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水4.0:饮用水的过去、现在与未来 (双语Ch 10节选)

已有 1440 次阅读 2015-9-11 03:03 |个人分类:Water 4.0|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:Water,4.0,,Chapter,10| Water, chapter


The Toilet-to-Tap Solution



Not too long ago, we lived in a wasteful world. We tossed our aluminum cans, glass bottles, and old newspapers into the trash without a second thought. We drove gas guzzlers, turned the thermostat way up in the winter, andlit our homes with hundred-watt incandescent light bulbs. Once we were done using something, it was destined for the landfill or incinerator. Energy was what we had after a second cup of coffee and definitely not something we thought about conserving. But as the world became more crowded and we startedto recognize the problems associated with our consumptive ways, we began toclose the loop on materials and started to conserve energy by embracing the “Three R’s” of reduce, reuse, and recycle. Now most places have instituted deposits on cans and bottles. Recycling bins are everywhere. Many of us drivefuel-efficient cars and light our homes with compact fluorescent light bulbs. As we enter an era of limited water supplies and increasing concerns about the effects of wastewater effluent on the environment, perhaps it is time to apply the same philosophy to water.



When we think about water, the first of the Three R’s is reduce. Anywater utility that is serious about providing an adequate quantity of water inthe face of population growth and climate change has already begun to embrace water conservation by pushing its customers to grow drought-tolerant plants andto install low-flow plumbing fixtures. Beyond its potential to extend supplies, water conservation makes a lot of sense because it also saves money, conserves energy, reduces pollution, and allows cities to build smaller reservoirs and treatment plants. As a result, there is a long history of conservation incities where water is scarce. (Chapter 12 examines the kinds of conservation programs that are already in place in water-limited cities and describes someof the up-and-coming approaches that can be used to push the practice to itslimit.)

当我用水,首先想到3R 原中的第一个,即减少(用水)。在面人口增和气候化挑战时,任何一个重提供充足用水的水,早已通种植耐旱植物和安装低流量管道设备等方式,开始推行节约用水。节约用水的意在于,它除了可以水量用得更久,可以金、保能源、减少染,城市可以建模稍小的水和水理厂。因此,那些水源稀缺的城市都有着节约用水的悠久传统史。(第十二章将探源有限的城市已采用的一些划,并描述一些新的水方法。些新方法可使水措施达到极限)。


The second and third of the Three R’s refer to the practice of putting treated sewage back into the water supply. Strictly speaking, “water reuse” involves finding an appropriate use for wastewater that has received little orno treatment beyond what is usually done when it is discharged to a river orthe ocean. “Water recycling,” by contrast, employs wastewater after it has undergone additional high-tech treatment processes for the purpose of gettingthe water to be used for a specific application. Because it is often difficult to distinguish a sewage treatment plant that had been upgraded to protect asensitive aquatic ecosystem from one in which additional treatment processes have been added to facilitate recycling, the terms “water reuse” and “water recycling” are often used interchangeably.



(Last two paragraphs of Chapter 10)

By being mindful of public opinion and demonstrating a cautious, professional attitude, the Orange County Water District managed to preempt thepublic skepticism that had killed the projects in San Diego and Los Angeles. It is an exemplary model for outreach and the building of trust in the community.



Following the success of Orange County and a less noticed, but nearly identical, project run by the West Basin Municipal Water District on landadjacent to the Los Angeles International Airport, the failed projects in San Diego and in Los Angeles’s East Valley have come back to life, with reverse-osmosis-equipped advanced water recycling plants that are nearly identical to the design employed in the successful projects. The idea also has spread beyond California, with plants following the Orange County model comingon line over the last 15 years in Arizona, Singapore, and Belgium.46 By employing sophisticated public communication strategies and state-of-the-art treatment technologies, the forces behind potable water recycling now appear tobe unstoppable. But questions linger about the high costs of the projects andthe willingness of communities outside of Southern California, the desert Southwest, and a few other water-stressed locales to accept the unfamiliar practice.



ps. I typed up the English myself, so errors are possible.


[美]戴·塞德拉克 著

徐向荣 等    虞左俊 校





Water 4.0: The Past, Present, and Future of the World's Most Vital Resource

Paperback:March 31, 2015

by David Sedlak (Author)

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