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授权发表--HLmodelof the universe: a SMBDM-centrichypothesi

已有 2689 次阅读 2014-5-2 06:45 |系统分类:论文交流|关键词:HLmodelof| HLmodelof

  HLmodelof the universe: a SMBDM-centrichypothesis






A new cosmological model is proposed based on the study of modern scientific data and a pair of ancient diagrams. The new model shows:


A super-massive ball of dark matter (SMBDM)is atthe center of the universe, with spherical layer of galaxies (SLG)surrounding it. SMBDM is in growth. Between SMBDM and SLG iscold anddark intermediate zone(CDIZ). Within CDIZ, there isnon-luminous intergalactic gas, some types of dark matter, substancespeeledoff from the edge of galaxies,etc.


When dark matters in CDIZ are attracted by the gravitationalforce of SMBDM, aggregating towards the center region of the universe,compressing non-luminous intergalactic gas, would generatecosmic non-luminous winds (NLW). Besides,consistentgrowth of SMBDM squeezing non-luminous intergalactic gas strengthens NLW. NLW blow SLG,contributing to dark energy, which accelerates expansion of theuniverse.


For the generation of theuniverse, t=0s, Big Bang perhaps was the explosion of genesis-black-hole;Cosmic Inflation maybe was the explosion of genesis-SMBDM, with bothof them perhaps coming from the end stage of previous generation of theuniverse.


Cyclical evolution means entropyis cyclical. This means there may be a relationship between dark matter and coldcondensates. In other words, some dark matter may be formed by coldcondensates.


A simple expression of the HLmodel isdesigned that can briefly express how the universe works, focusingon evolution and the relationships of black holes, stars, and SMBDM.


This model and itsexpressionprovidehelp for understanding the cosmic evolution ona macroscopicperspective.




It has remainedunclear for the basic structure of the universe, as we know now that both Earthand Sun are not the center of the universe. Here the author (Song-Ci) representsa new cosmological model which proposes that a super-massive ball composed bydark matter is the center of the universe, with all galaxies surrounding it.


This model isbased on the studying and analyzing a pair of famous mysterious diagrams: Hsand Ls, as shown below:

Fig.1 (Hs)


Diagram Hs is wellknown as “the evolution model of Heaven” (written in Chinese in Fig.1). But howthese structures represent Heaven’s evolution, which can be explained in physicalreality as black holes, dark matter, dark energy,etc.,has remained unclear.


We can see on diagramHs that odd numerals “1, 3, 5, 7, 9” are represented by “little-white-circles;”while even numerals “2, 4, 6, 8, 10” are represented by “little-black-dots.”


Numeral “5” isarranged in “+” (cross) shape at the center, numeral “10” is arranged in theshape of “□” (square), and both of them form an approximate shape of “?”. Outsideof “?” are numeral chains “1-2-3-4” and “6-7-8-9.”


The wholeevolution shown by diagram Hs seems like or is proposed as: “?-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9.”

 (Followingthe trace of the numerals’ evolutionary process in diagram Hs, pay attention tothe behavior of numeral “5”; it falls into the center, but other numerals are not.)


Numeral “5” hastwo representations in diagram Hs:

1.      As the shape of “+” (cross).

2.      As the “numeral” which is at the position between “1-2-3-4” and “6-7-8-9.”


The second ancientdiagram is Ls:

Fig.2 (Ls)


Diagram Ls is wellknown as “the evolution model of Earth” (written in Chinese in Fig.2). But still,how these structures represent Earth’s evolution, in a way that can be explainedthrough modern scientific understanding, has remained unclear.


We can see on diagramLs that the even numeral chain “2-4-6-8” is growing, while the odd numeralchain “9-7-3-1” is decreasing. There is a “counter-relation” between evennumerals and odd numerals.


