SCAR2008的个人博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/SCAR2008

博文

《寒旱区科学》2019年第六期中英双语摘要

已有 315 次阅读 2020-3-20 09:37 |系统分类:论文交流

0407−0418  Influence of proximity to the Qinghai-Tibet highway and railway on variations of soil heavy metal concentrations and bacterial community diversity on the Tibetan Plateau … Xia Zhao, JunFeng Wang, Yun Wang, Xiang Lu, ShaoFang Liu, YuBao Zhang, ZhiHong Guo, ZhongKui Xie, RuoYu Wang

Abstract: An understanding of soil microbial communities is crucial in roadside soil environmental assessments. The 16S rRNA sequencing of a stressed microbial community in soil adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (QTH) revealed that the accumulation of heavy metals (over about 10 years) has affected the diversity of bacterial abundance and microbial community structure. The proximity of a sampling site to the QTH/Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), which is effectively a measure of the density of human engineering, was the dominant factor influencing bacterial community diversity. The diversity of bacterial communities shows that 16S rRNA gene abundance decreased in relation to proximity to the QTH and QTR in both alpine wetland and meadow areas. The dominant phyla across all samples were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The concentration of Cr and Cd in the soil were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MC/WC sampling sites), and Ni, Co, and V were positively correlated with proximity to the QTH and QTR (MA/WA sampling sites). The results presented in this study provide an insight into the relationships among heavy metals and soil microbial communities, and have important implications for assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities from the QTH and QTR in such an extreme and fragile environment.

 

青藏公路和铁路沿线土壤重金属浓度和细菌群落多样性的变化  赵霞,王俊峰,王筠,卢翔,刘少芳,张玉宝,郭志宏,谢忠奎,王若愚

了解土壤微生物群落对路旁的土壤环境评价至关重要。本文通过对青藏公路(Qinghai-Tibet HighwayQTH)邻近土壤进行16S rRNA高通量测序发现,重金属的积累(近10年)影响了细菌丰度和群落结构的多样性。QTH和青藏铁路(Qinghai-Tibet RailwayQTR)是影响细菌微生物群落多样性的主要因素,且这些土壤能够有效地反映人类工程施工对环境的衡量。细菌群落多样性分析显示无论在高山湿地还是草甸区域,16S rRNA的基因丰度都随着QTHQTR之间距离的增加而降低。细菌群落多样性表明,无论在高山湿地还是草甸地区,16S rRNA基因丰度都随着接近QTHQTR而降低。在所有样品中放线菌门和变形菌门为优势菌群。土壤CrCd的含量与QTHQTR之间的远距离点(MC/WC)呈正相关,NiCoV与二者的近距离点(MA/WA)呈正相关。此次研究结果为深入了解重金属和土壤微生物群落之间的关系提供了思路,并对人类工程活动对极端和脆弱的环境的评估和预测具有重要的意义。

                                           

0419−0427  Relationship between ponding and topographic factors along the China Russia Crude Oil Pipeline in permafrost regionsMingTang Chai, YanHu Mu, GuoYu Li, Wei Ma, Fei Wang

 

Abstract: The original landform along the ChinaRussia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP, line 2) was disturbed during installation of pavement for the pipeline. Forest and vegetation coverage is dense, and runoff develops along the pipe. Since the operation of the CRCOP (line 2) began in 2018, ponding has appeared on both sides of the pipeline. If there is no drainage, ponding can hardly dissipate, due to the low permeability of the permafrost layer. With the supply of surface flow and the transportation of oil at positive temperatures, ponding promotes an increase in temperature and changes the boundary thermal conditions of the pipeline. Meanwhile, when the ponding freezes and thaws, frost heave threatens operational safety of the pipeline. Furthermore, the ponding can affect the thermal condition of line 1. In this paper, the distribution of ponding along the CRCOP was obtained by field investigation. The type and cause of ponding were summarized, and the catchment and stream order were extracted by the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). According to the statistical results in attributes for topographic factors, it is known that ponding along the pipeline is relative to elevation, slope, aspect, and the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Water easily accumulates at altitudes of 300450 m, slopes within 3°5°, aspect in the northeast or south, TWI within 1316, flow direction in northeastsouth, and flow length within 90150 km. This paper proposes a theoretical basis for the cause and characteristics of ponding along the pipeline.

