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译文:TIME《时代周刊》 Is Hypnosis Real?催眠是真的吗?看看科学研究怎么说

已有 2140 次阅读 2020-9-14 20:14 |个人分类:译文|系统分类:海外观察

译文《时代周刊》TIME  Is Hypnosis Real? Here's What Science Says






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译者: 康华岳,PS:译文仅作学习之用,版权归属原作者和机构。

Look into my eyes. The phrase calls to mind images of a psychotherapist swinging a pocket watch. Or maybe you picture Catherine Keener in the film Get Out, tapping her teacup and sending an unwilling man into a state of hypnotic limbo.


看着我的眼睛。这个习惯说法让人想起心理治疗师摆动一枚怀表的画面。或许你想到《逃出绝命镇》(Get Out)里Catherine Keener轻轻敲响她的茶杯并把一个她讨厌的人送入催眠状态中的遗忘边缘的画面。


There are many myths about hypnosis, mostly coming from media presentations,like fictional films and novels, says Irving Kirsch, a lecturer and director of the Program in Placebo Studies at Harvard Medical School. But setting aside pop culture clichés, Kirsch says hypnosis is a well-studied and legitimate form of adjunct treatment for conditions ranging from obesity and pain after surgery to anxiety and stress.

“有许多关于催眠的迷思,绝大多数都来自媒体表演,”像虚构的电影和小说里那样, 来自哈佛大学医学院的讲师,以及安慰剂研究项目的主任Irving Kirsch说。但是,把这些流行文化和陈词滥调放在一边,Krisch 说催眠是一项被很好地研究的,并且是对从肥胖症到术后疼痛,以及焦虑和压力的,正规的辅助治疗形式。


In terms of weight loss, some of Kirschs research https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/1995-26166-001 has found that, compared to people undergoing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)one of the most evidence-backed non-drug treatments for weight loss, depression and many other conditionsthose who undergo cognitive behavior therapy coupled with hypnosis tend to lose significantly more weight. After four to six months, those undergoing CBT+hypnosis dropped more than 20 pounds, while those who just did CBT lost about half that amount. The hypnosis group also maintained that weight loss during an 18-month follow-up period, while the CBT-only group tended to regain some weight.





Apart from aiding weight loss, there is substantial research evidencethat hypnosis can effectively reduce physical pain, says Len Milling, a clinical psychologist and professor of psychology at the University of Hartford.

除了辅助减肥,还有“大量研究证据”表明,催眠可以有效地减少身体疼痛,来自哈佛大学的一位临床心理学家和心理学教授Len Milling说。



One of Millings review articles found that hypnosis could help reduce kidspost-surgical pain or pain related to other medical procedures. Another of his review articles found that when it comes to labor and delivery-related pain, hypnosis can in some cases significantly add to the benefits of standard medical careincluding epidurals and drugs.




It is very helpful for smoking cessation,adds Dr. David Spiegel, a hypnosis expert and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University School of Medicine. Half the people I see once stop [smoking], half of them wont touch a cigarette for two years. A 2007 randomized trial of 286 smokers found that 20% of people who received hypnosis managed to quit, compared to 14% of those receiving standard behavioral counseling. The smoking cessation benefits were even more pronounced among smokers with a history of depressionhinting at an additional potential benefit of hypnosis.

“它对于戒烟很有帮助”,斯坦福大学医学院的催眠专家以及精神和行为科学教授Dr. David Spiegel补充说。“我看过的人,有一半立马就停止吸烟了,这些人在2年之内不碰香烟。2007年,一项286名吸烟者的随机实验发现https://academic.oup.com/ntr/article-abstract/10/5/811/1074110,接受催眠的人中的20%做到了戒烟,对比于接受标准行为咨询的人的14%。对于有抑郁症史的吸烟者而言,戒烟效果更为显著——这暗示催眠还有其他的潜在好处。



Hypnosis can also be very helpfulin treating stress, anxiety and PTSD, Spiegel says. Research has found hypnosis can even alter a persons immune function in ways that offset stress and reduce susceptibility to viral infections.



