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PUBMED医学文献数据库主题标引的原理与原则 (2)

已有 2593 次阅读 2013-7-16 16:08 |个人分类:知识组织|系统分类:科研笔记| 数据库, 医学, 主题

PUBMED医学文献数据库主题标引的原理与原则(1)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-280034-707407.html

Check tags特征词

Virtually every biomedical article will describe subjects of research (human or animal; mice or rats, etc). Clinical articles will describe treatment, diagnosis, etc of diseases in patients. These articles will almost always mention the number of patients, their gender and age. Experimental articles will almost always mention the species and gender of the animal. HUMAN and ANIMAL are the most widely used searching terms in PUBMED.实际上每篇生物医学文献都描述了实验对象(人类或动物;小鼠或大鼠等)。临床文献描述了病人疾病治疗方法、诊断方法等。这些文献几乎都会提到了病人的数量,性别和年龄。实验文献几乎都会提到动物的物种和性别。在PUBMED中人类和动物是最常用的检索术语。

These concepts which are mentioned in almost every article (human, animal, male, female, child, etc) are designated Check Tags. In the past, when MeSH indexers had to type MeSH terms, data forms were preprinted with these frequently occurring concepts, and indexers simply checked the appropriate box. 这些几乎在每篇文献中都提及的概念(人类、动物、男(雄)性、女(雌)性、儿童等)称为特征词。在过去,当MeSH标引员需要输入MeSH术语时,数据表格(标引单)已预先打印好了这些常用概念,并且标引员简单选择合适的格。

Check tags are routinely added to the indexing even if just mentioned in the article. The check tag concept does not need to be discussed. For example if an article only mentions that the subject of the study was a pregnant 35 year old, the indexer must check the tags PREGNANCY, HUMAN, FEMALE and ADULT. Check tag concepts may be found anywhere in the article - in the Materials and Methods section of the article, in tables, in the text associated with a figure, etc. 对于特征词,尽管在文献中仅是提及,也需要进行常规标引。特征词不需要被论述。例如,如果一篇文献只是提及研究对象是35岁的孕妇,标引员必须标引特征词妊娠PREGNANCY, 人类HUMAN,女性FEMALE and 成人ADULT。特征词可以从文献的任何位置找到,在材料及方法、表格、图注等。

Below is the list of Check Tags:以下为特征词的列表

A

Pregn

J

Cats

U

Animal

f

15th Cent

B

Inf New (to 1 mo)

K

Cattle

V

Human

g

16th Cent

C

Inf (1 to 23 mo)

L

Chick Embryo

W

Male

h

17th Cent

D

Child Pre (2-5)

M

Dogs

X

Female

i

18th Cent

E

Child (6-12)

O

Guinea Pigs

Y

* In Vitro (PT)

j

19th Cent

F

Adolesc (13-18)

P

Hamsters

b

* Comp Study (PT)

k

20th Cent

R

Young Adult (19-24)

Q

Mice

c

Ancient

o

21st Cent

G

Adult (19-44)

S

Rabbits

d

Medieval

 

 

H

Mid Age (45-64)

T

Rats

 

 

 

 

I

Aged (65-79)

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

Aged (80+)

 

 

 

 

 

 

* In Vitro and Comp Study are Publication Types (Category V). In the past, they were Check Tags, and it was decided to keep them in the Check Tags Table for the convenience of indexers. In this course, In Vitro and Comparative Study will be described in the Check tags section, and will be called check tags.体外研究和比较研究属于出版类型(Category V)。在过去,它们作为特征词,并且它们被保留在特征词表格中以方便标引人使用。在这个过程中,体外研究和比较研究作为特征词来描述,称之为特征词。

 

Pregnancy 妊娠

Both the main heading PREGNANCY and the check tag PREGNANCY are used for MAMMALS only!

