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[转载]Disruptions: On the Fast Track to Routine 3-D Printing

已有 13696 次阅读 2013-2-23 13:33 |系统分类:海外观察|关键词:3D,Printer| Printer |文章来源:转载

The future of the Navy: Print me a cruiser!

http://www.3ders.org//articles/20130404-the-future-of-the-navy-print-me-a-cruiser.html

April 4, 2013

The 3D printing revolution will radically change naval construction and logistics, writes two junior Navy officers in Proceedings, the influential journal of the U.S. Naval Institute.

Navy lieutenants Scott Cheney-Peters and Matthew Hipple think that 3D printing will impact the Navy on designing and building everything, ranging from ships, submarines, aircraft to everything carried on board.

The development of 3D printers could change the way Navy build ships. "The production lines and shipyards of the future could be, in effect, enormous 3-D printers that would maximize the economies derived from the additive manufacturing process." they write.

It will not be necessary to carry large stocks of pre-manufactured parts. Intead of tracking down a repair part or seldom-used consumable, engineers could just scan the discarded part and send the schematics to the nearest 3D printer. The ship will only need to carry the necessary material for 3D printing, which saves a lot of space and weight.

Of course fill material will be required, but the Navy can experiment to determine the optimal amount and mix to carry on board to minimize weight. Further, since the materials will be in liquid or powder form, they can be stored in configurations that reduce excess void space from oddly shaped finished pieces and the packaging that protects them.

Furthermore all the data can be stored in the computer and upgraded when needed. The two writers envision that in the future shipboard additive manufacturing will be more than just printing repair parts. 3D printing will move the factory closer to the sailor: 3D printers could use shipboard recycled waste as material, and the Navy can even develop "concept of biomining — harvesting resources from the surrounding seas or ashore—perhaps with purpose-built 3D-printed vehicles." The ship design could also be changed that 3D printers will be integrated into it with supporting systems. And special medical 3D printers can be used for printing medical tools.

"Most of these ideas are visions of the future, in some cases quite far off, should they ever really come to pass. Along the way there are many challenges for industry and the Navy to overcome to take full advantage of additive manufacturing." they write.

The professional 3D printers and the materials are still very expensive, and printers can't yet build with every material. In addition, "the Navy will also need to determine who verifies that a printed copy meets military specifications, and how."

Since 3D printing brings to America's competitors the same opportunities it brings to the Navy. There will be new security challenges and the Navy will need to secure them against cyber threats as well. Added the writers.

But they believe:

It will take years, likely decades, to overcome all these challenges. But they will not stop the development and evolving opportunities afforded by 3D printers. One of the biggest tasks for the Navy will be to evaluate each new breakthrough's impact on the shifting economic calculus of consigning any one of the thousands of shipboard parts to print-on-demand status. Better understanding of the link between printer developments and new capabilities will allow the Navy to focus research resources to achieve them. The potential cost and capability benefits are enormous. Let the great experiment begin.

奥巴马2013年国情咨文:

"现在有我们可以做的事情。这些事情可以加速这一潮流。去年,我们在俄亥俄州的杨斯敦创造了第一个制造业革新中心。一个曾经的百叶窗式库房变成了 一个艺术实验室。在那里,新工人在学习立体打印技术。这种技术可以革新我们制作几乎任何东西的方法。没有理由这个在其他城镇不能发生。

  所以今晚,我宣布三个新的制造业中心开始建造。在这些地方,商业将和国防部以及能源部合作,把被全球化淘汰的区域转变成全球可以提供高科技工作 岗位的中心。现在我向这届国会提议,帮助创建包括15个这样中心的网络,并且确保,下一次建造业革命就在美国发生。我们可以做到。"(掌声)

February 17, 2013, 11:00 am

Disruptions: On the Fast Track to Routine 3-D Printing

By NICK BILTON

Will the future be printed in 3-D?

At first glance, looking at past predictions about the future of technology, prognosticators got a whole lot wrong. The Web is a garbage dump of inaccurate guesses about the year 2000, 2010 and beyond. Flying cars, robotic maids and jet packs still are nowhere near a reality.

Yet the prediction that 3-D printers will become a part of our daily lives is happening much sooner than anyone anticipated. These printers can produce objects, even rather intricate ones, by printing thin layer after layer of plastic, metal, ceramics or other materials. And the products they make can be highly customized.

A 3-D printer on display at this year's Consumer Electronics Show.
Jae C. Hong/Associated Press A 3-D printer on display at this year’s Consumer Electronics Show.

Last week, President Obama cited this nascent technology during his State of the Union address — as if everyone already knew what the technology was.

He expressed hope that it was a way to rejuvenate American manufacturing. “A once-shuttered warehouse is now a state-of-the art lab where new workers are mastering the 3-D printing that has the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything,” Mr. Obama said. He has pushed new technologies before, like solar and wind power, as remedies for our nation’s problems, and those attempts have only revived the debate about the limitations of government industrial policy.

But this one shows more promise. The question is, can the United States get a foothold in manufacturing one 3-D printer at a time?

Hod Lipson, an associate professor and the director of the Creative Machines Lab at Cornell, said “3-D printing is worming its way into almost every industry, from entertainment, to food, to bio- and medical-applications.”

It won’t necessarily directly create manufacturing jobs, except perhaps for the printers themselves. Dr. Lipson, the co-author of “Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing,” said that the technology “is not going to simply replace existing manufacturing anytime soon.” But he said he believed that it would give rise to new businesses. “The bigger opportunity in the U.S. is that it opens and creates new business models that are based on this idea of customization.”

In addition to the lab that the president mentioned, a federally financed manufacturing innovation institute in Youngstown, Ohio, schools are embracing the technology. The University of Virginia has been working to introduce 3-D printers into some programs from kindergarten through 12th grade in Charlottesville to prepare students for a new future in manufacturing.

“We have 3-D printers in classrooms, and in one example, we’re teaching kids how to design and print catapults that they then analyze for efficiency,” said Glen L. Bull, professor and co-director of the Center for Technology and Teacher Education. “We believe that every school in America could have a 3-D printer in the classroom in the next few years.”

The education system may want to speed things up. The time between predictions for 3-D printers and the reality of what they can accomplish is compressing rapidly.

For example, in 2010, researchers at the University of Southern California said that another decade would pass before we could build a home using a 3-D printer. Yet last week, Softkill Design, a London architecture collective, announced that it planned to make the first such home — which it will assemble in a single day — later this year. The home isn’t that pretty, and will look more like a calcified spider web than a cozy house, but it will show it can be done. The price of 3-D printers has also dropped sharply over the last two years, with machines that once cost $20,000, now at $1,000 or less. That’s partly because Chinese companies are driving down prices. Yes, China sees the opportunity in these things, even though the technology may undermine some of its manufacturing advantages.

“When it costs you the same amount of manufacturing effort to make advanced robotic parts as it does to manufacture a paperweight, that really changes things in a profound way,” Dr. Lipson said.

This leaves us with one more question about the future: When will these 3-D printers be able to make us flying cars, robotic maids and jet packs?

E-mail: bilton@nytimes.com

A version of this article appeared in print on 02/18/2013, on page B4 of the NewYork edition with the headline: On the Fast Track To Routine 3-D Printing.

