SCAR2008的个人博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/SCAR2008

博文

寒旱区科学2019年第一期中英双语摘要

已有 904 次阅读 2019-3-12 17:30 |系统分类:论文交流


0001−0012  Intersection-pavement de-icing: comprehensive review and the state of the practice … ZhaoHui Joey Yang

Abstract: Winter maintenance operations are crucial for pedestrian and motorist safety and public mobility on urban streets and highways in cold regions, especially during winter storms. This study provides a comprehensive literature review of existing deicing technologies, with emphasis on electrical resistance-heating deicing technologies for possible applications in areas with concentrated traffic, such as street intersections and crosswalks. A thorough review of existing and emerging deicing technology for snow/ice melting was conducted. The performance of various deicing methods was evaluated and the installation and operation cost of the electrical resistance-heating methods compared. Finally, current state of the practice of intersection/crosswalk winter maintenance was surveyed among state departments of transportation in North America. The intersection / crosswalk winter maintenance procedure adopted by the State of Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities was described, and the annual winter maintenance and operation cost per intersection was estimated. It was found that the annual energy cost of an electrical resistance-heating method such as the carbon-fiber-tape deicing technology is about the same as the average annual maintenance and operation cost of current practice. In addition, an automatic electrical resistance-heating deicing system will bring benefits such as minimized delay time and improved safety for pedestrian and vehicular traffic in an urban application.

交叉路口路面除冰技术:研究与应用现状  杨朝晖

寒区城市街道和公路在冬季的、尤其在暴雪期的维护运营对行人、车辆的安全至关重要。本文首先总结了目前的除冰/雪技术研究现状,重点介绍可应用在交叉路口、人行道等交通繁忙区域的电阻加热除冰,以及近年涌现出来的道路除冰/雪的新技术。其次对各种除冰/雪方法的性能及建造和运行维护成本进行了评价,并与电阻加热方法进行了比较。最后对北美各地交叉路口/人行道的运行维护现状进行了调查,对阿拉斯加州交通和公共设施管理局在交叉路口/人行道的冬季管理运行程序进行了详细介绍,并对单个路口/人行道的运行和维护费用进行估算。结果表明使用碳纤维带加热等电阻加热除冰技术的运营成本与目前交通部门对路口/人行道的运行维护成本相当。此外,自动控制的电阻加热除冰/雪系统还具有及时、安全性高等优势,适于在城市中推广应用。

 

0013–0020  The changing process and trend of ground temperature around tower foundations of Qinghai-Tibet Power Transmission line … YanLi Xie, QiHao Yu, YanHui You, ZhongQiu Zhang, TingTao Gou

Abstract: After the construction of Qinghai-Tibet Highway and Railway, the Qinghai-Tibet Power Transmission (QTPT) line is another major permafrost engineering project with new types of engineering structures. The changing process and trend of ground temperature around tower foundations are crucial for the stability of QTPT. We analyzed the change characteristics and tendencies of the ground temperature based on field monitoring data from 2010 to 2014. The results reveal that soil around the tower foundations froze and connected with the artificial permafrost induced during the construction of footings after the first freezing period, and the soil below the original permafrost table kept freezing in subsequent thawing periods. The ground temperature lowered to that of natural fields, fast or slowly for tower foundations with thermosyphons, while for tower foundations without thermosyphons, the increase in ground temperature resulted in higher temperature than that of natural fields. Also, the permafrost temperature and ice content are significant factors that influence the ground temperature around tower foundations. Specifically, the ground temperature around tower foundations in warm and ice-rich permafrost regions decreased slowly, while that in cold and ice poor permafrost regions cooled faster. Moreover, foundations types impacted the ground temperature, which consisted of different technical processes during construction and variant of tower footing structures. The revealed changing process and trend of the ground temperature is beneficial for evaluating the thermal regime evolution around tower foundations in the context of climate change.

