puhj的个人博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/puhj

博文

太阳系行星运动系统特征解释(附译文)

已有 4248 次阅读 2017-8-25 10:44 |系统分类:论文交流


太阳系行星运动系统特征解释

提要:一、行星的公转是与主星引力相抗衡的一级反应方式(离心力);行星的自转是与主星引力相抗衡的次级反应方式(向心力)。随着与主星距离的拉大,主星引力的减弱,行星的一级反应方式逐渐向次级反应方式转换(公转减慢,自转加快)。二、公转速度与自转速度呈陀螺效应的相互制约关系:公转越快、自转越慢;公转越慢、自转越快。三、行星自转速度的快慢,也与其质量的大小相关:质量越大,受主星引力越大,自转速度越快。行星质量的大小与自转速度的快慢,决定了其自身引力的大小,从而决定了其俘获的卫星的质量大小与数量多寡。四、金星的逆自转,是其公转速度不足的必然反应。

文章最后对引力的成因、引力的超距作用提出相关见解。

太阳系相关数据:

行星

与主星的距离

(半径)

公转周期

(轨道速度)

自转周期

卫星数量

水星

0.3—0.4天文

2440km

88

48km/s

581530

金星

0.725天文

6073km

224.70

35km/s

243天(逆自

地球

1天文

6378km

365

30km/s

24

1颗:直径3476km

火星

1.52天文

3397km

687

24km/s

2437

2:直径16km8km

木星

5.205天文

71492km

4332.6

13km/s

950

68

土星

9.576天文

60268km

10759.5

(9.6km/s)

1039

30

天王星

19.18天文

25559km

84.3

6.8km/s

14

27

海王星

30.13天文

24764km

164.8

5.4km/s

16.11

14

 

由上表可见,太阳系行星运动有以下四个特征:

一、 随着与主星距离的拉大,行星的公转速度一致性下降;自转速度总体上升、局部下降。 (参下图1、图2)



  二、随着与主星距离的拉大,行星公转速度减慢、自转速度加快,呈现出公转速度向自转速度过渡转换的特点。

三、随着与主星距离的拉大、行星自转速度的加快与质量的增大,其俘获的卫星从无到有、由少到多。

  四、出现金星慢速逆自转的特殊现象。                                                                                                                                                          

基本观点:

一、           行星的公转是与主星引力相抗衡的一级反应方式(距离主星越近,公转速度越快);行星的自转是与主星引力相抗衡的次级反应方式(距离主星越远,自转速度越快)。

二、           行星的公转与自转呈相互制约关系:公转越快,自转越慢;公转越慢,自转越快。随着与主星距离的拉大,主星引力的减小,行星对主星引力的反应方式逐渐由一级反应方式向次级反应方式过渡转换(公转速度减慢、自转速度加快)。

三、           行星自转速度的快慢也与其质量的大小有关:质量越大,受主星的引力越大,自转速度也就越快,因而局部范围内出现随着行星质量的减小,其自转速度也相应减慢的规律性现象(见示意图2)。行星质量的大小与自转速度的快慢,决定了其自身引力的大小,从而决定了其俘获卫星的质量大小与数量多寡。

四、           金星的逆自转,是其公转速度不足的必然反应。

对以上基本观点的解释:

一、           水星距太阳最近,受主星引力最大,因而其公转速度最快。水星的快速公转,是行星的一级反应方式的典型表现(在近日点时,水星的轨道速度更快,也表明了距主星越近公转越快的现象);由于公转与自转的相互制约关系,随着与主星距离的逐渐拉大,主星引力逐渐减小,行星的一级公转速度逐渐向次级自转速度的转换(公转速度下降,自转速度上升)。

二、           公转速度与自转速度的相互制约关系,可以用陀螺旋转效应予以解释:当陀螺的自转速度加快时,其前进的速度会减慢。特别是当其自转达到相当快的速度时,其位置甚至会出现停滞不前的现象。反之,若欲加快其前进速度,必减慢其自转速度。如:水星的自转速度在诸行星中最慢,公转速度在诸行星中最快,就是自转速度与公转速度相互制约关系的典型表现。