52 Comments

Share your thoughts.

    • Hugh Loebner

    • New York City

    The real revolution will come when we can 3d print a motor.

    • niklar55

    • France

    Metal 3d printers have been around for years. They print by laser-sintering metal powders. Bronze, and Stainless Steel are some of the materials that are used. The machines are too expensive to be 'garage' or 'kitchen'  utensils, but no doubt as quantity production of the machines increases, so costs will decrease.
    The size of machines required to produce flying cars, etc. would make them unsuitable for home use, but 'Treky replicators' are not too far away, and are seen as the future of manufacturing by some. Each model could be customized to order.

    • Feb. 20, 2013 at 6:58 p.m

    • Audrey

    • MA

    Medical researchers hope to use 3D printers to manufacture body parts such as skin or organs, all in short supply.

    • PJ

    • New York, NY

    The Internet, 70% of which is video and P2P file sharing (aka MOAR video), is, as stated here, most certainly a garbage dump. While it DOES have some extraordinary uses and game changing (as opposed to PLAYING) users, by and large, it is a refuse pile of the Common Man's Teevee fed dreams and delusions. For a Species that confuses crap with character, one can be fully assured the 3-D printer will only add to the mountain of garbage that Humanity creates at the expense of the Planet and actual intellectual development. Looking forward to my first 3-D printed 12 foot statue of "Honey Boo -Boo" in tribute to H. Sapiens Sapiens' Marvelous Technological Progress...zzzzzzzzz....

    • James Benet

    • Carlsbad CA

    3D Printers will not be confined to making plastic parts for a variety of markets.

    Solid metal will come and there are already printers that create meat and other foods from printing proteins and other organic compounds along with some that are printing cultivated living cells to create 3D organs.

    This technology will be able to create a limb for an amputee by mirroring exactly the opposed limb using new scanning techniques while using cultivated cells from the patient then printing the diverse layers of flesh, bone, veins, fat and nerves that will then be attached by a skilled micro-surgeon.

    It will take some time but this industry is far more profound than creating that figurine you created or that crude home.  

    I for one can't wait to get my first 3D printer.

      • Larry

      • The Fifth Circle

      NYT Pick

      Good point.  I'd like to see a printer that could print in 'wood' or some similar material.  I can't imagine that a cellulose-based material could not be created with a printer.  

    • D MD

    • Reno

    Nick, why do you give us an email address that does not work? Is it the illusion that you want feedback without wanting it?
    Also, there is a working flying car, robotic housecleaner and working jet pack. You may be more believable is you did not try to be cute about technologies that I am not sure your know much about. Tesla?

    • Michael

    • New York, NY

    Yes. More and more people with fewer and fewer jobs to be had; industrial automation will see to that, and the inevitable outcome is that the entire concept of what it means to work for a living- to work for money- will have to be rethought. There simply will not be enough work to go around, and people will go hungry unless a new model of resource distribution is developed. I think a corporate tax placed upon industrial robotics, 3D printing, or automation that displaces workers should be enacted with a base rate calculated not upon the productivity of the machine or process but upon the number of workers displaced, the funds to go to needs-based programs. Forget about retraining for new fields; there won't be enough positions for vast numbers of people, yet everyone has to be fed and housed somehow, or we will have resource wars in the future- it's the decision we will have to confront as a nation.

    • Mike

    • Chicago

    Plastics are made of petroleum.  So are most chemicals..  our chemical industry is primarily a petrochemical industry.  

    If the future is printing plastic things, we should probably try to conserve petroleum a little better.  

    Oil may be too valuable to burn.  There are a lot of things we can use to generate energy, but we don't have any good alternative sources for plastics and chemicals.  

      • jb

      • Portland, OR

      Actually, most plastic is made from natural gas. Petroleum informally suggests crude oil, at least to me, but it seems to surprise people that natural gas is used as a feedstock.

      I don't disagree that one day we may regret burning something so useful, but i suspect that even when oil is too expensive to burn, there will be plenty of ways to make plastic cheaply.

      • Jeff in the Slope

      • New York, NY

      Increasingly, the plastic used in consumer 3D printers is PLA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polylactic_acid) It is a renewable plastic made from corn starch (in the United States), tapioca roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world). Many of the latest 3D printers, like the MakerBot Replicator 2 and the Ultimaker, are optimized for PLA, and ship with a spool of PLA by default.

      • Bri

      • NY

      Actually, a good portion of the 3D printing crowd are using PLA, which is made from corn. Of course, I'm sure petroleum products were used in the production of that corn, but at least we have an opportunity to make it completely renewable.

    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    • Austria-este

    One of my friends uses a 3D scanner to scan parts from heavy equipment, then the computer breaks the scans down into parts that can be easily cut with a plasma cutter driven pattern cutter. Then then they are welded together and supplied to the end user. This cuts down delivery times for some spare parts, which means less down time for very expensive equipment. He has all the business in the logging industry, where innovation can mean the difference between staying in business and going bankrupt, that he can handle.

    This is where I see 3D printers going. Eventually, CAD designed custom equipment will be able to be duplicated without having to go through the scan/pattern cutter process. I know it will be a long time before 3D printers will be able to deal with metal, but the future is there.

    Individual business spend big bucks designing custom parts. A CAD design file with a 3D printer will ensure they have the same part, identical to the original, whenever they want it. With minimal down time.

    This is where the future of 3D printing is...

    Oh, and I want it to be able to make me a Teriyaki Burrito like the ones sold by a little street stand in LA...

    • Mort A. Della

    • NYC

    P.S. The goal of a 3-D printer that replicates itself is already being realized, after a fashion, by the members of www.reprap.org .

    • Mort A. Della

    • NYC

    We'll know 3-D Printing has really arrived when a 3-D printer is able to print a working 3-D printer.

    • Eugene Gorrin

    • Union, NJ

    From "The Graduate" -

    Mr. McGuire: I just want to say one word to you. Just one word.
    Benjamin: Yes, sir.
    Mr. McGuire: Are you listening?
    Benjamin: Yes, I am.
    Mr. McGuire: Plastics

    If the 1967 movie were to be remade today, the one (ok, maybe
    more than one) word would be "3-D Printing."

    • Mort A. Della

    • NYC

    We'll know this technology has really arrived when 3-D printers are nimble enough to print working 3-D printers.

      • Karen

      • Chicago

      I'm future-seeing entire shipping and packaging channels being decimated by 3D printers!

      • K-dub

      • Greenwich, CT

      I shudder to think of the implications of 3D Printing on blue-collared jobs around the world.

      • Feb. 19, 2013 at 10:16 a.m.

      • JL65

      • NY

      How long before a 3D printer can replicate itself?

      • Shark

      • New York, NY

      Maybe, just maybe, a large company like Ikea, can show you the catalog, and when you order something, they make it for you, at the color specified, etc, the same day and ship overnight.

      Or say a hardwares store, you show up with a something you need replaced, a 5/17" bolt, or a 1/3" nut, and instead of having to look for it in storage or even keeping that many variables in storage even, you scan it and 'print' a copy.

      Only thing needed would be a very very high quality duplicator (or '3Plicator'?), very high quality materials and trained personnel.

