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译文:TIME《时代周刊》 Is Hypnosis Real?催眠是真的吗?看看科学研究怎么说

已有 1441 次阅读 2020-9-14 20:14 |个人分类:译文|系统分类:海外观察

译文《时代周刊》TIME  Is Hypnosis Real? Here's What Science Says

催眠是真的吗?看看科学研究怎么说

原文地址https://time.com/5380312/is-hypnosis-real-science/

 

 

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Getty Images

作者:MARKHAM HEID

UPDATED: SEPTEMBER 4, 2018 11:51 AM ET |ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED: AUGUST 29, 2018 1:44 PM EDT

原文发表时间:东部时间2018829日下午144;更新201894日上午1155,美国东部时间.

译者: 康华岳,PS:译文仅作学习之用,版权归属原作者和机构。

Look into my eyes. The phrase calls to mind images of a psychotherapist swinging a pocket watch. Or maybe you picture Catherine Keener in the film Get Out, tapping her teacup and sending an unwilling man into a state of hypnotic limbo.

 

看着我的眼睛。这个习惯说法让人想起心理治疗师摆动一枚怀表的画面。或许你想到《逃出绝命镇》(Get Out)里Catherine Keener轻轻敲响她的茶杯并把一个她讨厌的人送入催眠状态中的遗忘边缘的画面。

 

There are many myths about hypnosis, mostly coming from media presentations,like fictional films and novels, says Irving Kirsch, a lecturer and director of the Program in Placebo Studies at Harvard Medical School. But setting aside pop culture clichés, Kirsch says hypnosis is a well-studied and legitimate form of adjunct treatment for conditions ranging from obesity and pain after surgery to anxiety and stress.

“有许多关于催眠的迷思,绝大多数都来自媒体表演,”像虚构的电影和小说里那样, 来自哈佛大学医学院的讲师,以及安慰剂研究项目的主任Irving Kirsch说。但是,把这些流行文化和陈词滥调放在一边,Krisch 说催眠是一项被很好地研究的,并且是对从肥胖症到术后疼痛,以及焦虑和压力的,正规的辅助治疗形式。

 

In terms of weight loss, some of Kirschs research https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/1995-26166-001 has found that, compared to people undergoing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)one of the most evidence-backed non-drug treatments for weight loss, depression and many other conditionsthose who undergo cognitive behavior therapy coupled with hypnosis tend to lose significantly more weight. After four to six months, those undergoing CBT+hypnosis dropped more than 20 pounds, while those who just did CBT lost about half that amount. The hypnosis group also maintained that weight loss during an 18-month follow-up period, while the CBT-only group tended to regain some weight.

 

对减肥而言,Krisch的一些研究https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/1995-26166-001已经发现,与进行认知行为疗法(CBT)的人对比,最有证据支持的,对减肥、抑郁症和很多其他情况的非药物治疗方法之一,就是,那些进行认知行为疗法加催眠辅助的人倾向于更显著地减轻体重。6个月治疗之后,进行认知疗法加催眠辅助的人,减轻了20多磅(注:1磅约等于453克,20磅约9kg,就是18斤),而那些仅仅进行认知疗法治疗的人体重仅减少这个重量的一半。催眠组还在治疗后跟进的18个月里保持了这一减肥结果,而仅进行认知疗法的组倾向于重新增加一些体重。

 

 

Apart from aiding weight loss, there is substantial research evidencethat hypnosis can effectively reduce physical pain, says Len Milling, a clinical psychologist and professor of psychology at the University of Hartford.

除了辅助减肥,还有“大量研究证据”表明,催眠可以有效地减少身体疼痛,来自哈佛大学的一位临床心理学家和心理学教授Len Milling说。

 

 

One of Millings review articles found that hypnosis could help reduce kidspost-surgical pain or pain related to other medical procedures. Another of his review articles found that when it comes to labor and delivery-related pain, hypnosis can in some cases significantly add to the benefits of standard medical careincluding epidurals and drugs.

Milling的一项评论文章https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10865-009-9207-6发现,催眠可以帮助减轻儿童的术后疼痛或者其他医学步骤引起的疼痛。他的另一项评论文章https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272735811001000发现,对于分娩疼痛和与分娩相关的疼痛,催眠在一些案例中可以显著地增加标准医学护理的益处——包括硬膜外麻醉和药物。

 

 

It is very helpful for smoking cessation,adds Dr. David Spiegel, a hypnosis expert and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University School of Medicine. Half the people I see once stop [smoking], half of them wont touch a cigarette for two years. A 2007 randomized trial of 286 smokers found that 20% of people who received hypnosis managed to quit, compared to 14% of those receiving standard behavioral counseling. The smoking cessation benefits were even more pronounced among smokers with a history of depressionhinting at an additional potential benefit of hypnosis.