The whole evolutionaryprocess shown by diagram Hs and diagram Ls together seems like:

1.      From Hs to Ls: “?-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9,” then “9-7-3-1.”

2.      From Ls to Hs: “2-4-6-8-10.”

3.      Then, with “10 circling 5”, forming “?”, the evolution goes into thenext circle.

In this way,diagram Hs and diagram Ls together show a cyclical evolution of “Heaven andEarth.” But beyond these numbers, under the numerals’ surface, the deep meaningor physical reality has remained unclear.


Now shift ourinvestigation from ancient diagrams to modern scientific data from “Planck,” asshown below:

Fig.3 (Planck)

(ESA and the Planck Collaboration 2013)


We know that theword “Heaven” is the old name of “Universe.” This means that the evolution of “Heaven”is parallel to the evolution of “Universe.” So the evolution shown by diagramHs (“Heaven”) is parallel to the evolution showed by diagram Planck (“Universe”).Therefore, the evolution process “?-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9” (shown in diagram Hs) isparallel to “Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, particles form …” (shown in diagramPlanck). So we can use “?-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9” to briefly represent the evolutionof the universe.


Now modify diagramHs, as shown below:

Fig.4 (Hr)

(Modifying the square shapeHs to the round shape Hr)


Then narrowing diagramPlanck to little size Planck:

Fig.5 (little size Planck)


Then rotating andmodifying “little size Planck” get Fig.6:


(InFig.6, from the center to the outer ring are the epochs of Big Bang, CosmicInflation, Particles Form, Recombination, Dark Ages, First Stars and Galaxies,Galaxy Evolution, and Today, as shown in diagram Planck)

(Fig.6shows that the evolution and overall shape of the universe is spherical)


Comparing diagramHr and diagram round-Planck, we can see:

1.      “?” (at the center of Hr) is corresponding to “Big Bang and CosmicInflation” (in round-Planck).

2.      Numeral “5” (in Hr) is corresponding to the epoch of Dark Ages. Numeral“5” falls into the center (as aforementioned) just as “ordinary matterparticles fall into the structures created by dark matter” (hinted at in diagramround-Planck or indicated in diagram Planck).

3.      Numeral chain “1-2-3-4” is corresponding to epochs of “before DarkAges.”

4.      Numeral chain “6-7-8-9” is corresponding to epochs of “after DarkAges.”

5.      Numeral “9” represents the maximum dimension the universe can expandin the future.

Thus, thecorresponding relations between diagram Hr and diagram round-Planck (or diagramPlanck) are established. Both diagram Hr and diagram round-Planck show that thebasic structure of the universe is spherical and expanding.


Now look back at thediagram Ls, which is coupled to Hs. In diagram Ls, odd numeral “9, 7, 3, 1” isrepresented by little-white-circle. “Circle” means “sun or star” in the ancientChinese bronze character. [1] Sothe odd numeral chain “9-7-3-1” represents the decreasing number of stars.


Corresponding to theodd numeral chain “9-7-3-1,” which is shown decreasing, the even numeral “2-4-6-8”is shown growing. It seems like even numerals “are eating” odd numerals. If oddnumerals represent stars; then the even numerals should represent black holes.[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] In other words, theeven numeral chain “2-4-6-8” represents the growth of black holes (BHs).


For more clarity, modifyingdiagram Ls is seen as below:


HL model 20140428.doc

Fig.7 (Lr)

(Transforming the square shapeLs to the round Lr)


In diagram Lr, theodd numerals “9, 7, 3, 1” represent stars and even numerals “2, 4, 6, 8” representBHs. They together represent galaxies or spherical layer of galaxies (SLG). So,diagram Lr shows that SLG is surrounding “central-numeral-5.”


What does “central-numeral-5”stands for? To find the answer, we need further data as shown below:

Fig.8 (Hrs)

(Written in Chinese inFig.8 (on the left): The Ancient Diagram Hrs. Numerals 1 and 6 represent water;2 and 7 represent fire; 3 and 8 represent wood; 4 and 9 represent gold; 5 and 10represent soil. (On the right): Printed in the year of “ren-zi” (i.e. the yearof 1912); The Explanation of Ancient He-tu and Luo-shu (i.e. diagram Hrs, Hs andLs); printing master plate reserved by Song-yun bookstore)


From diagram Hrs,we know numeral “5” represents “Soil.” This means that “central-numeral-5” indiagram Lr represents “Central-Soil.”