      Would put the dream or instant supply and demand within reach.

      Having one at home would not be very practical. You would need the machine, plus various materials, of various colors, in various degrees of hardness, and of course the software to produce that one product you're looking for.

      More real for companies than individuals. But the use of this technology is there.

      • Jeff G

      • Summit, NJ

      As the NYT reported in an earlier article, many people are already using plans that are readily available over the internet to make high capacity magazines and the most critical part of AR15's. As more homes have 3-D printers repressive laws like magazine and "assault weapons" bans will become unenforceable.

      • haasjoel

      • Raleigh, NC

      The Chinese see potential buying 3D printing facilities in the US.  Chinese designs, for, say, cell phone covers, can be emailed to a Chinese owned 3D printer in the US, the objects printed and delivered here.  No import/export tariffs; lower shipping costs and faster delivery.  Granulated further; a file sent to a 3D printer in Chicago to produce several thousand objects there, and one file emailed to a 3D printer in Podunk, USA to print three copies of the same thing there.
      Unmentioned in the article, is the ability to take several photos with a cell phone camera, create a passable 3D model from that and have it printed in 3D.  Any new design at a trade show is now even more vulnerable to copyright violation at blinding speed.
      Ultra fine 3D scanners costing about $100K  are used in everything from archaeology to crime scenes.  A dig can be scanned, covered back up for a season, and the scan printed out or simply examined literally grain of sand by grain of sand on  a high res monitor screen.  Size is no object if the intent is to look at it on a computer, and 3 D printing isn't either, since the printers simply print out enough pieces to cover the entire area.
      Moreover, the printers can use VERY hard plastics, have color embedded in the plastics, and print the designs hollow, reducing weight, printing time, and adding structural strength.
      3D scans can create 3D carving-almost the same as printing-an object is produced.

        • Larry

        • The Fifth Circle

        NYT Pick

        That makes little sense.  Most designs originate here and are made cheaply in China.  Industrial 'printing' would bring back some manufacturing to the USA.  

      • Bud

      • Montgomery, Alabama

      One can only hope government wonks will allow the market to figure out which efforts deserve funding and which ones are merely fanciful (or owned by political buddies in line for payoffs).

      • Peter J

      • Boston, MA

      The hype around consumer-owned 3D printing is both amusing and impressive... The reality is that in the affordable form, 3D printers simply lay down melted plastic.  Great for small uniform parts that can be used if made only from plastic  The hype is about consumers making their own complex products, including one-off electronics.  Not happening any time soon.
      We own a medium sized 3D machine.  It has revolutionized our design process, letting us prototype design revs in a time frame impossible 10 years ago... We have even made final products from 3D printed ABS that have been used on working sea-going vessels... but that is not making my own cell phone or robot at home.
      Yes, there are processes that product metal parts, but they use very powerful lasers that can sinter metal powder... and those are never going to be $1000 machines.  Mass production will always make sense for mass produced items. 3D printing has amazing promise for affordable replacement parts (no need to manufacturer and warehouse for years small bits), but for complete, complex items, 3D printing is flying car hype.  The actual amazing application of 3D printing will be in printing replacement human parts, but that will still not ever be done "at home."

      • Stephen Beard

      • Troy, OH

      It's clear that 3-D printers are a disruptive technology and may well provide an unexpected path forward for manufacturing, but it is another nail in the coffin holding the corpse of manufacturing workers.  

      • Burt Sharpe

      • Lebanon, IL

      So when will 3-D printers be able to produce all the parts you need to build.....3-D printers?

      • Mort A. Della

      • NYC

      The ability to print with multiple materials at once is absolutely key to the long-term success of 3-D printing. We'll know this technology has really arrived when a 3-D printer can print a working 3-D printer.

      • dave lyons

      • calif

      "Disruptions: With a 3-D Printer, Building a Gun With the Push of a Button"

      This was a previous column. This is likely to be the kind of thing that people will be doing with 3-d printers. In the 50's, my parents worked at a plastics factory and the kind of stuff they brought home is the stuff I expect will come out of these "printers"  cigarette cases, cases for flints for your cigarette lighter, buttons (maybe) and probably a lot of gewgaws that will be the dust catchers of the 21 century. It's hard to beat commercially moulded products--even model airplanes go through quite a process before getting to a box.
       Somehow, I can't help thinking the president is grasping at straws when he mentioned this. sure every classroom could have one--say 50 thousand classrooms times 1000$ and then two or three more. Kids would turn out what? They would need  3-_D software and learn to do engineering drawings all the while neglecting the things that they need to learn to be useful to themselves and the nation in 10 or so years. Please, this is not something that we need to push at just this time.
       This is not to say that 3-d printers will not be useful some day, but this is really looking in the wrong direction. It will a long time before 3_d printing will beat injection moulding.

    • Feb. 19, 2013 at 10:12 a.m.

    • Recommended1

      • RDB aka Wombat

      • NYC

      When a 3d printer can make a 3d printer, then we will have something.

        • Bri

        • NY

        They have been doing that for years, or was this comment sarcasm?

      • Adam

      • Paradise Lost

      The Revolution will arrive with one $1000 3D printer building the components of a $100 3D printer with vastly greater performance.

      Where will China be then?

      • Andrew

      • Chicago

      Based on my own, albeit limited experience, the 3d printing revolution is being way overhyped. I'm a scientist that needs to work with technicians and engineers to make many "one off" parts for the instruments I design. I have access to a high end 3d printer and have experimented with making stuff. The quality of the parts I can make is low. The materials perform terribly compared to standard engineering plastics that are shaped with conventional machine tools (nylon, delrin, or even polyethylene). I tried to get some quotes on 3d printing with metal and found that it is cheaper to make the parts with conventional machining and it certainly looks like the results are better from the ugly pictures of 3d metal parts I've seen.   The printing speed is so slow that it is often faster and cheaper to make parts using a conventional process, even for plastic. So I am wondering if 3d printing is just hype.  I would be interested to see some comments here from people who use these machines for functional parts. I understand there is a niche for toys, cool looking art projects, doorknobs, etc.

        • Jeff in the Slope

        • New York, NY

        Though it's not shipping until May, and it costs a bit more ($3,299) you may want to take a look at the Form 1 from Formlabs (http://formlabs.com/). It uses stereolithography to print in acrylate photopolymer resin at 300 micron feature sizes in 25 micron layers. I saw one of these in action at Makerfair in September.

        Full disclosure, I don't have one of these. I have an Ultimaker that prints in PLA. I plan on adding ceramic extrusion soon.

      • AZUKBrit

      • AZ

      It may be a few years before 3-D printers will produce the streams of multi ton lorries that Detroit, and others, churn out daily. But I must seriously question those who believe 3-D printers are merely for creating "toy"parts, or various "replacement" parts.

      The 3-D printer is still in its infancy so many improvements/enhancements will emerge and prices are already declining.So 3-D printing is not just for making fun stuff; many organizations are using it to test new designs, develop prototypes, produce more intricate and/or efficient components, reduce costs, etc.

      The more challenging question facing 3-D printing is what materials can one use with it; much attention having been focussed on the shortcomings of plastic based inks.