 

多年冻土区中俄原油管道沿线积水与地形因素的关系  柴明堂,穆彦虎,李国玉,马巍,王飞

中俄原油管道二线工程在敷设过程中对原有地貌产生了一定的扰动,加之所经地区植被森林较为茂密、河流水系较多,2018年二线管道开通运营以来,在沿线产生了一定程度的积水。在多年冻土区,由于管道沿线下伏冻土的不透水或弱透水性,使得积水很难消散,随着降雨和地表径流的补给。在正温输油作用下,积水会加剧多年冻土温度的升高,改变管道周围的热边界条件,造成管堤沉降,与此同时,积水冻结将引起管道冻胀,对安全运营造成威胁,此外,二线管道产生的积水也会对并行的一线管道产生影响。本文通过获得了多年冻土区内管道沿线各积水点的地形因素属性,归纳了积水类型及成因,提取了各积水点的集水区域和沿线的河网等级。通过统计分析了积水点各地形因素属性的分布特征可知,管道积水与高程、坡度、坡向、地形湿度指数(TWI)等地形因子密切相关,在高程为300~450 m范围内、坡度为3°~5°范围内、坡向为东北和正南、TWI13~16范围内、流向为北东南、水流长度为90~150 km条件下,积水更容易形成。本文研究为管道沿线查明积水原因、掌握积水规律提供了理论基础。

 

0428−0434  Definition of failure criterion for frozen soil under directional shear-stress path … Dun Chen, Wei Ma, GuoYu Li, ZhiWei Zhou, YanHu Mu, ShiJie Chen

 

Abstract: A series of directional shear tests on remolded frozen soil was carried out at 10 °C by using a hollow cylinder apparatus to study failure criterion under a directional shear-stress path. Directional shear tests were conducted at five shear rates (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 kPa/min) and five intermediate principal stress coefficients (b=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1), with the mean principal stress (p=4.5 MPa) kept constant. The results show that the torsional strength and the generalized strength both increase with the increase of the shear rates. According to the failure modes of frozen soil under different shear rates, the specimens present obvious plastic failure and shear band; and the torsional shear component dominates the failure modes of hollow cylindrical specimens. A shear rate of 30 kPa/min is chosen as the loading rate in the directional shear tests of frozen soil. The shape of the failure curve in the π plane is dependent on the directional angles α of the major principal stress. It is reasonable to use the strain-hardening curves to define the deviatoric stress value at γg=15% (generalized shear strain) as the failure criterion of frozen soil under a directional shear-stress path.

 

定向剪切应力路径下冻土破坏标准研究  陈敦,马巍,李国玉,周志伟,穆彦虎,陈世杰

破坏标准的选取是分析土体强度与本构关系的基础,也是工程设计的基本技术参数,但对于冻土定向剪切应力路径下的破坏标准还没有一个统一的认识。因此,利用冻土空心圆柱仪,开展了−10°C下平均主应力固定(p=4.5 MPa)两个大主应力方向角(α=0°30°),不同中主应力系数(b=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75以及1)和不同剪切速率(10, 20, 30, 40以及 50 kPa/min)的定向剪切试验。结果显示,随着剪切速率的增加,扭剪强度和广义剪切强度同时增大。在不同剪切速率下,扭剪分量主导着空心圆柱试样的破坏形态,并且试样表现出明显的塑性破坏和剪切带。π平面上冻土破坏曲线形态与大主应力方向角密切相关。在冻土定向剪切试验中,可选用30 kPa/min的剪切速率作为试验的加载速率,并采用广义剪应变15%作为冻土定向剪切应力路径下应变硬化型曲线的破坏标准。

 

0435−0447  Characteristics of climate and melt runoff in the Koxkar Glacier River Basin, south slope of the Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China … Min Xu, HaiDong Han, ShiChang Kang, Hua Tao

 

Abstract: Hydrology of the high glacierized region in the Tianshan Mountains is an important water resource for arid and semiarid areas of China, even Central Asia. The hydrological process is complex to understand, due to the high variability in climate and the lack of hydrometeorological data. Based on field observations, the present study analyzes the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Koxkar Glacier River Basin during 20082011; and the factors influencing climate impact on glacier hydrology are discussed. The results show that precipitation at the terminus of the glacier was 426.2 mm, 471.8 mm, 624.9 mm, and 532 mm in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Discharge increases starting in May, reaches its highest value in July and August, and then starts to decrease. The mean annual discharge was 118.23×106 m3 during the four years observed, with 87.0% occurring in the ablation season (MaySeptember). During the study period, the runoff in August accounted for 29% of total streamflow, followed by July (22%) and June (14%). The runoff exhibited obviously high interannual variability from April to September, induced by drastic changes in climate factors. Discharge autocorrelations are very high for all the years. The climate factors show different influences on discharge. The highest correlation R between daily temperature and discharge was for a time lag of 23 days on the Koxkar Glacier (0.660.76). The daily depth of runoff to daily temperature and daily water vapor pressure had an R2 value of 0.56 and 0.69, respectively, which could be described by an exponential function. A closer relationship is found between runoff and either temperature or water vapor pressure on a monthly scale; the R2 values are 0.65 and 0.78, respectively. The study helps us to understand

the mechanisms of the hydrological meteorological system of typical regional glaciers and to provide a reference for glacier-runoff simulations and water-resource management.