主题词妊娠PREGNANCY及特征词妊娠PREGNANCY只用于哺乳动物

All articles mentioning a pregnancy must have the check tag PREGNANCY. The indexer must then check the tags HUMAN or ANIMAL and also FEMALE. The check tag PREGNANCY can not be selected without selecting the check tag FEMALE and the check tag HUMAN or ANIMAL.文献提及怀孕则必须标引特征词妊娠PREGNANCY。标引员须增加相应特征词人类HUMAN或动物ANIMAL,以及女(磁)性FEMALE。如果没有选择特征词女(雌)性FEMALE及人类HUMAN or 动物ANIMAL,则不能选择特征词妊娠PREGNANCY。

Pregnancy as IM heading vs. check tag Pregnancy  妊娠作为IM词与特征词妊娠
Pregnancy will be indexed IM when normal pregnancy is the main focus of the article. If pregnancy is not the main point of the article use the check tag PREGNANCY.当正常妊娠作为文献的主要论点时,妊娠标引为IM词。如果妊娠不是文献的主要论点而仅为提及,就标引特征词妊娠PREGNANCY

Pregnancy in developing countries. 发展中国家的妊娠

人类HUMAN (check tag)
女性
FEMALE (check tag)
*妊娠
PREGNANCY
*发展中国家DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Pre-eclampsia in Hispanic Americans.拉美裔美国人中的先兆子痫

HUMAN人类 (check tag)
FEMALE女性
(check tag)
PREGNANCY 妊娠
(check tag)
*PRE-ECLAMPSIA 先兆子痫

*HISPANIC AMERICANS 拉美裔美国人

Age 年龄

·The age group check tags refer only to humans. Do not use any of the age group check tags for animals. 年龄组特征词用于人类。不能用于动物。

·Indexers must check the tag HUMAN if any of the age check tags are checked.如果使用任一年龄特征词时,标引员需同时标引特征词HUMAN 人类

·Indexers must check the appropriate age group check tags even if the age group appears obvious. 标引员需要标引合适的年龄组特征词,即使年龄组很明显。
Example: if CHILD BEHAVIOR is indexed, the check tag CHILD or specific such as CHILD, PRESCHOOL and HUMAN must be checked.例:如果标引了儿童行为CHILD BEHAVIOR,特征词儿童CHILD或具体的特征词例如儿童,学龄前CHILD, PRESCHOOL以及人类HUMAN需要同时标引。

·Indexers must check all appropriate age group check tags if a range of ages appears in the article.如果在文献中提及一个年龄范围,标引员需要同时标引所有合适的年龄组特征词
Example: An article with subjects ranging in age 7 to 79 would have the check tags HUMAN, CHILD, ADOLESC, YOUNG ADULT, ADULT, MID AGE & AGED 例:一篇文献主题涉及7-79岁年龄段,那么需要标引特征词人类HUMAN, 儿童CHILD, 成年人ADOLESC, 青年人YOUNG ADULT, 成人ADULT,中年人 MID AGE 和& 老年人AGED

·An article with subjects ranging in age 19 to 24 would have the check tag YOUNG ADULT only. 一篇文献主题涉及19-24岁年龄段,那么仅需标引特征词青年人YOUNG ADULT

·An article with subjects ranging in age 25 to 44 would have the check tag ADULT only. 一篇文献主题涉及25-44岁年龄段,那么仅需标引特征词成年人ADULT

·An article with subjects ranging in age 19 to 44 would have the check tag YOUNG ADULT and ADULT. 一篇文献主题涉及19-44岁年龄段,那么需标引特征词青年人YOUNG ADULT和 and 成年人ADULT

·Never assume the age of a patient, if the age is not listed ignore the age tag.如果没有提及年龄,不可假定病人年龄,忽略年龄特征词。

If the article states

Use

Do not use

Infant

INF (1 to 23 mo)

INF NEW (to 1 mo) & INF (1 to 23 mo)

Child

CHILD (6-12)

CHILD PRE (2-5) & CHILD (6-12)

Adult

ADULT (19-44)

MID AGE (45-64) & ADULT (19-44)

 

Animal动物

·Any article discussing an animal must have the check tag ANIMAL. 任何讨论到动物的文献,必须标引特征词动物ANIMAL

·Index also the specific animal (rats, mice, etc) using the check tag (if available) or the main heading for the animal IM or NIM as needed.如有需要还要标引具体的动物(大鼠rats, 小鼠mice, etc)特征词,或需要将动物标引为IM词或NIM词。

·If an article describes the use of tissue from an animal, index with the check tag ANIMAL and the name of the animal (as a check tag or a main heading). 如果文献讨论到源于动物的组织的使用,标引特征词动物ANIMAL以及动物名称(作为特征词或主题词)

·Use the check tag ANIMAL even if the IM term is animal specific, such as "HOOF" or "UDDER" 即使IM词是某些动物专有的,例如"HOOF" or "UDDER",使用特征词动物ANIMAL

