SCAR2008的个人博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/SCAR2008

博文

《寒旱区科学》2019年第五期中英双语摘要

已有 292 次阅读 2020-3-20 09:34 |系统分类:论文交流

0335−0339  Origin and advances in implementing blowing-snow effects in the Community Land Model … ZeYong Hu, ZhiPeng Xie

Abstract: Snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is closely related to regional and continental biological and hydrological processes. The vast snow cover, special climatic conditions, and sparse vegetative cover over the TP facilitate the occurrence of blowing snow, leading to substantial heterogeneities in the snow cover and great promotion in the moisture supply from the land surface to the overlying atmospheric boundary layer. However, blowing-snow processes are significantly misrepresented or even neglected in current models, which causes considerable uncertainties of numerical model simulations and leads to erroneous estimates of snow-related processes in mountainous terrain. We present in this paper a brief review of our work in the past 5 years to serve as a basis for further development and improvement of the land-surface model. These studies can be divided into three parts: detection of the problems, development of the land-surface model, and application of the coupled model over the TP (the logical framework is presented in Figure 1). The origin and advances in the development of a land-surface model with consideration of blowing-snow effects are described herein; and the importance of blowing-snow processes in the land-surface model, especially over the TP, is highlighted. We expect that the blowingsnow studies over the TP will play a key role in documenting and understanding the land-surface processes (LSPs) and the cryospheric changes over the TP.

 

在通用陆面模式CLM中耦合风吹雪过程的由来与发展  胡泽勇, 谢志鹏

青藏高原积雪是欧亚大陆雪盖的重要组成部分,也是亚洲淡水资源的主要储存形式之一,该地区的积雪水文过程对高原局地乃至东亚地区的地-气相互作用过程、生态系统、天气、气候以及水文循环过程等均有重要的影响。然而,现有用于气候与生态水文过程模拟的陆面模式缺乏考虑风吹雪过程的影响,这在很大程度上影响并制约了青藏高原积雪过程的模拟,导致青藏高原地区积雪及地-气相互作用过程模拟存在显著偏差。本文简要回顾了过去5年我们在发展和完善陆面模式方面的工作,研究可分为三个部分:问题的提出,风吹雪模型的发展,以及风吹雪-陆面耦合模式在青藏高原的应用(研究的总体框架如图1所示)。展示了考虑风吹雪效应的陆面模式的由来和发展,指出了风吹雪过程在陆面模式中,特别是在将其应用于青藏高原地区时的重要性。我们期待青藏高原上风吹雪的研究在确认和理解高原地表过程和冰冻圈变化方面发挥着至关重要的作用。

 

0340−0349  Analysis of chaotic climatic process in the Tarim River Basin (I)ZuHan Liu

 

Abstract: Based on observational data obtained from 1961 to 2011 in the Tarim River Basin, China, we investigated the chaotic dynamics of temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and evaporation. The main findings are as follow: (1) The four data series have significant chaotic and fractal behaviors, which are the result of the evolution of a nonlinear chaotic dynamic system. The climatic process in the Tarim River Basin also has deterministic and stochastic characteristics. (2) To describe the temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and evaporation dynamics, at least three independent variables at daily scale are required; in terms of complexity, their order is evaporation > temperature > precipitation > relative humidity. (3) Their respective largest Lyapunov exponent λ1 shows the order of their degree of complexity is relative humidity > temperature > precipitation evaporation; the maximum time scales for which the four systems can be predicted are 17 days, 17 days, 16 days, and 16 days, if calculated separately. (4) The Kolmogorov entropy K illustrates that the complexity of the nonlinear precipitation system is much greater than that of the other three systems. Both temperature and evaporation systems exhibit weaker chaotic behavior, their predictability is better, and the degree of complexity is less than that of the other two factors.

 

塔里木河流域气候变化过程的混沌分析  刘祖涵

利用19612011年塔里木河流域的观测资料,本文研究了塔里木河流域温度、降水量、相对湿度和蒸发量的混沌动力学行为。主要研究结果如下:(1)四个因子序列存在明显的混沌特性,这是非线性混沌动力系统演化的结果;塔里木河流域的气候变化过程的变化同时具有确定性和随机性。(2)为了描述温度、降水、相对湿度和蒸发动力学机制,在日尺度上至少需要三个独立变量;在复杂性方面,蒸发量>温度>降水量>相对湿度。(3)它们各自最大的Lyapunov指数λ1显示了它们的复杂度的顺序是相对湿度>温度蒸发;四个系统可预测的最大时间尺度分别为17天、17天、16天和16天。(4Kolmogorov熵表明具有非线性特征的降水系统的复杂度远大于其它三个系统的复杂性,而温度和蒸发系统都表现出较弱的混沌行为,可预测性更好。

 

0350−0359  Seed germination and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb., African false nutmeg … Akinropo M.S., Sakpere A.M.A.