三、           除了与主星距离的远近这个主要因素外,行星自转速度的快慢也与其质量大小有关:行星质量越大,受主星引力就越大,其自转速度(次级反应方式)也就更快。从而形成了行星自转速度的一些规律性的局部变化特征:如火星比地球距主星更远,但其自转速度却比地球稍慢(慢37分钟),这是因为它的质量小于地球,受主星引力更小的结果;同样,土星、天王星、海王星虽比木星距主星更远,但由于它们的质量逐渐减小,自转速度也逐渐减慢(参见示意图2:木星在所有行星中质量最大,是其它七大行星质量总和的2.5倍,因此其自转速度最快,俘获的卫星最多)。但由于这四颗液态行星都距主星较远,质量都较大,故而自转速度都较快,俘获的卫星也都较多。

需要注意的是:行星随着质量的减小,自转速度稍慢的局部变化,并不改变随着与主星的远离,自转速度总体上升的基本趋势。

行星的自转速度受其质量大小的影响而产生局部变化,也说明,在对主星引力的抗衡作用上,自转是弱于公转的次级反应方式。

四、对金星逆自转现象的解释:

需要注意:在诸行星的公转速度关系上,金星的公转速度有偏慢的特点(图2):




如图所示:水星与金星的公转差数为137天;金星与地球的公转差数为140天;地球与火星的公转差数为322天;其后各行星的公转差数均呈明显增大的趋势。而水星与金星的公转差数和金星与地球公转差数几乎相等,即金星与水星的公转差数偏大,与地球的公转差数偏小。说明金星的公转速度偏慢。

我们知道,金星被称为地球的“孪生姐妹”,其质量约为地球的4/5。在太阳与水星、水星与金星、金星与地球之间大致呈等距离的关系上,与水星相邻的金星的质量有陡然增大的特点。

图3







金星陡然增大的质量,必然会产生其公转瞬时速度减慢的滞后效应(与主星距离越近,这种反应方式越敏感)。那么,金星的逆自转,就很可能是以下原因造成:

在主星的引力作用下,金星需要弥补其公转速度的不足,以消除这种滞后效应;其公转加速所产生的后坐力,导致了其逆自转。

图4




亦即:由于公转速度与自转速度的相互制约关系,金星要加速公转,必然要抑制其自转速度;或者说:金星要加速公转,必然会对其自转产生反向推力。这种反向推力,导致了金星的逆自转。

金星的逆自转,是其公转加速的反向推力(后坐力)所造成。那么,金星公转的加速与其反向推力的相互抵消,实际结果是其公转并没有真正加速。但由于其逆自转的反作用力,使得金星能够维持其现有公转速度的稳定性。

其它相关观点与解释:

        一、引力现象与成因:

1、引力现象:所有行星的公转与主星的自转基本处于同一轨道平面;所有行星的公转与主星的自转方向一致;离主星越近,行星的公转速度越快(其它相关现象:行星的质量越大、自转速度越快,俘获的卫星越多)。

2、引力成因:由上述现象可知:主星自转所产生的向心力,是其引力的主要成因。

                                                                                               

                               

二、主星引力的超距离作用之成因:

1、在主星自转方向的“上”“下”极少它力作用下,主星引力的“唯一”存在,是其发挥超距作用的重要条件之一;

2、一般来说,力的充分发挥有两种情形:一、与物体直接接触(力的能量没有损耗);二、有空间距离,但无任何介质的阻隔(力的能量也没有损耗)——在没有介质阻隔这一点上,两者具有本质的同一性。

那么,引力怎样才能“无损耗”地“直接”发挥作用呢?我认为:最理想的条件是没有任何介质的阻隔。即:没有介质阻隔的“真空”状态,是“拉近”物体之间“距离”的重要条件。虽然,宇宙空间没有绝对的“真空”,但由于其接近“真空”的近乎完美的条件,使得引力的超距离作用得以实现(可以通过其它相关实验作为旁证:比如分别在真空环境与常规环境条件下,观察磁力发挥作用的距离的大小)。



Explanation of the Characteristics of Planetary Motion

in the Solar System

Summary:

1.     Inthe solar system, planetary revolution is a first order reaction against thegravity of the Sun, whereas planetary rotation is a secondary reaction againstthe gravity of the Sun. As the distance from the Sun increases and the effectof the Sun’s gravity weakens, planetary first order reaction gradually transitsinto secondary order reaction (revolution decelerates, rotation accelerates).

2.     Planetaryrevolution speed and rotation speed mutually restrict each other in aphenomenon I call “the Spinning Top Effect”: the faster the revolution, theslower the rotation, and vice versa.  

3.     Rotationspeed of a planet is associated with its mass: the bigger the mass of a planet,the more it’s affected by the Sun’s gravity and the faster the planet rotates.A planet’s mass and rotation speed determine the planet’s size of gravity,thereby determine the mass and number of moons it attracts.