 

天山南坡科其喀尔冰川气象和融水径流变化特征分析  许民,韩海东,康世昌,陶华

冰川是中国西北干旱区重要的水资源补给源,由于高山冰川区缺乏观测资料,并且气象状况复杂多变,因此,对其气象-水文过程认识还存在不足。本文基于天山南坡科其喀尔冰川2008~2011年野外观测数据分析了其气象和融水径流变化特征,并探讨了气象因子与径流的关系。结果表明,2008年、2009年、2010年以及2011年科其喀尔冰川末端的降水分别为426.2 mm471.8 mm624.9 mm以及532.0 mm,融水径流在5~9月份呈现先增加后减少的趋势,78月份达到最大值。科其喀尔冰川多年平均径流量约为118.2×106 m3,其中,8月份径流量占总径流量的29%7月份和6月份分别占总径流量的22%14%5~9月份径流量约占总径流量的87%,融水径流在年内和年际尺度上均呈现剧烈波动。气象因子对径流的影响程度有所不同,通过相关性分析发现,径流对气温有2~3天的滞后性,其相关性达到0.76。在日尺度上和月尺度上,径流和气温以及水汽压均呈较好的指数关系。本研究有助于对天山托木尔型冰川气象-水文过程的认识,同时为该类型冰川水文过程模拟以及水资源的管理提供了参考依据。


0448–0460  Vegetation change and its response to drought in Inner Mongolia of northern

China from 1998 to 2013 ... ShuLin Liu, Tao Wang, WenPing Kang, ZiChen Guo, XueQin Zhang

 

Abstract: Vegetation plays a significant role in global terrestrial ecosystems and in combating desertification. We analyzed vegetation change in Inner Mongolia of northern China using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1998 to 2013, which is an important composite of Chinese National Ecological Security Shelter. The correlation between vegetation growth and drought quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was also explored. Results show that vegetation in most of the study area has been rehabilitated to various degrees, especially in regions such as most of the Horqin Sandy Land, eastern Ordos Plateau, Hetao Plain, as well as the middle-northern Da Hinggan Ling Mountains. Vegetation improvement in spring was significant in most of the study area. Vegetation degradation was centrally distributed in Xilingol grassland close to the Sino-Mongolia border and abandoned croplands in Ulanqab Meng. Vegetation change trends and seasonal differences varied among different vegetation types. The biggest vegetation variation in the growing season was the belt-like distribution along those grasslands close to the precipitation isoline of 200 mm and the Sino-Mongolia border, but also variation in summer and autumn exist in obvious spatial differences between grasslands and forests. Drought largely influenced vegetation change of Inner Mongolia at 6-month scale or 12-month scale, except for forests of eastern Hunlun Buir Meng and deserts or gobi deserts of western Alxa Meng. Moreover, drought in the previous winter and early spring seasons had a lag effect on growing-season vegetation. Desert grassland was the most easily affected by drought in the study area. Anthropogenic activities have made great progress in improving local vegetation under the lasting drought background.

 

1998~2013年间中国北方内蒙古地区植被变化及其对干旱的响应  刘树林,王涛,康文平,郭紫晨,张雪琴

植被在全球陆地生态系统和土地荒漠化防治中扮演着重要角色。中国北方内蒙古地区是国家生态安全屏障的重要组成部分。我们利用1998~2013年间标准化差异植被指数(NDVI)分析了内蒙古地区的植被变化,并探讨了植被长势与标准化降水蒸散指数(SPEI)指示的干旱之间的相关关系。结果表明:研究区绝大部分地区植被在过去16年间得到了不同程度的改善,尤其在科尔沁沙地、鄂尔多斯高原东部、河套平原以及大兴安岭中北部地区的植被改善明显,而且春季植被改善显著;植被退化的区域主要集中在锡林郭勒草地靠近中蒙边界的地区和乌兰察布盟的部分弃耕农田区。不同类型植被的变化趋势和季节性差异大;在整个生长季植被变异最大的地区呈带状分布在沿200 mm降水等值线以及中蒙边界分布区,而且在森林和草地地区夏季和秋季植被变异特征空间差异明显。除了呼伦贝尔盟东部的森林和阿拉善盟西部的荒漠地区,6个月和12个月尺度上的干旱极大地影响着研究区广大草原地区的植被变化;而且上一年冬季和早春季节的干旱对于生长季植被长势的影响具有明显滞后效应。研究区荒漠草原是最容易受干旱影响的地区。在持续干旱的气候背景下,人工生态建设保护项目在局部地区的植被改善过程中起到了极为重要的作用。