According to Newton’slaw of mechanics, this “Central-Soil” should be super-massive, since the whole SLGsurrounds it, and it should be in a shape of a sphere because of the gravitationalequilibrium effect. This means that diagram Lr shows that a “super-massive ballof soil” is at the center of the universe, with SLG surrounding it.


For more clarity,put the “super-massive ball of soil” in diagram Lr, as shown below:

Fig.9 (Lw)


In Fig.9, the“central-blue-ball” represents the “super-massive ball of soil.”


The next questionis: what is the meaning of the “super-massive ball of soil?”

To find theanswer, we need further data from WMAP 2003 and Planck 2013, as shown below:


Fig.10 Cosmic compositions (WMAP 2003)

Fig.11 Cosmic compositions (ESA and Planckcollaboration 2013)


The corroborateddata shown by Fig.10 and Fig.11 tell us that the total amount of “cold darkmatter” (or “dark matter”) [7] [8] isabout five times that of normal substances (including all galaxies or SLG). So,we can propose that the “super-massive ball of soil” was formed by “cold darkmatter” (or “dark matter”), since it can meet the huge gravitationalrequirements for super-massive mass, as all galaxies surround it.

 (This doesnot mean that all dark matters are at super-massive-ball. Some dark matters arein the “CDIZ” (cold and dark intermediate zone). This soon will be discussed)


So, diagram Lwshows that a super-massive ball of dark matter (SMBDM) is at the center of theuniverse, with SLG surrounding it.


As “central-numeral-5”represents “Central-Soil” or SMBDM, which is represented by the “central-blue-ball”in diagram Lw, we can do the same in diagram Hr, and get diagram Hw, as shown below:

Fig.12 (Hw)


The evolution shown by diagram Hw still is “?-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9.”


As aforementioned, the evolution of “Heaven and Earth”is cyclical, which means that the evolution of theuniverse is cyclical.The cyclical evolution is shown below:



Fig.13 (Hw-Lw-?-Hw)


In Fig.13, from left toright, the evolution is:

1.     Hw represents the first halfevolution of the universe: it briefly shows the expansion of the universe.Numeral “9” in Hw represents the maximum dimension the universe can expand.

2.     Lw represents the second halfevolution of the universe; it briefly shows the decline of the universe. The“decline” means “contraction,” and “contraction” means that dark energy willdiminish in the future and will vanish eventually.

3.     At the end stage of the universe,only two celestial bodies will be left, i.e. BHs and SMBDM. Theybecome mature.

4.     Matured BHs and matured SMBDM willbump together, as shown by “?”.

5.     The bumping may trigger theexplosions of both of them. The explosion of matured BH (or genesis-BH) wouldbe the next Big Bang, and the explosion of matured SMBDM (or genesis-SMBDM)would be the next Cosmic Inflation.

6.     The same scenario may have happenedat the beginning of our present universe when t=0s. This means that Big Bangand Cosmic Inflation might come from the collision of genesis-BHs and genesis-SMBDMwhich came from the end stage of the previous generation of the universe.


Cyclical cosmic evolutionmeans that entropy is cyclical. The law of thermodynamics indicates that theentropy is normally increasing (S>0). This means that at the beginning of the universe, the entropyshould be the minimum (S=Sm), or close to zero (Sm≈0). Correspondingly,there should exist a special process in which the maximum entropy is normallydecreasing (S<0), until it reaches the minimum or close to zero, as entropy iscyclical.


So the proposal is:

1.     The entropy of matured SMBDM and theentropy of matured BHs should be at the minimum or close to zero, especially thematured SMBDM, since it was the biggest mass body in the universe before Big Bang.