If an animal is:动物

Index using:标引规则

Example: 示例

Index the animal as:动物的标引

A veterinary entity兽医研究

The animal as an IM heading

Humoral immunity in sheep绵羊的体液免疫

SHEEP (IM) 动物ANIMAL (check tag特征词)

An experimental subject for which there is a check tag有特征词的实验研究

check tag Animal and specific animal check tag

Response of cultured hamster cells to x-ray培养的仓鼠细胞对X射线的应答反应

ANIMAL动物 (check tag特征词) check tag HAMSTER仓鼠

An experimental subject for which there is no check tag 无特征词的实验研究

check tag Animal and specific animal main heading

Action potential of Anura neuromuscular junction

无尾目动物神经肌肉连接的运动潜能

ANIMAL动物 check tag特征词 ANURA 无尾类(NIM)

An animal is the main point of an article such as a species in anatomy studies某种动物作为文献的主要论述点,例如解剖学研究中的物种

The animal as an IM heading and the animal check tag

Anatomy of cat joints

猫关节的解剖学研究

CATS (IM)
ANIMAL
动物特征词 check tag

 

HUMAN人类

Used for any article that involves a human being. 用于论述有关人类的文献

MALE and FEMALE男(雄)性和女(雌)性

Used for both humans and animals. Use the check tags denoting sex even when the concept is inherently male or female. For example articles with the term PROSTATE, must have the check tag MALE. 对于人类和动物humans and animals均可使用。当概念暗含男(雄)性或女(雌)性male or female时,用此特征词指示性别。例如文献中含有前列腺PROSTATE这个术语,必须增加特征词男(雄)性MALE

IN VITRO体外研究The check tag IN VITRO is used to distinguish studies, which are performed outside the body, from those that are performed within the body. This check tag is not used for studies that are inherently "in vitro", such as cultured cells, cultures of microorganisms, or studies of non-living materials. It is also not used for studies where the intervention was done in the body, but its effects were studied outside the body. 特征词体外研究IN VITRO用于区分研究类型,是体内实验还是体外实验。在那些暗含体外涵义的研究使用该特征词,例如培养的细胞、培养的微生物、非活体材料研究。也适用于已在体内介入后而在体外观察效果的研究。

Example: The effect of adenosine on rat hippocampal slices.例:观察腺苷作用于大鼠海马切片的效果
This study requires the check tag IN VITRO, because the entire study was done outside the intact body. 因为全部研究是在体外进行的,故此研究需标引特征词体外研究IN VITRO

On the other hand, if adenosine was administered to intact rats, which were then sacrificed, the hippocampus removed, and effects of adenosine were observed, then this study does not need the check tag IN VITRO. 另一方面,如果腺苷是先作用于大鼠,然后取出海马,再观察腺苷的作用效果,对于这个研究无需标引特征词体外研究IN VITRO。

 

Comparative Study 比较研究

Used with any article that is a comparison of two or more concepts. The term "comparative study" or the phrase "comparative effects" often appear in articles that require this check tag. All other check tags that apply to the article (MALE, FEMALE, ANIMAL, AGE, etc) should also be checked. 用于比较两个及以上概念的文献。术语"比较研究comparative study"或词组"比较影响comparative effects"常出现于文献中,此时,需要标引该特征词。文献中其它合适的各个特征词(男(雄)性MALE, 女(雌)性FEMALE, ANIMAL, 年龄AGE, 等etc)也需标引。

Chronological tags

年代顺序特征词

Used in conjunction with the publication types HISTORICAL ARTICLE or BIOGRAPHY. 用于出版类型历史文献HISTORICAL ARTICLE or 或传记BIOGRAPHY文献。

If the material covers a time period such as 15th century through 20th century, check each time period tag covered. 如果资料料连续一段时间,例如15世纪到20世纪多个特征词来覆盖整个时间段。

Centuries begin on Jan 1 of the first year of the new century, for example Jan 1 2001 begins the 21st century. 新世纪开始于100年的第一年的1月1日例如2001年1月1日为21世纪的开始。

c

Ancient

d

Medieval

f

15th Cent

g

16th Cent

h

17th Cent

i

18th Cent

j

19th Cent

k

20th Cent

o

21st Cent

 

(待续)



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