet analysis shows that evaporation in Summer and wet season would decrease in the next few years, and in the other seasons would increase. Based on the aforementioned analysis, it can be concluded that increased evaporation is mainly induced by increase of evaporation in dry season, especially in Winter, and this trend to be continued in the future for the Gulang River Basin.

Citation: Wang TT, Li JG, Li ZX, 2020. Variation characteristics of evaporation in the Gulang River Basin during 1959−2013. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 12(4): 0252−0260. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2020.00252

古浪河流域1959~2013年蒸发量变化特征及分析  王婷婷,李建国,李宗省

基于1959~2013年古浪河流域2个气象站的逐月蒸发量资料,利用Mann-Kendall、小波分析,分析了古浪河流域的蒸发量变化特征及主要影响因子。研究结果表明:近50年,古浪河流域蒸发量总体上呈波动式增加的趋势,增加速率为4.25 mm/10a,经历了“少--少”的波动趋势。累积距平曲线的变化趋势显示,年蒸发量以1979年为转折点,前期偏多而后期偏少;古浪河流域蒸发量的季节变化特征为,只有春季和秋季为降低趋势,其余均表现出不同程度的上升趋势,其中冬季增加趋势最明显;春季和夏季蒸发量在2008年发生突变,冬季蒸发量在1994年发生突变,且突变后均比突变前增加;而秋季蒸发量在19861999年发生两次突变,呈“多--多”的趋势;小波分析显示,未来几年,流域蒸发量在夏季和湿季呈下降趋势,其余季节均为增加趋势。以上分析表明:古浪河流域蒸发量的增加主要由干季(尤其是冬季)蒸发量增加引起的,这种变化趋势在未来会继续保持。



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