      However, as 3-D printing opens new vistas, organizations will create "pseudo" 3-D printing inks that incorporate, for example, various nano-particles. One will then be able to print items that are stronger and more durable, and have analogous properties to items produced the "old fashioned" way.

      • danarlington

      • mass

      "Toy" parts are one thing, "real" parts are another thing completely. "Real" parts meet specifications for density, hardness, strength, durability, and surface finish. Right now, 3D parts come up short on all of these. Better surface finish can be achieved with finer layers and longer printing time but the other specifications require different materials.  High durability and high accuracy plastic parts like LEGOs require high pressure and temperature plus precision molds. A belt buckle that can withstand the force of an expanding belly requires similar production processes. My guess is that chair pads made by a 3D machine will crush or crumble fairly soon if not immediately after someone sits on the chair. Let me know if I am wrong. (There are professional 3D parts methods where additional processes are used to improve the density and strength of the parts but these require high vacuum, high temperature, or other processes not accessible to home users.)

      Trying out an idea where shape is the prime unknown is a perfect use for 3D printing. Beyond that, the applications are less promising. I know of companies that use 3D printed parts for engineering prototypes. They stick, leak, and snap under ordinary operating conditions, which creates roadblocks to understanding if the prototype really works or not. Top management, on the other hand, is convinced that design is over and production should begin.

        • LairBob

        • Ann Arbor, MI

        All good points, but most of the materials that were available at the beginning of the industrial revolution, like wood and early steel, would never hold up to the applications that modern materials do, today.

        I'd wager that most of the revolution in materials science we saw in the 20th century -- like plastics, but _especially_ ceramics -- was a response to the fact that we could technically _make_ many items, but they wouldn't stand up under real-world demands. In the long run, I don't see how this is any different. I think you're right, but this technology is potentially so valuable that I think it's more likely to lead to new categories of materials, than it is to fizzle out.

        • Tom in San Jose

        • San Jose, CA

        NYT Pick

        I think you're missing the point.  You can use the 3-D printer to create a highly accurate "positive" of the item you are trying to manufacture and then use that "positive" to make a mold which is used to cast the hard metal needed.

      • jimmyc

      • MA

      On a lighter note, I can't help but think about the 60's sci-fi shows that predicted this technology.  Be it the Lost in Space robot's ability to make spare parts or the many versions of Star Trek "replicator" technology.  Here's to the science fiction writers planting the seeds of creativity into the minds of future engineers.

      • cf

      • nyc

      I'm also writing this as a Makerbot 3D printer hums away on my desk. In a home setting, I really do use my machine to make random replacement knobs/brackets/etc. for the old house I'm living in, and it's pretty convenient. The real 'value' with 3D printing, as an engineer at least, is not with production but with design. It just makes it incredibly easy to design and prototype things (and above all, to iterate quickly!), reducing the chances of making a much more expensive mistake involving (expensive) volume production. 3D printers are probably *more* labor intensive than a lot of mass-production methods, they just allow for customization that is orders of magnitude cheaper than something like injection molding.

      I think 3D printing is far more likely to create lots of tiny new niche industries by lowering the design barrier-to-entry than it is to replace huge numbers of workers.

      • Bobk

      • Vandalia. Il

      Another indication that a future is approaching where jobs are even more scarce and machines provide most goods and services.  Using our current system  of  individuals amassing as much wealth as possible will lead to even more wealth disparity.  There is a need to think about a different way to share  the benefits of this technology.

      • Larry Bole

      • Boston

      I'm already convinced that 3-D printing will have consumer viability. It will certainly change some aspects of the current manufacturing 'landscape'.

      The robots are coming: from small, automated vacuum cleaners, to robotic arms, etc. It's just going to take a little longer to produce a cost-effective, working humanoid robot than some people had hoped it would take.

      The problem with jet packs is that commuters prefer enclosed environments with amenities that modern automobiles provide, for instance. And that is understandable. There may be a viable consumer niche for jet pack use, but I don't think it will become a norm for daily commuting as it was once envisioned to be.

        • BDoll

        • Colorado

        When the robots come, "undocumented workers," as the robots will do work that even illegals won't do?

        • LairBob

        • Ann Arbor, MI

        That...and they also prefer not using a mode of travel where almost any mechanical failure means certain death. Oh, and not getting the backs of their legs burned off.

        (Not to be flip, but jetpacks always seemed a very practically misguided thing for everyone to "want" in a utopian future. I'm sure that some people feel that what they really want is a level of technology so sophisticated it also solves those challenges, but I don't think most people are thinking that way.)

      • Jeff in the Slope

      • New York, NY

      I read this article as my Ultimaker 3D printer hummed in the background producing a belt clip for my son's Motorola TalkAbout walkie-talkie. I downloaded the clip design from http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:10794 and printed it in PLA bioplastic. When I mention to friends that I have this printer (built from a kit, BTW) everyone has ideas for things they want printed.

      Jim, the plastic is sold in spools of filament at about $20 to $30 per pound, depending on plastic type, color, etc. You can make a lot of stuff with a pound of plastic, and the price is bound to come down as it becomes a mainstream product. The PLA plastic is made from corn starch, and it is biodegradable.

      Sanjay has a point about materials. Right now, two or more material heads in a consumer grade printer is only just emerging, but it is quite similar to the trajectory that consumer computer printers took, from black ink only, to full color inkjets. One can easily imagine adding additional material feeds for conductive material or variations in stiffness.

      Hal should check out web sites like thingiverse.com to see if anyone has replicated the design for the part he needs. Then even if he doesn't have his own 3D printer, he can send the design file to a web site like shapeways.com and have them print it and FedEx it to him.

      • Jim ONeill

      • Hillsboro, Ill.

      I have read several articles about 3d printing and am intrigued by the potential. One thing i have not seen is material costs, energy costs, etc--seems to me the real profit will be in supplying the raw materials and developers who write programs for the hardware.

      • Sanjay

      • Toronto

      The technology is constrained by the limited selection of materials to work with. Consumer-level printers are only just now gaining the ability to print in 2 or 3 different materials, and even then it's actually just the same material in 2 or 3 different colors. These machines need to become more heterogenous in the materials they will print in, so that you can make an object composed of more than one material.

      • HAL CHENEY

      • MARTINSVILLE, IL

      We have two old Herman Miller Eames chairs that need new pads for their feet. We have two samples of the ones we need. We have shopped about and online for replacements without success.
      I expect that around the country there are uncounted -- countless -- people who need "little" replacement parts for some old piece of equipment or furniture such as this.
      Maybe there are enough people here, in Martinsville, Illinois (pop about 1,300) to support a Mom/Pop business with a 3-D printer who could provide a replacement service for such small-town needs.
      I look forward to something like this within the next few years.

        • BAM08873

        • AZ

        NYT Pick

        Yes, agreed.  I think about all those times when a a small appliance part breaks and I have to search online for a replacement part.  I usually end up paying more for shipping, handling and sales tax than for the part itself.  Often, I have to wait a week or more for the part to finally arrive.  A 3-D printer would be a wonderful solution.

        • Tetraoxygen

        • Dormitory

        I'm part of a group of students, reasonably close to your location, and soon we will print with ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene; legos, car bumpers). We could probably do it for the cost of material.

