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水4.0:饮用水的过去、现在与未来 (双语Ch 11节选)

已有 1172 次阅读 2015-9-11 03:14 |个人分类:Water 4.0|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:Water,4.0,,Chapter,11| Water, chapter


Turning to the Sea for Drinking Water



Throughout history, cities have employed a similar set of approaches for obtaining drinking water. Those urban dwellers lucky enough to live near ariver or lake have usually focused on making their local surface water safe to drink. If there is an adequate groundwater supply underneath the city, people who lack easy access to surface water have obtained their drinking water from wells. And after a city’s population had grown to a point where the local waterre sources no longer suffice, canals and aqueducts have been built to importwater from increasing distant regions.



By the end of the 20th century, many cities had become so populous that their drinking water needs could no longer be met easily by the normal sources. Initially, water-stressed cities adopted the Three R’s of reduce, reuse, and recycle to maximize their limited water resources. That strategy worked for a while, but depending on the city’s size and location, as well asthe enthusiasm of its residents for low-flow shower heads and recycled water, the costs often reached a point where further water savings became difficult. Rather than raising people’s water rates to encourage conservation or accepting the idea that water availability might limit their size, cities have increasingly looked to the sea as a means of breaking free of the water cycle. After all, two-thirds of the world’s big cities are located along a coast.1 If water-stressed coastal cities can find a cost-effective technology for removingthe salts from seawater, they will no longer have to wait for the sun and wind to send their drinking water to them by way of the water cycle.



(Last paragraph of Chapter 11)

Despite the setbacks encountered in Tampa and Carlsbad, more proposals for coastal desalination plants are moving ahead in California and Florida. From the trials and tribulations of the pioneering projects, it is evident that desalination may be part of Water 4.0, but it is not a panacea for the clean water challenges of America’s coastal cities. With each new project it becomes easier to separate the reality of seawater desalination from the rhetoric onboth sides. Seawater desalination is a mature, reliable technology. But if countries or regions are unable to adopt a centralized planning model similarto Israel’s, and if they continue to insist on green power, carbon offsets, and lengthy environmental impact reviews, seawater desalination will remain expensive relative to other options for the foreseeable future.



ps. I typed up the English myself, so errors are possible.


[美]戴·塞德拉克 著

徐向荣 等    虞左俊 校





Water 4.0: The Past, Present, and Future of the World's Most Vital Resource

Paperback:March 31, 2015

by David Sedlak (Author)

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