青藏电力联网工程塔基地温变化过程及趋势研究  谢艳丽,俞祁浩,游艳辉,张仲秋,苟廷涛

青藏电力联网工程是继青藏公路、青藏铁路之后在青藏高原建设的采用全新工程结构的冻土区重点工程。塔基周围冻土地基温度的变化过程和趋势对于该区域塔基稳定性十分重要。基于20102014年间的塔基地温监测数据,本文分析了冻土区塔基地温场的变化过程及变化趋势。结果显示,在经过第一个冻结期之后,基础周围土体可以完全冻结,在之后的融化期,原冻土上限以下的土体仍然保持冻结状态。对于安装了热管的塔基,在热管的降温作用下,地基土温度会降低至低于天然场地温度,但不同的场地降温速率有所不同;未采用热管措施的塔基地温则不断升高,并高于天然场地温度。同时也发现多年冻土地温及含冰量也是塔基地温场的重要影响因素。特别地,对于位于高温高含冰量冻土区的塔基,塔基地温场降温速率较为缓慢,但低温低含冰量冻土区的塔基降温速率相对较快。此外,不同的基础类型在基础结构及施工过程等方面都存在不同,这种不同对塔基地温场也存在一定的影响。本文通过对塔基冻土地基温度场变化过程和趋势的研究,有助于评估在全球气候变暖条件下塔基地温场的发育特性,为类似的工程建设提供有益的借鉴和参考。

 

00210028  The analysis of heat and water fluxes in frozen silty soil … DaHu Rui, Ming Lu, Kunio Watanabe, Jun Zhang 

Abstract: In this paper, based on the basic equations of water flow and heat transfer, the hydrothermal coupling model is established. The numerical model was realized in COMSOL Multiphysics software, and simulation results are compared with the experimental results of Watanabe and Wake (2008) to verify the effectiveness of the model. Through the calculation, we can obtain the dynamic changes of heat and water fluxes, thermal and hydrological properties, matric potential and temperature gradient in unsaturated freezing soil; and these variables are unmeasurable in practice.

冻结条件下粉质土壤中的水、热流分析  芮大虎,芦明,渡边晋生,张军

本文基于多孔介质水流和传热的基本方程,建立了水热耦合模型。数值模型通过COMSOL Multiphysics软件实现计算,模拟结果与WatanabeWake2008)的实验结果进行了比较,验证了模型的有效性。通过计算,我们可以得到非饱和冻土中的水流、热流通量,温度场和水分场的各种物理参数以及基质势、温度梯度的动态变化,而这些变量在实践中是不可测量的。


0029–0040  Vulnerability and adaptation of an oasis socialecological system affected by glacier change in an arid region of northwestern China … JianPing Yang, Man Li, ChunPing Tan, HongJu Chen, Qin Ji 

Abstract: The Hexi Inland River Basin in an arid region of northwestern China was chosen as the study area for this research. The authors define the vulnerability of an oasis social-ecological system to glacier change; select 16 indicators from natural and socioeconomic systems according to exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity; and construct a vulnerability-assessment indicator system aimed at an inland river basin in the arid region of Northwestern China. Vulnerability of the oasis socialecological system affected by glacier change in the study area is evaluated by Spatial Principal Component Analysis (SPCA) under the circumstance of glacier change. The key factors affecting the vulnerability are analyzed. The vulnerability of the oasis social-ecological system in the Hexi Inland River Basin affected by glacier change is of more than medium grade, accounting for about 48.0% of the total number of counties in the study area. In terms of the spatial pattern of the vulnerability, the oasis economic belt is the most vulnerable. With the rapid development of the area's society and economy, the exposure of the system to glacial changes is significantly increased; and an increase in glacial meltwater is not enough to overcome the impact of increased exposure, which is the main reason for the high vulnerability. Based on the result of the vulnerability analysis and combined with the present industrial structure in the Hexi Inland River Basin, near-, medium-, and long-term adaptation initiatives are put forward in the article.

西北干旱区绿洲社会-生态系统受冰川变化影响的脆弱性与适应  杨建平李曼谭春萍陈虹举冀钦

中国西部干旱区河西三大内陆河流域(石羊河、黑河和疏勒河)是典型研究流域,以绿洲社会-生态系统为研究对象,以冰川变化的影响为外部压力,基于冰川变化的脆弱性定义及其构成脆弱性的三大要素:暴露度、敏感性与适应能力,从自然系统、社会经济系统层面遴选了代表与反映绿洲系统对冰川变化影响的16个指标,构建了内陆河流域社会-生态系统对冰川变化的脆弱性评价指标体系,运用空间主成分模型(Spatial Principal Component AnalysisSPCA),定量评价了1995~2010年研究流域绿洲社会-生态系统受冰川变化影响的脆弱性,剖析了驱动脆弱性的关键因素,在此基础上,结合现有产业结构,提出了近、中、长期适应方案。结果表明,河西内陆河流域绿洲社会-生态系统对冰川变化影响的脆弱性以中度及其以上脆弱为主,约占研究区总县域数的48%,空间上,绿洲经济带最为脆弱。社会经济快速发展使得系统对冰川变化影响的暴露度显著增加,而冰川融水径流的增加不足以克服暴露度增加的影响是脆弱性高的主要原因。应对与适应冰川变化的影响,近期应划定绿洲面积红线、实施高效节水与调整产业结构;中、长期应实施转型适应,调整农业主导绿洲经济的传统方式,在生态功能-价值链上重新审视绿洲发展。