But what exactly does hypnosis entail, and how does it provide these benefits? Thats where things get a little murky. If you asked 10 hypnosis experts how hypnosis works, you would probably get 10 different explanations,Milling says.




Almost everyone in the field agrees that the practice of hypnosis involves two stages, which are usually referred to as inductionand suggestion.




During the induction, the subject is typically told to relax, focus his or her attention, and that he or she is going into hypnosis,Milling says. This stage could last anywhere from a few seconds to 10 minutes or longer, and the goal of induction is to quiet the mind and focus its attention on the therapist or counselors voice and guidance.




The suggestionphase involves talking the hypnotized person through hypothetical events and scenarios intended to help him or her address or counteract unhelpful behaviors and emotions. Patients are invited to experience imaginary events as if they were real, Milling says. The type of suggestions used depend on the patient and his or her unique challenges.



In some ways, hypnosis can be compared to guided meditation or mindfulness; the idea is to set aside normal judgments and sensory reactions, and to enter a deeper state of concentration and receptiveness. Both Milling and Spiegel compare hypnosis to losing oneself in a book or moviethose times when the outside world fades away and a persons mind is completely absorbed in what shes reading or watching. Research has also referred to hypnosis as the temporary obliterationof the ego.





While most people fear losing control in hypnosis, it is in fact a means of enhancing mind-body control,Spiegel says. Instead of allowing pain, anxiety or other unhelpful states to run the show, hypnosis helps people to exert more control over their thoughts and perceptions.




How does hypnosis do this? Spiegels research has shown it can act on multiple brain regions, including some linked to pain perception and regulation. Hypnosis has also been found to quiet parts of the brain involved in sensory processing and emotional response.




However, theres a lot of controversy over how hypnosis works, Milling says. Originally, Freud theorized that hypnosis weakens the barrier between the conscious and subconscious,he says, adding that this theory has largely been abandoned. While some attribute the power of hypnosis to the placebo effect, another theory is that hypnosis causes people to enter an altered state of consciousness, which makes them very responsive to hypnotic suggestions,he says. While talk about altered states of consciousnesssounds a little spooky, theres no loss of consciousness or amnesia.



Not everyone benefits equally from hypnosis. Milling says that about 20% of people show a largeresponse to it, while the same percentage of people dont respond much at all. The remaining 50% to 60% of people land somewhere in between. Children tend to be more hypnotizable,Spiegel says.




But even people who score low on measures of hypnotic suggestibility can still benefit from it, Kirsch adds. He also says its important to view hypnosis as a supplement to other forms of therapysomething to be tried only in conjunction with CBT, psychotherapy or other types of treatment.



Milling reiterates this point. He compares practitioners who are trained only in hypnosis to carpenters who only know how to use one tool. To be an effective carpenter, it takes more than knowing how to use a saw,he says. Seek help from licensed psychologists, licensed psychiatrists and licensed clinical social workers who are trained in hypnosis as well as a range of other psychotherapeutic techniques.(A benefit of seeing a licensed clinician, as opposed to someone who only practices hypnosis, is that the treatment is more likely to be covered by insurance.)




Finally, dont expect hypnosis to work after a single session. Some experts say one shot can be effective. But Milling argues that in general, a single treatment session involving hypnosis is unlikely to be beneficial.




Correction: August 31


The original version of this story misstated the findings of two of Millings review articles. Hypnosis was found to significantly add to the benefits of standard medical care, not outperform it. Hypnosis was also found to reduce kidspost-surgical pain, not to eliminate it. It also mischaracterized Millings view of the suggestionphase of hypnosis. Suggestions are a tailored invitation to experience imaginary events as if they were real. They are not dependent on the individual and they are not like asking a psychologist what they will say during psychotherapy.







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