 

Abstract: This study investigated the germination behavior and seedling growth of Pycnanthus angolensis seeds. The germination study was carried out in the laboratory and included pretreatment studies and observation of the seed-germination process. For each treatment, three replications of 20 seeds were sown in a transparent plastic germination box (12cm×22cm×5cm)

lined with moistened filter paper at room temperature. To monitor seedling growth, seedlings were transplanted into pots filled with topsoil and laid out in a completely randomized design. Ten seedlings replicated thrice were measured monthly; and the shoot height, leaf area, and root length, as well as the fresh and dry weights of the seedlings, were recorded. Results showed that mechanically scarified seeds exhibited the significantly highest germination percent (83.33%, P <0.005), followed by control seeds (70.83%), whereas seeds treated with 98% sulphuric acid (H2SO4) displayed the lowest germination percent (1.67). The endospermous seeds exhibited cryptogeal germination, while seeds stored for a month (with or without arils) failed to germinate. During seed germination, radicle protrusion continued with a pseudo-opening of the root, through which the brownish cotyledonary petiole was emitted, thus releasing the plumule at the posterior position. Moreover, P. angolensis exhibited a slow growth rate, attaining a shoot height of 73 cm within a year. The highest positive change in leaf number and area was recorded in the fourth month, a period during which the least change in shoot height occurred. The study concluded that mechanical scarification of the seeds ensured significant and faster germination than chemical scarification or no treatment at all. Additionally, P. angolensis displayed a cryptogeal germination, with the seedling growth of the tree species observed to be slow.

                                              

0360−0370  Soil hydraulic conductivity and its influence on soil moisture simulations in the source region of the Yellow River―take Maqu as an example … DongYu Jia, Jun Wen, Xin Wang, ZuoLiang Wang

 

Abstract: Saturated hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity which are influenced by soil are two important factors that affect soil water transport. In this paper, data supplied by the Chinese Academy of Sciences are used to determine true unsaturated hydrology values. Furthermore, in combination with observed, model simulation and experimental data, an improved saturated hydraulic conductivity parameterization scheme is carried out in CLM4.5 at a single point in the summer. The main results show that: (1) After improving saturated hydraulic conductivity in CLM4.5 through a parameterization modification, it is found that shallow layer soil moisture increases compared to the initial value; and (2) The numerical values of unsaturated hydraulic conductivities in the model are obviously larger than experimental values. By substituting the BrooksCorey soil water characteristic curve into the Mualem model, the value of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is modified; (3) By using the modified value, it is found that the attenuating magnitude of simulated soil moisture caused by each rainfall event is reduced. The soil moisture variation in shallow layers (5, 10 and 20 cm) could be better displayed.


黄河源区土壤导水率及其对土壤含水量模拟影响的研究——以玛曲为例  贾东于,文军,王欣,王作亮

土壤的饱和导水率和非饱和导水率是影响土壤水分传输的两个重要方面。本文利用水分特征曲线,计算确定了玛曲地区真实的非饱和导水率数值。此外,结合观测和试验数据,在CLM4.5模式中对夏季的饱和导水率参数化方案进行了改进。结果表明:(1)进行饱和导水率的参数化改进后,浅层土壤含水量较初始值有所增加;(2)模型中非饱和导水率的数值明显大于试验值。文中通过将土壤水分特征曲线代入Mualem模型,对非饱和导水率进行了修正;(3)进行参数化改进后,研究发现降雨后土壤含水量的模拟数值衰减幅度减小,更接近于观测值。其中,浅层(51020 cm)土壤含水量的模拟效果较好。


0371–0381  Features on N/P ratio of plants with different functional groups between two types of steppe in semi-arid area ... YueDan Zhao, XingDong He, Lei Chen, XinFeng Ding, MengQi Li, PingYi Xu, YuBao Gao

 

Abstract: The differences in nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios of different functional groups in ecology are more helpful in explaining species competition and community dynamics. Based on the functional groups of plant growth type, carbon metabolism pathway, root type and phylogenetic type, we analyzed characteristics of leaf N/P ratios of 77 species in Sanggendalai

(typical grassland zone) of Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia, China and 91 species in the Habahu National Nature Reserve (desertified grassland zone) in Yanchi County of Ningxia, China. The results show that the N/P ratio (16.91) of C3 plants in the desertified steppe was significantly larger than that (12.72) in the typical steppe, but there was no significant difference between the N/P ratios of C4 plants in the two zones. There was no significant difference in N/P ratios between C3 plants and C4 plants in the same zone. Similarly, the N/P ratio (16.60) of dicotyledons in desertified steppe were significantly higher than that (12.98) in typical steppe, while differences in N/P ratios between monocotyledonous plants of the two zones was not significant, and there existed no significant difference in N/P ratios between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants in the same zone. The N/P ratio had significant difference between gramineous and non-gramineous plants in the typical steppe but not in the desertified steppe, but there existed no significant difference in N/P ratios among different root types of perennial herbaceous plants in the same type of steppe or between two types of steppe. Thus, different features on the N/P ratios of C3 plants and dicotyledonous plants between typical steppe and desertified steppe may lead to different growth status of plants, and the N/P ratio stoichiometric of the same plant functional group may be a foundation of the changes of a plant community.