2.     This means that entropy of “darkmatter” (or parts of dark matters) should be the minimum or close to zero.

3.     The dark matter (or parts of “darkmatter,” or “cold dark matter”) with “the minimum entropy” or “close to zero entropy”should be “cold matter of condensates,”and as our presentation acknowledges, such cold condensates may come from frozen bosons and fermions, [9] [10] [11][12] [13] [14] or non-luminous intergalactic gas, substances peeled off from the edge ofgalaxies, [15] etc.

The above proposals providea framework for discussion.




After the Big Bang andCosmic Inflation, with the expansion of the universe, temperature at the center regionof the universe kept dropping until it was very close to absolute zero, causingparticles (bosons and fermions), intergalactic gas, etc. to freeze to condensates. Theeffect of gravitational equilibrium would result in them adopting a sphericalshape. Hence, it is likely that a ball comprising cold condensates or dark matter occupied the ultra-cold central region of the universe.


Continuous and accelerated expansion of the universeresulted in the outward expansion of the ultra-cold central region and acceleratedthe formation of cold condensates or dark matter. Consequently, the ballof dark matter grew rapidly in size. It grewbigger andbigger, it became super massive.


So, the basic structure ofthe universe seems like this: A super massive ball of dark matter (SMBDM) is at the center of the universe, with spherical layer of galaxies (SLG) surrounding it. Between SMBDM and SLG, is “cold and dark intermediate zone”(CDIZ). Within CDIZ, the regions with extremely low temperature may exhibitheterogeneity. This characteristic may facilitate the formation or structuringof dark matter in marshy, clumpy, strand-likeand other shapes. Some of them areas shown below:


Fig.14Dark matter in marshy and clumpy forms(NASA-ESA-JPL-Caltech)


Additionally, there areenormous amounts of non-luminous intergalactic gas in the universe, as shown below:


Fig.15Cosmic compositions (NASA-WMAP2003)


The amount of non-luminous intergalactic gas is 3.6%, while the amount of stars and luminous gas is only0.4%. Imaginemultitudes of dark matter like that shown in Fig.14 beingpulled by the strong gravitational force of the SMBDM and congregating towardsthe central region of the universe. The non-luminousintergalacticgas would be compressed and would generate cosmic non-luminous winds (NLW).


Besides, continuous growthof SMBDM would squeeze the non-luminous intergalactic gas outwardand strengthen NLW. NLW blow SLG and may contribute to darkenergy, [16] [17] which accelerate the expansion of the universe.


Continuousexpansion of the universe resulted in lower and lower temperature, resultingin more andmore non-luminous intergalactic gas became cold condensatesor dark matter. On the other hand, when NLW blow SLG, some non-luminous intergalactic gas would beabsorbed by galaxies or SLG, and wouldbecome luminous gas, and then become new stars, newgalaxies. Overall, the non-luminous intergalactic gas would be gradually consumed and eventually exhausted.This hints that afterhaving reached the maximum dimension, the universe will enter intodecline.


How long the universe wouldtake to reach the maximum dimension remains unclear. But we can guessthat at that time the distances among galaxies would be very large, and itwould be difficult for galaxies to collide. When all non-luminous intergalactic gas and luminous gas exhaust, there will be no more new stars or new galaxiesproduced. When all the old stars die, the galaxies will die, and the universewill become dark. It will be a dark world.


In the dark, some celestialbodies near BHs will be eaten; some other substances at edge of galaxies willpeel off and aggregate to the central region of the universe by thegravitational force of SMBDM. Toward the end stage of theuniverse, there should be only two types of celestial bodies left, BHs and SMBDM. They will become mature. Matured SMBDM will beat the center, with countless matured BHs far away at the edge of a darkheaven.