4.     Thereverse rotation of Venus is an inevitable reaction to its acceleration ofrevolution speed.

At the end of thisessay, the causes of the formation of gravity and action at a distance arepresented.

                                            Main body:

                                            Solar    system statistics



Planet

Distance from the Sun

Semi diameter

Revolution cycle

(Orbital velocity)

Rotation cycle

Number of moons

Mercury

0.3-0.4 AU (astronomical unit)

2,440km

88 days

(48km/s)

58 days 15h 30min

none

Venus

0.725 AU

6,073km

224.70 days

(35km/s)

243 days (reverse rotation)

none

Earth

1AU

6,378km

365 days

(30km/s)

24h

1: 3,476km in  diameter

Mars

1.52AU

3,397km

687 days

(24km/s)

24h 37min

2: 16km  and 8km in diameter

Jupiter

5.205AU

71,492km

4,332.6 days

(13km/s)

9h 50min

68

Saturn

9.576AU

60,268km

10,759.5 days

(9.6km/s)

10h 39min

30

Uranus

19.18AU

25,559km

84.3 years

(6.8km/s)

14h

27

Neptune

30.13AU

24,764km

164.8 years

(5.4km/s)

16.11h

14

According to the tableabove, planetary motion in the solar system has the following 4characteristics.  

1.     As the distance from the Sun increases, revolution speedsof the orbiting planets show an overall decrease. Planetary rotation speedsgenerally increase, partially decrease.



2. As the distance from the Sunincreases, a planet’s revolution slows down while rotation speeds up.

3. The farther away a planet is situated from the sun,the bigger its mass and the faster it rotates. It also captures more moons.

 4. Venusexhibits the special phenomenon of reverse rotation.

Coreconcepts:

1.     Planetaryrevolution is a first order reaction against the gravity of the Sun (the closera planet is to the Sun, the faster it revolves around it); planetary rotationis a secondary reaction against the gravity of the Sun (the farther away aplanet is from the sun, the faster it rotates).

2.     Planetaryrevolution speed and rotation speed mutually restrict each other. The faster aplanet’s revolution, the slower its rotation; the slower a planet’s revolution,the faster its rotation. As a planet’s distance from the sun increases and thesun’s gravity weakens, planetary first order reaction gradually transit intosecondary order reaction (revolution speed decreases while rotation speedincreases).

3.     Planetaryrotation speed is related to the planet’s mass: the bigger the mass, the moreit is affected by the sun’s gravity and the faster it rotates, which leads tothe phenomenon in local scope where a planet’s rotation decelerates as its massdecreases (see figure 2). A planet’s mass and its rotation speed determine itsgravity, which determines the mass and number of moons the planet is capable ofattracting.

4.     Thereverse rotation of Venus is an inevitable reaction to its acceleration ofrevolution speed.

Elaboration of core concepts:

1.     In thesolar system, Mercury is the closest to the Sun and is most affected by itsgravity. Therefore, Mercury’s revolution velocity is the greatest. Mercury’sfast revolution is a typical manifestation of planetary first order reaction(When at perihelion, Mercury’s orbital velocity is even faster, which meansthat planets revolve faster when closer to the Sun). Owing to the restrictiverelation between planetary revolution and rotation, as a planet travels fartheraway from the sun, it becomes less affected by the Sun’s gravity, its firstorder reaction gradually transits into secondary order reaction (revolutiondecelerates, rotation accelerates).

2.     Themutually restrictive relation between planetary revolution and rotation can beexplained as the “Spinning Top Effect”: when the rotation speed of a spinningtop fastens, the distance it travels decreases. When rotating at a very highspeed, the spinning top even appears to be not travelling forward at all. Onthe contrary, to increase the distance the spinning top travels, its rotationspeed must be reduced. Similarly, the rotation speed of Mercury is the slowestcompared to other planets of the solar system, whereas its revolution speed isthe fastest. This is the manifestation of the restrictive relation betweenplanetary rotation and revolution.

3.     Planetaryrotation speed is not only controlled by the distance from the Sun, but also bythe planet’s mass: the bigger a planet’s mass, the more it’s pulled by theSun’s gravity, and the faster its rotation speed (secondary order reaction).This phenomenon consequently leads to partial yet regular changes of planetaryrotation speed. For instance, Mars is farther away from the Sun than Earth butits rotation speed is slower than Earth’s by 37 minutes. This is due to thefact that Mars’ mass is smaller than Earth’s, therefore Mars is less controlledby the Sun’s gravity. Likewise, even though Saturn, Uranus and Neptune arefarther away from the Sun than Jupiter, because their masses gradually reducefrom one to another, their rotation speeds reduce as well (see figure 2:Jupiter captures the biggest number of moons and rotates the fastest among allplanets of the solar system because of its large mass, which is 2.5 times aslarge as the total mass of all the other seven planets).But these 4 planets areall farther away from the sun, their masses are all bigger than the first 4planets, therefore they attract more moons.