        How big are these pads?

        • Bri

        • NY

        While trying to build my 3D printer I contacted a guy on ebay to see if he would print up some parts for me. Was very helpful and the cost was reasonable. Whether its ebay or the reprap community, you should be able to find someone.

      奥巴马发表2013年国情咨文(全文)

      北京时间2013年2月13日上午,美国总统奥巴马在美国首都华盛顿的国会进行今年的国情咨文演讲,以下是文字实录:

        议长先生,副总统先生,国会议员们,美国人民:

        51年前,约翰-F-肯尼迪在这里宣布“宪法让我们成为进步的伙伴而不是权利的对手,”(掌声)他说,“发表国情咨文是我的任务,但是完善国情却是我们所有人的任务。”

        今晚,感谢美国人民的勇气和决心,我有很多内容需要汇报。在十年的残酷战争之后,我们勇敢的穿军装的男人女人正在归来。(掌声)在多年的紧张的萧条期后,我们的商业已经创造了600万新的就业岗位。我们现在开始购入比过去5年还要多的汽车,但依赖的国外石油比过去20年总和都要少。我们的住宅市场正在复苏,我们的股票市场正在反弹。消费者、病人、房产所有者也享受比之前更有力的保护。(掌声)

        所以,在一起,我们清除了危机的废墟。而且,我们可以说,通过新的信心,我们国家的状态更强有力了。(掌声)

        但是我们来到这里,知道还有数百万的美国人,通过辛苦的工作和奉献,并没有得到回报。我们的经济正在创造就业岗位——但仍然有许多人不能找到全职工作。企业利润飙升到了新高度——但十多年来,薪资和收入几乎从未上升。

        我们这一代人的任务是——重燃美国经济增长的发动机——造就一个升起的、兴旺的中产阶级。(掌声)

        我们的未竟任务是——恢复我们国家的基本协议——如果你工作努力并且负责任,你将会领先于别人,不论你从哪里来,不论你长得怎样,或者爱的是谁。

        我们的未竟任务是——政府为大多数人服务,而不是少数人;政府鼓励自由企业、奖励个人的主创性,并且给这个国家的每一个孩子都提供发展的机会。(掌声)

        美国人并不期望政府解决所有的问题。他们不期望在这个议事厅里的我们在所有的事务上有一致的看法。但是他们期望我们把国家利益放在党派前面。(掌声)他们期望我们在我们能走做到的议题上形成合理的妥协。因为他们知道只有当我们一起做这些事的时候,美国才会前进。改善这个国家的责任是我们所共有的。

        我们的工作必须从如何决定我们的预算开始——这些决定将对我们复苏的势头有巨大影响。

        过去几年,两党共同努力,削减了2.5万亿美元的赤字——大部分是通过削减支出进行的,当然我们也对最富有的1%的美国人提高了税率。结果就是,我们已经完成了经济学家认为的足以稳定财政的削减赤字4万亿美元任务的一半还要多。

        现在我们需要完成这项任务。问题是,怎样完成?

        2011年,国会通过了一个议案。议案称如果两党不能对削减赤字达成一致,那么价值约1万亿美元的预算削减将会自动生效。这些突然的、残酷的、武断的削减,将会使我们的军事准备陷入危险。这也将会使教育、能源及医疗科研等优先问题恶化。这将会毫无疑问地减缓我们的经济复苏,并且还会让我们付出成百上千个就业岗位的代价。这就是为什么民主党员们、共和党员们、商业领袖们以及经济学家们已经说过,在华盛顿被认为是一种扣押行为的这些削减措施,是一个确实无误的坏主意。

        现在,国会中的某些人已经开始提议防止通过更大幅度的削减教育、职业培训、老年保健医疗体系和社会保险津贴的经费以削减国防经费。(掌声)

        是的,目前推动我们长期债务最大的推手是,养老医疗保障费用的增加。那些非常关心我们老年保健医疗体系的人必须接受适度的改革——否则,我们退休项目将会比我们对孩子们的投入更庞大,而且会使得未来几代人的退休保障更加危险。

        但是,我们不能让老人和工薪家庭承担削减赤字的重任的同时,不去向最富有的最有影响力的人征收更多的税收。(掌声)我们不会通过向那些已经在艰苦奋斗的家庭简单地提升医疗保险经费或者大学学费抑或是强迫社区裁掉更多的老师、警察、消防员的方法以扩充我们的中产阶级。大多数美国人——民主党员们、共和党员们、独立人士——理解我们并不能削减掉我们通往繁荣的道路。他们知道,我们基础广泛的经济增长,需要的是一个可以削减支出和税收的每一个人都各司其职的平衡的途径以抵达赤字削减的目标。这就是今晚我要提出的方案。

        关于老年保健医疗体系,我已准备颁布改革方案,那将在下一个10年开始时,实现同等数额的保健资金储备。这一改革方案是由国会内跨党派的辛普森-鲍尔斯委员会草拟提交的。(掌声)

        平价医疗法案已经开始帮助减缓医保经费的增长。(掌声)我提议的改革将会走得更远。我们将会削减纳税人对于处方类药品公司的津贴,同时向那些最富有的高层管理索取更多。(掌声)我们将会通过改变政府为老年保健医疗体系埋单的方式以调低医药费,因为我们的医疗账单不应该基于我们在医院住了多少天做了多少体检,而应基于我们的老人享受了多么高质量的医护措施。(掌声)现在我将听取来自两党的附加改革措施,只要他们不违反退休安全的保障。我们的政府不应该承诺一些我们不能完成的誓言,而是应该完成一些我们已经决定的诺言。(掌声)

        为了达到我们剩下的赤字削减目标,我们应该完成两党领袖已经建议了的,摆脱富贵者的税收漏洞和削减,这样可以节省千亿美元。毕竟,为什么我们要对教育和老年保健医疗体系选择进行更多的削减,而仅仅是为了保护一些特殊利益者的免税?那样公平吗?为什么赤字削减是社会保障救济金的的削减而非弥补那些高收入者的税收漏洞?那样可以提升经济增长速度吗?(掌声)

        现在是进行两党广泛合作的可以鼓励创造就业岗位以及削减赤字的税收改革最好时机。(掌声)我们可以完成这个。美国人民理应得到一个可以帮助小企业花更少的时间填写复杂表格以及更多时间扩员和招募的免税代码——一个确保拥有高效会计师的亿万富翁们不能投机取巧地比他们更努力工作的秘书缴纳更少低额税率的免税代码;一个降低把岗位挪到海外、降低美国本土商业和制造业岗位税率的免税代码。这才是税务改革可以实现的。这才是我们可以共同完成的。(掌声)

        我知道税务改革和权利改革不会那么容易。对于两党来说,都将会很困难。我们没有人可以达到百分之百的需求。但是不这样做的后果是,我们的就业岗位、经济将会付出代价,百万奋斗中的美国人将会更加艰苦。因而我们要把党派利益放在一边,共同努力以通过一个可以取代不计后果的削减预算,对未来进行灵活的节省和智慧的投资。让我们共同努力,以取代一个让消费者紧张、让投资者害怕的边缘政策。(掌声)地球上最伟大的国家不能继续通过把一个制造业危机漂流到下一个制造业危机的方式发展经济。(掌声)我们不能这么做。

        让我们在此时此地就达成一致,保证人民的政府公开,按时付清我们的账单,并且经常迟滞美利坚合众国的信仰和信誉。(掌声)美国人民在相当长的时间里工作太努力了,从一个危机中重建起来,发现被选上来的新官员造成了另一个危机。(掌声)

        现在,我们大多数人就削减赤字的方案达成一致。这是我们未来计划的一部分。但是我们要清醒地认识到,独立的赤字削减并不是一个经济方案。(掌声)一个可以创造好的、中产阶级的就业岗位增长的经济体——应该是指引我们前进的北极星。(掌声)每一天,我们作为一个国家应该对自己提出三个问题:我们如何把更多的岗位吸引到我们的两个海岸?我们如何进行岗位培训?我们如何确保努力工作之后可以有体面的生活?