Diagrams drawn to show thisscenario of evolutionary process are below:



Fig.16 (a)    Fig.16 (b)   Fig.16 (c)   Fig.16 (d)    Fig.16 (e)


In Fig.16 (a-b-c-d-e), the growth of a “central-blue-ball”represents the growth of SMBDM. The even numeralchain “2-4-6-8-10” (littleblack dots) represents the growth of BHs. The odd numeral chain “9-7-3-1-0”(little white circle) representsthe decline of stars. The matured BHs and matured SMBDM is shown in Fig.16 (e).


At the end stage of theuniverse, without non-luminous intergalactic gas, without NLW, and withoutdark energy, gravitational force will eventually lead matured BHs back to thecentral region of the universe, where they will bump together with matured SMBDM, as shown below:

Fig.17 (?)


In Fig.17 (?), numeral “10”represents the matured BHs, while “central-blue-ball” represents the matured SMBDM.The scenario of “bumping-together” is shown by the structure of the “10circling central-blue-ball” (or “10 circling 5”).


Fig.17 also may show whathappened before the Big Bang, because the cosmic evolution is cyclical. So, theproposals are:

1.     The Big Bang (at t=0s) would bethe explosion of genesis-BH, which came from matured BHs at the end stage of theprevious generation of the universe.

2.     Cosmic Inflation (at t=10-30s)would be the explosion of genesis-SMBDM, which came from matured SMBDM atthe end stage of the previous generation of the universe.


Genesis-SMBDM was the biggest body in the universe. It had a huge super-massive mass andthe strongest gravitational force in theuniverse. The gigantic explosion of genesis-SMBDM would generate gigantic gravitationalimpulse. Although it occurred 13.82billion years ago,its relic may be still captured by BICEP2, as shown below:

Fig.18 (the signal of inflationary gravitational waves in theB-mode power spectrum around l=80) (by BICEP2 Collaboration)[18]

(Here “inflationary” corresponds to “cosmic inflation” as shown in diagram Planck)


Based on the abovediscussion,a simple expression is designed, as shown below:

H= ?





ΩΩm →Ωgn

XXm Xgn



Ωg +Xg =?



“H” represents diagram H (Hw, orHr, or Hs).

“L” representsdiagramL (Lw, or Lr, or Ls).

?” represents the fetus or initial or beginning of the universe.

“→” represents evolution.

represents the first half evolution of the universe, as represented by“1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9” in diagram H.

“Ω” represents BHs.

” representsstars.

“X” representsSMBDM which is at center of the universe.

“?n” represents the fetusor initial or beginning of the next generation of the universe.


0”representsdeclineof stars,corresponding to the evolution of the odd numeral chain “9-7-3-1-0.

Ω+X→?n” represents that both BHs and SMBDMwill produce thefetus or initial or beginning of the next generation of the universe.


“Ωmrepresentsmatured BHs.

“Xm”represents matured SMBDM.

“Ωgnrepresents genesis-BHs of the next generation of the universe.

“Xgnrepresents genesis-SMBDM of the next generation of the universe.


ΩΩm→Ωgn” represents that BHsare growing, correspondingto the evolution of the even numeral chain “2-4-6-8-10.

XXmXg” represents that SMBDMis growing, corresponding to the evolution of “central-blue-ball” or “central-numeral-5” in diagramL.

Ωgn +Xgn =?n” represents that next genesis-BHs and next genesis-SMBDM will produce a next fetus or begin a new generation of theuniverse, in other words, triggering the next Big Bang and nextCosmic Inflation.

Ωg +Xg =?” explainthe beginning of our present universe.


The discussion about thecreation of the universe leads us to look back to Einstein-Rosen Bridge whichis well known as a wormhole, as shown below:

Fig.19 (Einstein-Rosen Bridge or Wormhole) (drawn by S.W. Hawking)


Comparing Fig.13 (Hw-Lw-?-Hw)and Fig.19 (Wormhole), we can see that Einstein—Rosen Bridge is a “cosmic womb”where cosmic-fetus (?) is generating. The Einstein—Rosen Bridge (or wormhole) should beformed by BHs and SMBDM.