Another thing to note is that, thepartial decreases in planetary rotation speeds don’t affect the overalltendency that planetary rotation speeds increase as planets sit farther awayfrom the sun.

4.     Explanationof the reverse rotation of Venus:

It’s important to note that whilethe revolution cycle differences between any other two neighboring planetsgradually increase, the revolution cycle difference between Venus and Mercuryis smaller than it should be, which means Venus is revolving slower than itshould.




As shown above, the revolutioncycle difference between Mercury and Venus is 137 days (represented as 1);between Venus and the Earth it’s 140 days (represented as 2) and 322 daysbetween the Earth and Mars. After Mars, the revolution cycle differences betweenevery other two neighboring planets keep increasing evidently. However, 1 isalmost the same as 2 when 1 should be much smaller than 2, which proves thatVenus is revolving slower than it should.

As we know,Venus is known as “the twin sister of the Earth”. Its mass is about 4/5 of themass of the Earth. Despite the fact that the distances between Mercury and theSun, Venus and Mercury, Earth and Venus are approximately equal, compared toits neighboring Mercury, Venus is much bigger in mass.



According toNewton’s Second Law, the accelerated speed of an object is inverselyproportional to its mass. The sudden increase of Venus’ mass will inevitablylead to the decrease of its instantaneous revolution speed (because Venus is very close to the Sun, this reaction ismore sensitive). Therefore, the reverse rotation of Venus is verypossibly caused by the following reason:

Because Venus is revolving slower than itshould, when pulled by the Sun’s gravity, Venus needs to increase itsrevolution speed in order to offset the insufficiency in its revolution; the    recoil force created by this increaseresulted in the reverse rotation of Venus.  




Owing to the mutually restrictive relationsbetween planetary revolution and rotation speeds, when Venus speeds up its revolution, inevitably its   rotation would be restrained. In otherwords, when trying to accelerate   revolution,Venus would consequentially produce a reverse thrust to its   rotation. It is the reverse thrust (recoilforce) that caused Venus’ reverse        rotation.

Since the reverse rotation of Venus iscaused by the reverse thrust (recoil force) from its accelerated revolution,the result of the counterbalance between its revolution acceleration and therecoil force is that there is no actual increase in Venus’ revolution speed.

Explanations to other related phenomena:

1.     Thephenomenon and main cause of gravity:

Thephenomenon of gravity: all planets in the solar system revolve generally on thesame plane as the Sun’s rotation orbit; all planets revolve around the Sun inthe same direction as the Sun’s rotation; the closer a planet is to the Sun,the faster the planet revolves around it; the bigger a planet’s mass, thefaster it rotates and the more moons it attracts.

2.     Themain cause of gravity: the centripetal force caused by the rotation of the Sunis the main cause of the Sun’s gravity.

Cause of action at a distance of the Sun’sgravity:

Whenthere are few external forces, the “independent” existence of the Sun’s gravityprovides a significant condition to its action at a distance.

In general, there are twoscenarios in which force can be given full play: 1. Direct contact to thetarget object (no energy is wasted) or 2. There is a spatial distance from thetarget object but there is no obstructing medium in between (no energy iswasted as well). These two scenarios are essentially equal in that there are nomedia involved.

How is the Sun’s gravity realized“without waste”? In my opinion, the most ideal condition is that no obstructingmedia is involved in the space between two objects. In other words, a “vacuumstate” is an essential condition to “pull objects closer to each other indistance”. Although there is no absolute “vacuum” in space, the “near-vacuum”environment in space makes the action at a distance of the Sun’s gravity apossibility (experiments are recommended to be conducted as circumstantialevidences to this opinion, for instance, an experiment on thedistance of magnetic force in both conventional and vacuum environments).








http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3093688-1072678.html

上一篇:生一个也好
下一篇:中国人就爱整些没用的东西

7 宁利中 蔡宁 陈楷翰 田云川 杨正瓴 xlsd yunwowo

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (104 个评论)

数据加载中...
扫一扫,分享此博文

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备14006957 )

GMT+8, 2018-11-17 06:11

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部