0041–0049  Primary investigation of statistical correlation between changes in ice volume and area of glaciers … PuYu Wang, ZhongQin Li, ChunHai Xu, Ping Zhou, WenBin Wang, Shuang Jin, HongLiang Li 

Abstract: This study makes an attempt to investigate through statistical analysis the correlation between changes in ice volume and area of glaciers. Using data from nine sample glaciers in the Tian Shan, the results show that a linear relation exists between changes in ice volume and area, with a correlation coefficient of 0.700. However, the accuracy estimation is difficult due to the limited number of samples. The correlation was not improved after adding eleven glacier samples in other mountains. Two reference glaciers are then analyzed in more detail. The linear correlation coefficient is higher than 0.800 when using the observed changes in ice volume and area during different periods on Urumqi Glacier No. 1, which suggests that the linear relation is valid for one glacier for different periods if its shape does not change noticeably and also for other glaciers of the same shape during the same period. The relation between changes in ice volume and area of Qingbingtan Glacier No. 72 is different during different periods due to change in the shape of the glacier tongue and the influence of the debris cover. Moreover, errors in glacier-change monitoring and -volume estimation have an important influence on the correlation results. Therefore, further study needs to focus not only on the distinction between glacier types

and between different periods but also on the accuracy of volume estimation.

冰川储量变化和面积变化统计相关初步研究  王璞玉, 李忠勤, 徐春海, 周平, 王文彬, 金爽, 李宏亮

气候变暖背景下,全球冰川普遍呈现出减薄退缩的趋势,近年来更呈现加速消融趋势。但目前在区域尺度上对冰储量变化的估算还存在很大的不确定性。本研究试图通过对冰川储量变化和面积变化之间的相关分析,探索建立区域尺度冰川储量变化的统计模式可行性。研究选择了天山地区的9条观测冰川,结果显示冰川储量变化和面积变化之间存在线性相关,相关系数为0.700。然而,由于冰川样本数量较少,评估其误差范围具有一定难度。因此考虑加入了其它山系的11条冰川样本,然而分析显示这种线性关系的相关系数并没有提高。研究进一步重点选择了两条参照冰川作为案例冰川,基于野外实测资料进行了详细的分析。对乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川的研究结果表明,冰储量变化与面积变化之间具有很好的线性关系,相关系数超过了0.800。这说明,单条冰川在基本形态类型保持不变情况下,冰储量变化和面积变化之间的相关关系在不同时段是相同的。在相同的时期内,对其它具有相同形状的冰川也是如此。对于青冰滩72号冰川,由于冰舌形态的改变和表碛覆盖的影响,其冰川储量变化和面积变化之间的相关关系在不同时期存在显著的差异。此外,冰川变化监测和储量估算误差对相关关系的研究结果也有非常重要的影响。因此,进一步的研究需要不仅加强对不同类型冰川的监测和分类研究,而且需要完善与改进技术手段,提高冰川储量估算的精度。


0050–0061  Accumulation and geochemical evidence for the Little Ice Age episode in eastern AntarcticaChuanJin Li, JiaWen Ren, CunDe Xiao, MingHu Ding, Ai-Hong Xie, ZhiHeng Du, XiangYu Ma, DaHe Qin 

Abstract: Data on accumulation and concentration of chemical compounds recorded in an essentially unexplored area (Dome Argus) of the Indian Ocean sector of eastern Antarctica during the past 2,680 years (680 B.C. to 1999 A.D.) are presented. During the first 1,700 years (680 B.C. to 1000 A.D.), the accumulation data shows a slightly decreasing trend, while chemical ions appear to be stable, representing a stable climatic condition. An intensive increasing trend of the accumulation occurred during the 12th to 14th century. The period from 15th to 19th century was characterized by a rapid reducing accumulation and concentrations of volatile compounds suffering post-depositional loss linked to sparse precipitation amount,

which was temporally consistent with the Little Ice Age (LIA) episode. Comparison between observed accumulation rates with other eastern Antarctic ice cores show a consistent decreasing trend during LIA, while sea salt and dust-originated ions increased due to sea ice extent and intensified atmospheric transportation. Distribution of volcanic originated sulfate over the Antarctic continent show a significant change during the 15th century, coincident with the onset of the LIA. These results are important for the assessment of Antarctic continent mass balance and associated interpretation of the Dome A deep ice core records.