        一年半之前,我签署了美国就业法案。一些独立的经济学家认为这会创造100万个新岗位。我感谢上一届国会通过了其中的一些方案。我希望这一届国会通过剩下的。(掌声)但是今晚,我将提出附加的方案。这些附加的方案是和两党在一年半之前达成一致的预算框架方案有很直接的关系的。让我重复一遍——我今晚提出的方案不会增加我们的预算一毛钱。我们不需要大政府,而需要一个能够明辨主次之分的对广泛的经济进行投资的更智能的政府。(掌声)那才是我们应该寻求的。

      我们首要的任务是要让美国成为吸引新就业岗位和制造业的地方。在长达10年的制造业工作岗位的流失态势下,我们在过去3年创造了50万个就业岗位。 开拓重工公司开始把岗位从日本带回。福特汽车公司开始把岗位从墨西哥带回。今年,苹果公司也将重新在美国生产苹果电脑。(掌声)

        现在有我们可以做的事情。这些事情可以加速这一潮流。去年,我们在俄亥俄州的杨斯敦创造了第一个制造业革新中心。一个曾经的百叶窗式库房变成了 一个艺术实验室。在那里,新工人在学习立体打印技术。这种技术可以革新我们制作几乎任何东西的方法。没有理由这个在其他城镇不能发生。

        所以今晚,我宣布三个新的制造业中心开始建造。在这些地方,商业将和国防部以及能源部合作,把被全球化淘汰的区域转变成全球可以提供高科技工作 岗位的中心。现在我向这届国会提议,帮助创建包括15个这样中心的网络,并且确保,下一次建造业革命就在美国发生。我们可以做到。(掌声)

        现在,如果我们想制造出最好的产品,我们还要在最好的想法上进行投资。每一个我们用于测出人类基因图谱的美元都给我们经济带来了140美元的收 入——每一个美元。今天,我们的科学家为解决老年痴呆症正在测出人类大脑的图谱。他们正在研制可以让我们器官再生的药品,发明可以让电池储电量比之前强 10倍的新材料。现在不是损毁科技革新领域可创造就业方面的投资的时候。现在是在一个让研发达到一个自从太空竞赛以来从未见过之高度的时候。我们需要进行 这些投资。(掌声)

        今天,没有比我们在美国能源更需要我们投资的领域。在讨论了数年之后,我们终于准备控制我们自己的能源未来。我们在美国本土生产了比过去15年 综合还多的石油。(掌声)我们汽车用的1加仑天然气量可以让我们跑得比过去的两倍还多。我们通过风力发电和太阳能发电生产出来的新能源——创造了数以万计 的优质美国就业岗位。我们生产出了比以往任何时候都多的天然气——几乎所有人的能源账单都因此减少了。过去的4年,威胁我们星球的危险的碳排放量依然减 少。

        但是对于我们孩子们以及我们更远的未来而言,我们必须在防治全球变暖方面做得更多。(掌声)现在,真实情况是,没有一个孤立的事件可以成为一个 潮流。但事实上,12个最热的有纪录的年份恰是在过去15年中。热浪、干旱、野火、洪水——比以往更加频繁和剧烈。我们可以选择相信,桑迪飓风、几十年来 最严重的干旱,以及最具有毁坏性的野火的同时发生不过是个怪异的巧合。我们也可以相信科学的绝对公平——并且现在就开始行动,为时未晚。(掌声)

        现在,好消息是我们可以在这个问题上做一些有意义的进程,而且不阻碍经济强势的增长势头。我期望这届国会可以协商一致,达成一个两党都同意的、 以市场为基础的解决全球变暖的方案,就像约翰-麦凯恩和乔-利伯曼几年前的那样。但如果国会不及时行动以保护子孙后代,我也将会采取行动。(掌声)我将让 我的内阁讨论一些我们可以采取的行政措施,现在的和未来的,减少污染,给我们的社区提供面对气候变化后果的方案,加速可持续能源的转变。

        4年前,其他国家控制了清洁能源市场以及由此带来的就业岗位。现在我们正开始改变这种状况。去年,风力能源给美国带来了近一半的所有新能源储 备。因此我们就来造就更多的这种能源。太阳能开始变得更便宜——我们来把费用降得更低吧。只要像中国这样的国家继续在清洁能源方面迈步,我们也必须迈步。

        同时,天然气的迅速发展开始让我们更加习惯清洁能源,并且让我们的能源依赖更加独立。我们需要鼓励这么做。这就是为什么我的这届政府会继续削减 繁文缛节,加速新的石油和天然气许可。(掌声)这一定要成为上述全部方案的一部分。但我也希望和这届国会一道,鼓励那些可以帮助天然气更加清洁、更加保护 我们空气和水资源的科研项目。

        事实上,我们多数新发现的能源是从我们共同生存且共同拥有的土地和水中提取的。因此今天晚上,我提议我们用我们的一些石油和天然气收入,成立一 个能源安全基金会,用以发展新科研,以让我们的汽车和卡车以后不再用石油。如果一个无党派的首席执行官团体和退休的将军们可以支持这一想法,那么我们也可 以支持。让我们听取他们的建议,让我们的家庭和商业从油价的持续痛苦中解放出来。

        我也给美国设定了一个新目标。让我们削减在过去20年中我们家庭和商业机构浪费掉的能源。(掌声)我们将会跟那些这么做的各州合作。那些提供创造就业岗位以及通过建造高效建筑以削减能源账单的最好想法的州,将会得到联邦政府的支持。

        美国的能源领域不过是我国继续改革的日益落伍的基础设施中的一部分。向任何首席执行官提问,他们想落户哪里或者在哪里招募人员——是选择一个公 路和桥梁日益恶化的国家,还是选择一个具有高铁和互联网、拥有高科技学校和自给自足电网的国家。美国西门子公司——一个给北卡罗来纳州数百份新工作的公司 ——它的首席执行官说,如果我们提升我们的基础设施建设,他们将会创造更多的就业岗位。那才是全世界很多工资的态度。而且我知道你们想在你们的小区看到这 些创造就业岗位的工程。我可是看见了全部的那些剪彩仪式哦。(笑声)