Now looking back at Fig.2 (Ls), it wasnamed as “theevolution diagram of Earth.” Here, the “Earth,as weknow now, is not the Earth welive on, butthe “super-massive ball of soil” that is at center of the universe.In other words, there are two “Earths” in the universe;the one we are living on is small; the other is very big, andit is SMBDM.


For SMBDM, the Planck satelliteprobably has capturedthe edge of it, as shown below:


Fig.20Planck’s anomalous sky: hemispheric asymmetry and the cold spot incosmic microwave background(ESA andPlanck Collaboration 2013)


The contrasting images on the two sides of the whitecurved line in Fig.20 may be a result of the gravitational leasingeffectof the edge of the SMBDM (within the visual field).


In addition, the cold spot at the southern sky(bounded by a white oval at the bottom right) may be the location of theultra-cold region, where dark mattermaybe produced under thesurface.




The cosmic cyclical evolution may besimilar to human blood circulation:

1.     SMBDM is at the center of the universe,like a huge heart.

2.     Black holes are like the sinoatrialnode, which generates impulse andresults in the beating of the heart.

3.     Theexplosion of genesis-BH (or Big Bang) is like an impulse.

4.     The huge explosion of genesis-SMBDM (or Cosmic Inflation) is like the huge beating of the heart.

5.     The substances expanding outward are likearterial blood (in this process, entropy is increasing S>0).

6.     The substancespeeling off from the edge of galaxies (or SLG) and gathering toward the center ofthe universe are like venous blood (in this process, entropyis decreasing S<0. When these substances eventually become coldcondensate, the entropy reaches the minimum Sm≈0).


The cyclicalevolution of the universe thus seems like a huge circulatory blood system. Inthis huge system, substances are cyclical; entropy is cyclical. Cyclicalevolutions may not mean that the universe is a huge perpetual motion machine. Theremay be additional dimensions beyond four dimensions (or space-time) in theuniverse to present some limitations.


Cyclical evolutionhints that there may exist cosmic genetics in the universe. Cosmic genetics (or cosmic DNA) may be held in both BHs and SMBDM and will transferto the nextgeneration of the universe.


Such as mass, inertia, gravitation, etc.may be cosmic genetic factors, as we know now that theBig Bang did not come from “0” or “nothing.” In other words, mass, inertia, gravitation, etc. did not come from “0”, but from the previous generation of theuniverse. The cosmic evolution is “?-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9”, not “0-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9”.


Mathematics use “0” replaces“?”, tocalculate the beginningof the universe. “0” cuts cosmic genetics, cuts cosmic DNA,and cuts everythingbetween generations. When people use mathematics to explain the evolution ofthe universe, an imaginary number i= (root of -1) is not avoidable. The insolubleroot of-1seemsto be amathematical tracing to the history of the universe before the BigBang.


It may be necessary totrace, to propose the history of the universe, in order to understand the cosmic genetics. Suppose:

Before the Big Bang, theprevious generation was t= i.

Then prior to the previousgeneration, it was the generation of t= 2i.


At the “very-beginning”,the “initial-generation” was t= ∞i.


Now, try to make a proposalsequence as below:

t= ∞i, “0” or “nothing” (the“initial-generation”).

t= ∞i+1, a pair of virtualphotons (quantum fluctuation’s generation of the universe).

t= ∞i+2, many photons,gluons (quantum fluctuation’s generation of the universe).

t= ∞i+3, particles withmass (Higgs mechanism’s generation of the universe).

t= ∞i+4, many particles(Einstein’s generation of the universe).


t= i, BHs, SMBDM, galaxies(the previous generation of the universe, Newtonian mechanics’ universe).

t=0, “?-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9”(our present universe, Newtonian mechanics’ universe).


The fetus or beginning ofour present universe (?) is the integral of all events from t= ∞i to t=0s, or:

?= eπi +1 (rewriting Euler's formula, using “?” replace “0”)





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