0461–0469  An evaluation of soil moisture from AMSR-E over source area of the Yellow River, China ... TangTang Zhang, Mekonnen Gebremichael, Akash Koppa, XianHong Meng, Qun Du, Jun Wen

 

Abstract: In this study, in-situ soil moisture measurements are used to evaluate the accuracy of three AMSR-E soil moisture products from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), JAXA (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency) and VUA (Vrije University Amsterdam and NASA) over Maqu County, Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR), China. Results show that the VUA soil moisture product performs the best among the three AMSR-E soil moisture products in the study area, with a minimum RMSE (root mean square error) of 0.08 (0.10) m3/m3 and smallest absolute error of 0.07 (0.08) m3/m3 at the grassland area with ascending (descending) data. Therefore, the VUA soil moisture product is used to describe the spatial variation of soil moisture during the 2010 growing season over SAYR. The VUA soil moisture product shows that soil moisture presents a declining trend from east south (0.42 m3/m3) to west north (0.23 m3/m3), with good agreement with a general precipitation distribution. The center of SAYR presents extreme wetness (0.60 m3/m3) during the whole study period, especially in July, while the head of SAYR presents a high level soil moisture (0.23 m3/m3) in July, August and September.

 

不同AMSR-E土壤湿度产品在黄河源区的可用性研究  张堂堂,Gebremichael MKopppa A,孟宪红,杜群,文军

本文利用黄河源区玛曲土壤湿度网络观测资料对AMSR-E三种土壤湿度产品进行了适用性评估,并利用VUA土壤湿度产品对黄河源区土壤湿度时空分布进行了分析。结果表明,荷兰阿姆斯特丹自由大学发布的土壤湿度产品(VUA)在三种土壤湿度产品中表现最好,其与地面观测数据之间的均方根误差和绝对误差都最小。其中,VUA升轨和降轨土壤湿度产品与地面观测土壤湿度之间的均方根误差分别为0.08 m3/m30.10 m3/m3,绝对误差分别为0.07 m3/m30.08 m3/m3VUA土壤湿度产品在黄河源区土壤湿度时空分布表明,其分布趋势与该区域降水分布基本一致,黄河源区东南区域土壤湿度最高为0.42 m3/m3,西北区域最低为0.23 m3/m3

 

0470–0478  Spatiotemporal variations in moisture conditions across Monsoon Asia during the last 500 years ... ShuYuan Kang, YuGang Guo

 

Abstract: Spatial and temporal variations in moisture conditions across monsoon Asia were investigated using 347 Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA) grid points and 100 Chinese historical documents sites during the years 14702000. We applied Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF) analysis to evaluate spatial moisture variability during the past 530 years. The first 13 principal components together explained 61.35% of the total variance, with the First Principal Component (PC1) accounting for 14.1%. After varimax rotation to the first 13 EOFs, we obtained new time series and spatial patterns. These patterns divided monsoon Asia into 13 regions with coherent moisture variability. Drought events were analyzed within these 13 regions. The results indicate that there has been a prominent drying trend in eastern and central Mongolia, Southeast Asia and east China during the last 50 years. Conversely, India and the Tibetan Plateau show a significant increase in moisture around the late 20th century. We found four drought periods, A.D. 16251644, A.D. 17101729, A.D. 1920s, and A.D. 19751999 occurred widely across monsoon Asia during the past 530 years. On inter-annual time scales,

moisture variations in the northwest region of monsoon Asia, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia are influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Thirty-year running correlation coefficient diagnostic analysis revealed that moisture variability in monsoon Asia is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

 

亚洲季风区过去500年干湿变化的时空特征  康淑媛,郭玉刚

本文选用347个网格点的亚洲季风干旱指数序列和100个旱涝站点的中国历史文献记录,分析1470~2000年亚洲季风区干湿变化的时空特征。利用旋转经验正交函数方法对以上两组数据集进行分析。分析得出前13个主成分的累积贡献率为61.35%,第一主成分贡献率为14.1%。对前13个模态进行旋转经验正交函数分析,并把亚洲季风区分为13个区域。对13个区域的干湿变化研究结果表明,过去50年蒙古中东部、亚洲东南部和中国东部存在明显的变干趋势。相反,印度和青藏高原呈现出明显的变湿趋势。过去530年亚洲季风区存在四个明显的干旱时期:1625~1644年,1710~1729年,1920s1975~1999年。在年尺度上,亚洲季风区西北部、印度次大陆和东南亚的干湿变化受厄尔尼诺—南方涛动的影响。在年际尺度上,30年滑动相关表明,亚洲季风区干湿变化受太平洋十年涛动的影响。



http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3363262-1224383.html

上一篇:《寒旱区科学》2019年第五期中英双语摘要
下一篇:《寒旱区科学》2020年第一期中英双语摘要

0

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (0 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2020-10-22 06:36

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部