        所以今天晚上,我提议一个“先修补”的项目,让人们去那些最需要修补的地方工作,比如那些7万个已经损失构造的桥梁。(掌声)而且要确保纳税人 不能承担所有的重担。我还提议设立一个“重建美国伙伴”,以吸引私人投资,用以提升我们商业机构最需要的东西: 搬运我们货物的现代港口、经受得住风暴的 现代管道,以及让我们孩子感觉物有所值的现代学校。(掌声)让我们证明世界上没有哪个地方比在美国做生意更好。让我们现在就开始。我们可以完成。

        我们重建计划的一部分也必须包含房地产领域。好小时是,我们的房地产市场正在从2007年的垮塌中复苏。住房价格正在飙升,这在过去6年中速度是最快的。购房者上升了50%,房屋建筑又开始有拓展的迹象。

        但即使是抵押率接近50年来的最低点,太多拥有良好信誉的家庭想要买一套房子还是会被拒绝。太多从未拒绝交账单的并且想要再次筹钱的家庭被告知不可以。这让我们整个经济都得不到发展。我们必须改革。

        就在现在,在国会有个议案将会提供给美国每一个负责任的房产所有者一个机会,通过再次筹钱,给每个家庭节约每年3000美元的资金。民主党员们 和共和党员们以前支持过,那么为什么现在我们在等待呢?投票,然后递给我让我签署生效。(掌声)我们为什么会反对呢?(掌声)为什么那会是一个党派的问 题,以帮助民众再次筹钱?现在,一些重叠的法规让负责任的家庭不能购买他们的首套房子。让我们不这样做的理由是什么?让我们把流程变得简单化,帮助我们的 经济增长。

        这些在建造、能源、基础设施、房地产领域的倡议——这所有的一切都将帮助企业家和小企业拥有者扩张发展领域,创造新的就业岗位。但除非我们也对他们进行岗位培训,这些也都不会有用。(掌声)。

        这必须在最早的阶段实施。一次又一次的科学研究证实,一个孩子越早接受教育,他或者她就越平稳上路。但是现在,只有不到30%的4岁孩子可以享 受高质量的学前教育。大多数中产阶级父母不能支付私立学前教育每周上百美元的学费。而对那些最需要帮助的穷孩子来说,这种缺失学前教育的状况可以影响到他 们日后的生活。因而今晚,我提及和各州一道,让美国的每一个孩子都能享受到高质量的学前教育。(掌声)那是一些我们应该能够做到的事情。

        我们在高质量学前教育领域投入的每1美元,可以为我们节省以后在提升毕业率、降低未成年人怀孕率,甚至削减犯罪率的地方将会用到的7美元。在那 些以教育最小的儿童为优先任务的州,比如佐治亚州或者亚拉巴马州,研究报告称学生长大后会更加有能力阅读和做数学、从高中毕业、找到工作、建立他们自己更 稳定的家庭。我们知道这如何运转。因而让我们开始这么做,以确保我们,当我们已经在生命的领域落后的时候,没有一个孩子不开始起跑。让我们给我们的孩子提 供那样的机会。(掌声)

       让我们确保高中学历可以让我们的孩子走上一条拥有好工作的道路。现在,像德国这样的国家开始在和高中生等同的我们的一个高中生的技术学位上做投 入。所以那些德国孩子们,他们在高中毕业就准备好了可以工作。他们训练成为可以干那些工作的人。现在,就像那些在纽约布鲁克林区的“通往早期技术的大学高 中学校”一样,在一个纽约公立学校和城市大学以及IBM公司的一种新的合作办学模式下,学生毕业后,不仅能拿到高中学历,而且还能拿到在电脑或者工程学领 域的专科毕业证书。

        我们需要给每一个美国学生提供这样的机会。(掌声)

        四年前,我们开始了通往巅峰之竞赛——一种让每个州都确信可以发展智能课程表和高标准的竞赛,这大约花费我们每年用于教育领域投入的1%。今 晚,我宣布一个新的挑战,用以重新设计美国的高中,让他们能更好地提供给毕业生一种满足高科技经济需求的机会。我们将奖励和新大学及新雇主建立伙伴关系的 高中——这些技能是当今和未来的雇主正在寻找的。

        现在,即便拥有更好的高中,很多年轻人还是需要些高等教育。很简单的事实,如果你接受的教育越多,你拥有好工作且成为中产阶级的几率就越大。但是当今我们看到,飙升的学费让太多的年轻人上不起大学,或者让他们欠有不可持续的债务。

        通过税款减免、补助及更好的贷款,我们在过去几年已经让大学变得让数百万的学生和家庭能够承担得起。但是纳税人不可能继续自助越来越高的高等教育的经费。大学必须想办法控制自己的经费,而这也是我们的职责以确保他们这样做。(掌声)

        因此今晚,我向国会提议,修改高等教育法案。这样,哪些大学的可支付学费以及它们各自的价值就能被包含在联邦资助中。(掌声)明天我的政府班子 将会发布一个新的“大学记分卡”,这样家长和学生就能拿它用简单的标准来比较学校了。而这简单标准是——在哪个学校你用学费可以得到最多的快乐。

        现在,为了扩大我们的中产阶层,我们的公民必须接受教育和当今从事工作所必备的技能培训。同时我们也要确保,在美国的每一个人只要辛勤肯干,就能获得出人头地的机会。

        当我们充分发挥了人才和创新的作用,我们的经济才能更加强大,外来移民在这方面是大有希望的。(掌声)如今,来自商业、劳工、执法、宗教等领域的领导者,他们都认为是进行移民制度全面改革的时候了。(掌声)是时候做这件事了。是时候去完成这件事了。是时候去完成了。(掌声)

        真正的改革意味着需要更强有力的边境安全保障,我们能够继续推进这项政府早已在做的工作——史无前例地增加南部边境的安保力量,将非法越境事件降到40年来最低。

        真正的改革意味着需要建立一个负责人的公民权获取途径,包括身份背景审核、纳税及受罚情况、英语言学习情况,还要先来后到、依序依法等候。(掌声)

        真正的改革还意味着修正移民法律体系,以便缩短申请等候的时间,以及吸引那些能够创造就业岗位、带来经济增长的高技能创业家和工程技术人员。(掌声)

        换言之,我们知道自己需要做些什么。正如之前已经提到的,国会参众两院的有关团体正在勉力草拟一个法案,我对他们的努力表示赞赏。那么,让我们做好这件事吧。几个月以后请把移民制度全面改革的草案交给我,我会立即予以签署。美国将会因此变得刚好。(掌声)让我们做好这件事。让我们做好它。

        不过我们也不能就此止步。我们清楚,只有当我们的妻子、母亲、女儿能够免于在职场受歧视,免于家庭暴力,我们的经济才会更加强大。今天,参议院通过了最初由现任副总统乔·拜登将近20年前草拟的防止对妇女施暴法案,我希望众议院接下来也会予以批准。(掌声)干得好,乔。我还要请求国会宣布,女性应该得到与之付出相配的回报,并在今年内最终通过工资公平法案。(掌声)

        我们知道,只有当我们辛勤的工作获得体面的报酬时,我们的经济才会更加强大。但现在的情况是,一个全职工人每年最低工资仅为1.45万美元。即使把免税算上,一个拥有两个孩子的家庭最低工资仍处于贫困线以下。那是不对劲的。这就是为什么上次国会提高最低工资标准后,有19个州又在此基础上额外提高了标准。