“它对于戒烟很有帮助”,斯坦福大学医学院的催眠专家以及精神和行为科学教授Dr. David Spiegel补充说。“我看过的人,有一半立马就停止吸烟了,这些人在2年之内不碰香烟。2007年,一项286名吸烟者的随机实验发现https://academic.oup.com/ntr/article-abstract/10/5/811/1074110,接受催眠的人中的20%做到了戒烟,对比于接受标准行为咨询的人的14%。对于有抑郁症史的吸烟者而言,戒烟效果更为显著——这暗示催眠还有其他的潜在好处。

 

 

Hypnosis can also be very helpfulin treating stress, anxiety and PTSD, Spiegel says. Research has found hypnosis can even alter a persons immune function in ways that offset stress and reduce susceptibility to viral infections.

催眠对于治疗压力、焦虑和创伤后压力紊乱(PTSD)也可以是“很有帮助的”,Spiegel说。研究https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10253890290027877发现,催眠甚至可以改变一个人的免疫功能,以使得人们可以抵抗压力并且减少对病毒的易感染状态。

 

But what exactly does hypnosis entail, and how does it provide these benefits? Thats where things get a little murky. If you asked 10 hypnosis experts how hypnosis works, you would probably get 10 different explanations,Milling says.

 

但是,催眠到底涉及什么,以及它是如何提供这些效果的?这就是事情变得有点朦胧的地方了。“如果你问10位催眠专家,催眠是如何起作用的,你很可能得到10种不同的解释,Milling说。

 

Almost everyone in the field agrees that the practice of hypnosis involves two stages, which are usually referred to as inductionand suggestion.

几乎所有这个领域内的人都同意催眠的实际使用涉及2个阶段,这通常被称为“诱发”和“暗示”。

 

 

During the induction, the subject is typically told to relax, focus his or her attention, and that he or she is going into hypnosis,Milling says. This stage could last anywhere from a few seconds to 10 minutes or longer, and the goal of induction is to quiet the mind and focus its attention on the therapist or counselors voice and guidance.

 

“在诱发阶段,催眠对象经常被告诉要放松,集中其注意力,并且该对象就要催眠状态,”Milling说。这个阶段https://journals.lww.com/pain/Citation/2009/12050/Hypnosis_for_chronic_pain_management__A_new_hope.6.aspx可以从几秒钟到10分钟甚至更长的时间的任何时间长度,诱发的目的是为了让被催眠对象的心灵平静下来,并集中注意力在治疗师或指导老师的声音和指引上。

 

The suggestionphase involves talking the hypnotized person through hypothetical events and scenarios intended to help him or her address or counteract unhelpful behaviors and emotions. Patients are invited to experience imaginary events as if they were real, Milling says. The type of suggestions used depend on the patient and his or her unique challenges.

“暗示”阶段涉及通过和被催眠对象谈论假设性的事件和情景,以期帮助其解决或抵消无益的行为或者情绪。病人被邀请来体验想象的事件,好像这些想象的事件就是真的那样,Milling说。采用的这类暗示的种类取决于病人和其面临的独特的挑战。

 

In some ways, hypnosis can be compared to guided meditation or mindfulness; the idea is to set aside normal judgments and sensory reactions, and to enter a deeper state of concentration and receptiveness. Both Milling and Spiegel compare hypnosis to losing oneself in a book or moviethose times when the outside world fades away and a persons mind is completely absorbed in what shes reading or watching. Research has also referred to hypnosis as the temporary obliterationof the ego.

 

在某些方法上,催眠可以和有指引的冥想或正念思维对比,其思路是,把平常的是非判断和感官反应放到一边,并进入一种更深刻的集中注意的状态和善于接受的状态。MillingSpiegel都把催眠和人们在读书或看电影时候的忘我状态进行了对比——这些时候外在世界消退,一个人的心灵完全被其正在读的或正在看的东西所吸引。研究https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/ajp.100.5.611也指出,催眠就是短暂地“消失”了自我。

 

 

While most people fear losing control in hypnosis, it is in fact a means of enhancing mind-body control,Spiegel says. Instead of allowing pain, anxiety or other unhelpful states to run the show, hypnosis helps people to exert more control over their thoughts and perceptions.

 

“虽然绝大多数的人都害怕在催眠中失去对自我的控制,但事实上它是一种强化身心控制的方法”,Spiegel说。催眠不是允许疼痛、焦虑或其他无益的状态控制心绪,而是帮助人们对自己的思想和知觉施加更多的控制。

 

How does hypnosis do this? Spiegels research has shown it can act on multiple brain regions, including some linked to pain perception and regulation. Hypnosis has also been found to quiet parts of the brain involved in sensory processing and emotional response.