半干旱区两类草原不同功能群植物N/P比化学计量特征  赵月丹,何兴东,陈磊,丁新峰,李梦琦,徐平宜,高玉葆

不同功能群植物N/P比化学计量特征的差异有助于解释物种竞争与群落动态。本研究根据植物生长型、碳代谢途径、根系类型和系统发育类型等功能群分析了内蒙古正蓝旗桑根达来(典型草原带)77种植物和宁夏盐池县境内的宁夏哈巴湖国家级自然保护区(荒漠化草原带)91种植物的叶N/P比。结果表明,荒漠化草原C3植物N/P比(16.91)显著高于典型草原(12.72),但两个类型草原C4植物N/P比之间不存在显著差异,同一类型草原带的C3C4植物N/P比之间也没有显著差异。类似地,荒漠化草原双子叶植物N/P比(16.60)显著高于典型草原(12.98),但两地单子叶植物N/P比之间的差异并不显著,同一类型草原单子叶与双子叶植物N/P比之间不存在显著差异。典型草原带禾本科植物与非禾本科植物N/P比之间差异显著,但荒漠化草原禾本科与非禾本科植物N/P比之间无显著差异。同一类型草原及两类草原多年生草本不同根系类型植物N/P比之间均无显著差异。因此,C3植物和双子叶植物在典型草原和荒漠化草原中N/P比值的不同特征可能导致植物的不同生长状态,而相同植物功能群的N/P比值可以作为植物群落变化的基础。

 

0382–0388  Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of selected mosses

with different alcoholic solvents ... Kehinde O. Olasoji, Amos M. Makinde, Bolajoko A. Akinpelu, Musibau O. Isa

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical content of the crude extracts of Archidium ohioense, Pelekium gratum, and Hyophila involuta with different alcoholic solvents (ethanol, methanol, Seaman's Schnapps, fresh oil-palm wine, and fresh Raffia-palm wine). The mosses were collected from their natural populations on the central campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The yield of the extracts was weighed for all the solvents, and the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the extracts were carried out using standard methods. The results of phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts from the mosses showed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, triterpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, and steroids. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts showed that ethanolic extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest flavonoid content (288.37±0.10 mg RE/g), and Raffiapalm-wine extracts of Hyophila involuta had the highest saponin content (224.70±0.02 mg/g), while the methanolic extract of Archidium ohioense had the highest cardiac glycosides content (63.71±0.14 mg/g), and the Raffia-palm wine extract of Hyophila involuta had the highest alkaloids content (102.50±0.12 mg/g). Raffia- and oil-palm wines were observed to be the most effective solvents for all the mosses studied, followed by Seaman's Schnapp, while methanol and ethanol were less effective. The study concluded that the extracts of the mosses studied contain pharmacologically active constituents that can be used for therapeutic purposes.

 

0389–0406  Analysis of structural characteristics and spatial distribution of the national intangible cultural heritage in China and its policy implications ... BaiCui Xu, JingHu Pan

 

Abstract: Based on an investigation of four published batches listing 3,140 national intangible cultural heritage (ICH) projects in China and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, the spatial structure was investigated and the characteristics and distribution discussed. The distribution of ICHs in China is agglomerative and spatially dependent. From the view of ICH type, each type is distributed in different places, for different reasons, with history being the most important one we found. Nationwide, high-density cores are located in the BeijingTianjinHebei region and the Yangtze River Delta region. High densities of ICH are concentrated in flat, water-rich regions where broad-leaved forests dominate plains and low mountain areasareas that have fertile soil, pleasant weather, a long history of culture, ethnic agglomeration, and development. This paper suggests that development of the ICH should be based on discovering unknown items, to break the existing pattern of strong cohesion and high density, and to seek a balanced development of the whole.

 

中国国家级非物质文化遗产的结构特征和空间分布分析及其政策启示  徐柏翠,潘竟虎

利用地理信息技术和定量分析方法,通过对中国已公布的43,140项国家级非物质文化遗产的空间结构和空间分布格局进行研究,探讨了其空间分布特征。结果表明:中国国家级非物质文化遗产的分布具有较强的空间聚集性和空间依赖性,高聚集区主要位于京津冀和长三角地区。从非遗类型来看,各类非物质文化遗产的空间分布差异较大,主要取决于自身特征、历史、政策、民族等原因,其中历史因素位居首位。从整体来看,中国国家级非物质文化遗产多分布于气候宜人、土壤肥沃、文化历史悠久且民族聚集的平原低山区。国家级非物质文化遗产应在尽力发掘未知遗产的基础上,打破现有的强聚集和高密度的分布模式,寻求均衡发展。



http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3363262-1224381.html

上一篇:《寒旱区科学》2019年第四期中英双语摘要
下一篇:《寒旱区科学》2019年第六期中英双语摘要

0

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (0 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2020-10-31 05:58

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部