东南极冰芯雪冰化学及积累率对小冰期事件的反映  李传金,任贾文,效存德,丁明虎,谢爱红,杜志恒,马翔宇,秦大河

本文对东南极印度洋扇区内陆DT401冰芯记录的过去2680年(680B.C.~1999A.D.)的积累率和化学离子的沉积序列进行了恢复和研究。积累率结果显示,在最初的1700年(680 B.C.~1000A.D.)中,积累率呈现小尺度的降低趋势,化学离子的浓度则普遍呈现稳定的波动,指示该时段气候呈现稳态。快速的积累率增长出现在12~14世纪阶段,而随后的15-19世纪又伴随着积累率的快速降低。后一时段内,挥发性化学物质(Cl)浓度呈现显著降低趋势,可能指示低积累率时段内沉积后过程影响显著,该时段与历史上小冰期事件(LIA)分布时段吻合。同期,其他东南极冰芯也很好地记录了积累率的低值期,指示小冰期在东南极地区存在的普遍性。海盐离子浓度在该时段呈现高值,可能与周边海冰面积的增加及其向内陆地区传输海盐离子强度的增大相关。源于火山喷发的硫化物在南极的分布在15世纪存在显著的变化,这与小冰期事件前后南极涡旋强度的变化有关。相关结果对南极物质平衡研究及冰穹A深冰芯记录的解析提供了重要参考。


0062–0080  How changes of groundwater level affect the desert riparian forest ecosystem in the Ejina Oasis, Northwest ChinaHaiYang Xi, JingTian Zhang, Qi Feng, Lu Zhang, JianHua Si, TengFei Yu 

Abstract: Groundwater is a key factor controlling the growth of vegetation in desert riparian systems. It is important to recognize how groundwater changes affect the riparian forest ecosystem. This information will not only help us to understand the ecological and hydrological process of the riparian forest but also provide support for ecological recovery of riparian forests and water-resources management of arid inland river basins. This study aims to estimate the suitability of the Water Vegetation Energy and Solute Modelling (WAVES) model to simulate the Ejina Desert riparian forest ecosystem changes, China, to assess effects of groundwater-depth change on the canopy leaf area index (LAI) and water budgets, and to ascertain the suitable groundwater depth for preserving the stability and structure of desert riparian forest. Results demonstrated that the WAVES model can simulate changes to ecological and hydrological processes. The annual mean water consumption of a Tamarix chinensis riparian forest was less than that of a Populus euphratica riparian forest, and the canopy LAI of the desert riparian forest should increase as groundwater depth decreases. Groundwater changes could significantly influence water budgets for T. chinensis and P. euphratica riparian forests and show the positive and negative effects on vegetation growth and water budgets of riparian forests. Maintaining the annual mean groundwater depth at around 1.72.7 m is critical for healthy riparian forest growth. This study highlights the importance of considering groundwater-change impacts on desert riparian vegetation and water-balance applications in ecological restoration and efficient water-resource management in the Heihe River Basin.

中国西北额济纳旗绿洲地下水位变化对荒漠河岸林生态系统的影响  席海洋张经天冯起张橹司建华鱼腾飞

地下水是荒漠河岸林系统植被生长的关键控制因子,识别地下水变化对荒漠河岸林生态系统的影响十分重要,这不仅有助于我们理解河岸林生态水文过程,也可为荒漠河岸林的生态恢复和干旱内陆流域的水资源管理提供支撑。本研究旨在评估WAVES模型在模拟额济纳荒漠河岸林生态系统变化的适用性,评估地下水位变化对叶面积指数(LAI)和水均衡的影响,确定维持荒漠河岸林结构稳定的适宜地下水位。结果表明:WAVES模型可以有效模拟生态水文过程变化;柽柳河岸林年平均耗水量小于胡杨河岸林的耗水量,冠层叶面积指数随着地下水位埋深的减小而增加;地下水的变化可以显著影响柽柳河岸林和胡杨河岸林的水均衡变化,对河岸林的生长和水均衡表现出积极和消极两方面的影响。维持年平均地下水埋深在1.7−2.7m范围对于河岸林的健康生长至关重要。本研究亮点是重点考虑了地下水变化对荒漠河岸林和水平衡影响,研究成果可用于黑河流域生态恢复和水资源管理。

