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水4.0:饮用水的过去、现在与未来 (双语Ch 4节选)

已有 1888 次阅读 2015-9-6 03:10 |个人分类:Water 4.0|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:Water,4.0,,Chapter,4| Water, chapter



4

Growing Old Thanks to Water Treatment

第四章

延年益寿得力于水

During the nineteenth century, the United States matured from asleepy, isolated country to a leading industrialized nation. New York grew froma city of fewer than 70,000,000 to a metropolis of over 3 million people. Chicago went from being a tiny military outpost to a city of 1.7 million people. And just as their European counterparts had decades earlier, cities throughout the United States suffered from cholera outbreaks, filthy streets,and inadequate water supplies during the first half of the nineteenth century.1 In response, American cities made major investments in Water 1.0. During thelast decades of the century, New York built the first sections of an aqueduct that would ultimately bring water into the city from a pristine watershed 190 km (120 miles) to the northwest. The city also built a network of underground tunnels to convey its sewage to the ocean.

19世纪时,美国已从一个缺乏活力的孤立国一个工化的领军国。纽约从一个人口不足7万的小城市,人口超300万的大都市。芝加哥也从一个小小的事前哨,有170万人口的大城市。19世的前五十年,美国多城市也遭遇了霍乱暴、街道肮脏和供水问题,就像几十年前的欧洲城市一[1]为应对这些棘手的问题,美国政府“水1.0”做了重大投。在19世最后的几十年纽约完成了一条大渡槽的第一期工程,个渡槽最可以将城市西北方190公里纯净水引到市内。纽约还修建了地下隧道网,将水排入海里。

 

Chicago was thinking big, too. There was plenty of water in Lake Michigan, but as the city expanded, water from the sewage-contaminated Chicago River kept getting sucked into the city’s drinking water intake pipes along the shore of the lake. After the city’s engineers extended the water intake pipesas far from the shoreline as they possibly could, they embarked on a more radical solution: they raised the elevation of the entire downtown and reversed the flow of the city’s main river. The canals and locks of the Sanitary and Ship Canal were completed in 1892. Thereafter, the city’s wastes flowed to the Mississippi River and not into Chicago’s Lake Michigan drinking water intakes.2

与此同,芝加哥也在行大胆的探索。密歇根湖有丰富的水源,但是随着城市建,受到城市生活染的芝加哥河的河水,不断入沿着密歇根湖岸布用水水管道。在芝加哥的工程师们水管道延伸至距离密歇根湖岸线尽可能的地方之后,他又开始着手一个更激的方案:抬高整个市中心区的(河床)海拔,使芝加哥河水倒流。到1892年,芝加哥生和航行运河的水道和船已全部建成。此后,芝加哥的水流向了密西西比河不再染密歇根湖的用水水口[2]

 

Although much of America’s growth tookplace in urban neighborhoods, like those that housed the sweatshops of New York’s garment district and the stockyards of Chicago, manufacturing was also booming in small cities scattered throughout the northeastern states and the industrializing Midwest. Pittsburgh made steel. Minneapolis milled flour. And Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Detroit made machinery. It is in one of these smallcities that we pick up the next phase of the urban water story.

尽管当美国的经济大部分生在城市里,比如那些坐落在纽约服装区的血汗工厂和芝加哥的畜禽养殖,但是在北部和工化的中西部,那些零散的小城市的制造也蓬勃展。匹堡生产钢铁。明尼阿波利斯生面粉。克利夫、辛辛那提以及底特律都在制造机械设备。我就在些小城市中取一个例子,接着有关城市水的故事。

 

(Last paragraph of Chapter 4)

The combination of water filtration and chlorination was the first major innovation in drinking water since the Roman aqueducts and sewers. The newly developed system of drinking water treatment—which we’ll refer to as Water 2.0—made it possible for growing cities to obtain water from sources that would otherwise be unsafe to drink. Immense progress had been made between1890—when Lawrence, Massachusetts, first had sought Professor Sedgwick’s helpin fighting typhoid—and the 1940s, when filtration and chlorination became the norm for treating surface waters destined for water utility customers. Through these efforts, waterborne diseases like typhoid fever and cholera were largely eliminated in the United States. Consistent with Hazen’s Theorem, substantial decreases in death rates were evident wherever water treatment plants had been built. In fact, the U.S. National Academy of Engineering identified watertreatment and distribution as the fourth most important engineering feat of thetwentieth century, after electrification, automobiles, and airplanes but aheadof electronics and the Internet.43 Filtration and disinfection revolutionized urban water.

过滤理相合的方法是用水在古罗马发明引水渠和下水道以来的第一次大革。使用用水理系代,我称之“水2.0”,它使得日益增的城市得安全的用水,否则这些水源的水是无法用的。水理技的巨大步是在19世90年代到20世40年代之取得的:在1890年,当马萨诸塞州的劳伦斯市击伤寒,首先向塞奇威克教授求帮助开始;到1940年,过滤化相合的理工门为户处理地表水的止。通过这些努力,在美国基本上消除了寒和霍乱等水媒疾病。正如海森定理所总结的,一个地区的死亡率的大幅下降,很明是由于在那里修建了水理厂。实际上,美国国家工程学院认为,水理与水分配技是20世纪继电气化、汽机之后的第四个最重要的工程壮,排在子和互网技之前[43]过滤和消毒技术彻底改了城市的水系

 


ps. I typed up the English myself, so errors are possible.


水4.0:用水的去、在与未来

[美]戴·塞德拉克 著

徐向荣 等    虞左俊 校

上海科学技出版社


出版时间:2015.08

ISBN:978-7-5478-2729-1

定价:38元


Water 4.0: The Past, Present, and Future of the World's Most Vital Resource

Paperback:March 31, 2015

by David Sedlak (Author)





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