催眠是如何做到这些的呢?Spiegel的研究已经表明https://time.com/4426856/hypnosis-hypnotism-brain/,它可以在多个大脑区域产生作用,这包括那些与疼痛感受和调节有关的大脑区域https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaneurology/article-abstract/2694715?utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=JAMA_Neurol_TrendMD_1

人们也发现http://empresa.rediris.es/pub/bscw.cgi/d4446993/Jensen-Hypnosis_chronic_pain_management.pdf,催眠可以把大脑中涉及知觉处理和情绪反应的区域安静下来。

 

However, theres a lot of controversy over how hypnosis works, Milling says. Originally, Freud theorized that hypnosis weakens the barrier between the conscious and subconscious,he says, adding that this theory has largely been abandoned. While some attribute the power of hypnosis to the placebo effect, another theory is that hypnosis causes people to enter an altered state of consciousness, which makes them very responsive to hypnotic suggestions,he says. While talk about altered states of consciousnesssounds a little spooky, theres no loss of consciousness or amnesia.

Milling说,然而对催眠的运行机制是什么,还有很多争论。他说,“最开始,弗洛伊德的理论是,催眠弱化了意识和潜意识的界限,”并提到,这个理论很大程度上已经被抛弃了。然而,一些人把催眠的力量归咎于安慰剂效应https://time.com/5375724/placebo-bill-health-problems/,另一个理论是,“催眠可以导致人们进入转变的意识状态,这使得人们对催眠暗示更具有反应,”他说。说到“转变的意识状态”的时候听起来有点吓人,但这并没有意识丢失或记忆缺失。

 

Not everyone benefits equally from hypnosis. Milling says that about 20% of people show a largeresponse to it, while the same percentage of people dont respond much at all. The remaining 50% to 60% of people land somewhere in between. Children tend to be more hypnotizable,Spiegel says.

 

并不是所有人都可以从催眠中获得同等的益处。Milling说,大约有20%的人表现出对催眠有“更大”的反应,而同样比例的人对它完全没有什么反应。剩下的50%60%的人的反应在两者之间。“儿童倾向于更容易被催眠,”Spiegel说。

 

But even people who score low on measures of hypnotic suggestibility can still benefit from it, Kirsch adds. He also says its important to view hypnosis as a supplement to other forms of therapysomething to be tried only in conjunction with CBT, psychotherapy or other types of treatment.

但是即使是那些低催眠暗示性的人也仍然可以从中受益,Kirsch提到。他还说,重要的一点是,要把催眠看作是一种对其他治疗形式的补充,某种仅仅和认知行为疗法、心理疗法或其他种类的治疗方法联合起来使用的东西。

 

Milling reiterates this point. He compares practitioners who are trained only in hypnosis to carpenters who only know how to use one tool. To be an effective carpenter, it takes more than knowing how to use a saw,he says. Seek help from licensed psychologists, licensed psychiatrists and licensed clinical social workers who are trained in hypnosis as well as a range of other psychotherapeutic techniques.(A benefit of seeing a licensed clinician, as opposed to someone who only practices hypnosis, is that the treatment is more likely to be covered by insurance.)

Milling重申了这一点。他把那些仅仅接受催眠训练的从业者比作只知道如何使用一种工具的木匠。“要成为一个真正有作用的木匠,要比仅知道如何使用一把锯需要的更多,”他说。“寻求那些既接受了催眠训练,又接受了一系列其他心理治疗技巧的有执照的心理医师,有执照的精神治疗师,以及有执照的临床社会工作者们的帮助。”(去看一位有执照的临床医师,相比于,去看一名仅仅进行催眠的人的一个好处是,治疗更可能被医疗保险包括在内。)

 

 

Finally, dont expect hypnosis to work after a single session. Some experts say one shot can be effective. But Milling argues that in general, a single treatment session involving hypnosis is unlikely to be beneficial.

 

结语是,不要期待一次催眠就起作用。一些专家说,一次催眠可能起作用。但是Millings认为,“总体而言,一次涉及催眠的治疗不太可能有积极效果。”

 

Correction: August 31

订正:831日。

The original version of this story misstated the findings of two of Millings review articles. Hypnosis was found to significantly add to the benefits of standard medical care, not outperform it. Hypnosis was also found to reduce kidspost-surgical pain, not to eliminate it. It also mischaracterized Millings view of the suggestionphase of hypnosis. Suggestions are a tailored invitation to experience imaginary events as if they were real. They are not dependent on the individual and they are not like asking a psychologist what they will say during psychotherapy.

 

本文的原始版本错误地表述了Milling2项回复性文章。催眠被发现,显著地增加标准医学治疗的益处,而不是胜过标准医学治疗。催眠也被发现可以减少儿童的术后疼痛,而不是消除疼痛。原始版本也错误描述了Milling对于“暗示”阶段的观点。暗示是一种因人而异的对被催眠者的邀请,以期待,让其把想象的事件像真实的一样进行体验。它们不是取决于被催眠者,并且被催眠者也不喜欢问心理学家,他们(心理学家)在心理治疗时期会说什么。

 




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