 

0081–0092  Increase in medium-size rainfall events will enhance the C-sequestration capacity of biological soil crusts … CuiHua Huang, Fei Peng, Itaru Shibata, Jun Luo, Xian Xue, Kinya Akashi, Atsushi Tsunekawa, Tao Wang 

Abstract: Biological soil crusts (BSCs) play important roles in the carbon (C) balance in arid regions. Net C balance of BSCs is strongly dependent on rainfall and consequent activation of microbes in the BSCs. The compensation-rainfall size for BSCs (the minimum rainfall amount for a positive net C balance) is assumed to be different with BSCs of different developmental stages. A field experiment with simulated rainfall amount (SRA) of 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mm was conducted to examine the C fluxes and compensation-rainfall size of BSCs in different parts of fixed dunes in the ecotone between the Badain Jaran Desert and the Minqin Oasis. We found algaelichen crust on the interdunes and crest, algae crust on the leeward side, and lichenmoss crust on the windward. Even a small rainfall (1 mm) can activate both photosynthesis and respiration of all types of BSCs. The gross ecosystem production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem exchange were significantly affected by SRA, hours after the simulated rainfall, position on a dune, and their interactions. The rapid activation of photosynthesis provides a C source and therefore could be responsible for the increase of C efflux after each rewetting. C-uptake and -emission capacity of all the BSCs positively correlated with rainfall size, with the lowest C fluxes on the leeward side. The compensation rainfall for a net C uptake was 3.80, 15.54, 8.62, and 1.88 mm for BSCs on the interdunes, the leeward side, the crest, and the windward side, respectively. The whole dune started to show a net C uptake with an SRA of 5 mm and maximized with an SRA of about 30 mm. The compensation-rainfall size is negatively correlated with chlorophyll content. Our results suggest that BSCs will be favored in terms of C balance, and sand dune stabilization could be sustained with an increasing frequency of 510 mm rainfall events in the desertoasis transitional zone.

中等降雨事件增加对生物土壤结皮固碳能力的影响研究  黄翠华, 彭飞, Itaru Shibata, 罗君, 薛娴, Kinya Akashi, Atsushi Tsunekawa, 王涛

生物土壤结皮(BSCs)在干旱区碳平衡中发挥着重要作用。生物土壤结皮的碳平衡严重依赖于降雨及雨后生物土壤结皮中微生物的活化。不同发育阶段的生物土壤结皮补偿性降雨量(净碳平衡为正值时的最小降雨量)不同。本论文通过模拟不同降雨量(0 mm1 mm5 mm10 mm20 mm40 mm)的野外试验,研究了巴丹吉林沙漠与民勤绿洲过渡带固定沙丘不同部位生物土壤结皮的碳通量和补偿降雨量。结果显示沙丘顶部和丘间地为藻类-地衣结皮,背风坡为藻类结皮,迎风坡为地衣-苔藓结皮。即使是很小的降雨量(1 mm)也可以激活上述不同沙丘部位所有类型生物土壤结皮的光合作用和呼吸作用。模拟降雨数小时后,模拟降雨量对沙丘总生态系统产量、生态系统呼吸和净生态系统交换均有显著影响。光合作用的快速激活提供了一个碳源,增加了每次润湿后的碳流出。不同沙丘部位生物土壤结皮的碳吸收能力和碳排放能力与降雨量呈正相关关系,背风坡的碳吸收通量最低。丘间地、背风坡、沙丘顶部和迎风坡的生物土壤结皮的碳吸收补偿降雨量分别为3.80 mm15.54 mm8.62 mm1.88 mm。整个沙丘在模拟降雨量为5 mm时开始出现碳的净吸收,模拟降雨量约为30 mm时达到最大值。补偿降雨量与叶绿素含量呈负相关。研究结果表明,降雨量为5-10 mm的中等降雨事件频率的增加有助于提升沙漠绿洲过渡带土壤生物结皮在碳平衡和沙丘稳定中的作用。




http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3363262-1167158.html

上一篇:《寒旱区科学》2018年第6期双语摘要
下一篇:《寒旱区科学》2019年第二期中英双语摘要

0

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (0 个评论)

数据加载中...
扫一扫,分享此博文

全部作者的精选博文

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2020-9-22 10:26

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部