        今晚,让我们在这个世上最富有的国家里宣告,没有一个全职工作者会被迫生活在贫困中,宣告将联邦最低工资标准提高至每小时9美元。(掌声)我们一定能够做好这件事。(掌声)

        这一步骤将提高几百万个工作家庭的收入。这可能意味着,原来靠救济券领取食品的人能够自己购买生活用品,原来被逐出房子的人能够租住下去,原来被生活抛弃的讲出人头地。对于全国的企业来说,这意味着拥有更多钱包满满的消费者。而对穷困人群来说,可能更少依赖于政府的救济。实际上,劳动者不必要一年又一年地等待最低工资标准的上升,而只需限制企业高管们的报酬上涨。这就是罗姆尼州长和我去年就已达成的共识,让我们将最低工资标准与生活成本挂钩,这样一来,你的最低标准总是能够支撑你的生活所需。(掌声)

        今晚,也让我们承认,这个国家确有一些人群他们无论怎么苦干都难以出人头地。一些工厂长期停工衰败。不可避免的贫困,无论城乡,年轻劳动力依旧为挣得第一份工作争破头。人们的命运不应该被他的出生状况和环境所决定,美国不是这样一个地方。这就是为什么我们要搭建新的机会的阶梯,让所有愿意攀登的人步入中产阶层的行列。

        让我们对那些为长期失业人群提供就业岗位的公司进行奖励。让我们引导人们重新建设那些衰败小区里冷落的家。今年,我的政府将帮助全国20个遭受贫困打击最严重的城镇重建家园。我们将与当地领导人一起,为他们争取公共安全、教育以及住房方面的资源。

        我们将通过减税鼓励企业用工和投资。我们将通过消除夫妻结婚的资金门槛来巩固家庭,并且进一步激励父亲的支撑力——因为男人之所以为男人并不是他有生孩子的能力,而是有养育孩子的勇气。而我们就是想要对此有所激励,有所帮助。(掌声)

        更强有力的家庭,更强有力的社区,然后才是一个更强有力的美国。正是这样的繁荣——包容、共享、建构于一个勤奋向上的中产阶层——才一直成为我们国内进步的来源。这也是我们的力量以及对整个世界的影响力的基础。

        今晚,我们共同肃立,向为保卫我们而每天都在作出牺牲的军人和平民致敬。因为有他们,我们能够充满信心地说,美国将完成在阿富汗的使命并达到挫败基地组织核心的目标。(掌声)

        我们早已从阿富汗撤回3.3万名英勇的男女军人。今年春天,我们的驻军将转变为协助的角色,而由阿富汗政府军将担当主角。今晚,我宣布另外3.4万美国军人明年内将从阿富汗回家。这一撤军进程将持续到明年底,到那时阿富汗战争将会结束。(掌声)

        2014年以后,美国关于帮助重建一个统一、主权完整的阿富汗的承诺将会继续,但我们承诺的实质性内容将会改变。我们正在与阿富汗政府商谈一个协议,主要集中于两项任务:训练和装备阿富汗军队,以使其不再陷入混乱;开展反恐行动,以追剿基地组织残余及分支机构。

        今天,在911事件中袭击我们的组织已经成为一个从前的影子。(掌声)然而,另外的基地组织分支以及极端组织已经崛起,从阿拉伯半岛到非洲。这些组织所构成的威胁正在增加。但应对这些威胁,我们不需要派遣几万儿女到海外占领别的国家,而只需要帮助诸如也门、利比亚、索马里这些国家加强自己的安保,以及帮助盟友打击恐怖分子,如前不久协助法国进军马里。但如果有需要,只要能力所及,我们还会继续采取直接行动,以对付那些对美国构成最严重威胁的恐怖分子。(掌声)

        现在,正如我们所做的,我们必须在战斗中遵循我们的价值观。这就是为什么我的政府不懈地构建一个持久的法律与政策框架,来指导我们的反恐斗争。我们已经让国会普遍知道这一努力。我认为,在我们的民主体制下,没有人可以武断地说我们在做的事情一定是正确的。因此在未来几个月里,我将继续与国会紧密接触,以确保不但我们对于恐怖分子的调查、拘禁和起诉是符合法律及制衡体系的,而且我们的作为对于美国人民以及全世界将更为透明。(掌声)

        当然,我们面临的挑战不会止于基地组织。美国将继续领导防止危险武器扩散的努力。朝鲜政权必须认识到,他们只有通过履行自己的国际义务才能实现安全与繁荣。我们在昨晚见到的那种挑衅行为只会进一步孤立他们,而我们将与盟友一起,加强自己的导弹防御系统,并领导国际社会采取坚决措施回应此类威胁。

      同样,伊朗领导人必须认识到,达成核问题外交方案的时机现在已经到了。因为多个国家联合起来要求他们履行他们的义务,而我们将采用必要手段防止他们拥有核武器。(掌声)

        同时,我们将与俄罗斯保持紧密接触,寻求进一步削减双方的核武器数量,继续领导世界确保核物质安全,防止它们落入错误之手。因为我们对他人的影响力,取决于我们领导和履行自身义务的意愿。

        美国还必须对面日益增长的网络攻击威胁。(掌声)现在我们已经知道,黑客盗取个人身份信息并渗入私人邮件,一些外国和公司偷走我们的商业机密,我们的敌人还试图获得破坏我国电网、金融机构和空管系统的能力。回首过去几年,我们禁不住要问,为什么我们的安全和经济面临如此真切的威胁却什么也没做。

        这就是为什么今天早些时候我签署了一个旨在加强网络防卫的行政命令。这项行政命令将通过强化情报共享、完善相关标准来保护我们的国家安全、工作岗位以及个人隐私。(掌声)

        但国会也应该立即行动,通过立法授予政府更大的权限来保卫我们的网络并挫败攻击。这件事情,我们通过两党合作能够做好。(掌声)

        即使是在保护自己人民的时候,我们也应该清楚,今天的世界不仅仅存在危险、威胁,它也产生机遇。为了增强美国的出口,支持美国的就业以及提升不断增长的亚洲市场的水准,我们要建立泛太平洋伙伴关系。今晚,我要宣布,我们将与欧盟开展全面的跨大西洋贸易与投资伙伴关系会谈,因为公平自由的跨大西洋贸易将有利于增加美国数百万个优质就业岗位。(掌声)

        我们也知道,那些世界上最贫困国家的进步有利于我们自身,不单单因为它创造了新的市场、数量更稳定的订单,而且它本身就是值得去做的正确的事情。在许多地方,人们靠每天一美元多一点的标准生活。为此,美国将与盟友们一起,在未来20年里根除这种极端贫困。而我们的采取的举措是:将更多的人纳入全球经济;拓展女性力量;向年轻有才能的人提供施展抱负的新机会;帮助社区自食其力、自我壮大和自我教育;在全球范围防止儿童不必要的死亡;实现“没有艾滋病的一代”的承诺。这些都是我们做能做到的。(掌声)

        你们知道,美国必须在这一历史性转变时期,为所有寻求自由的人们留一盏明灯。去年我去缅甸的仰光时看到了这一希望的力量。当时昂山素季将我引入她曾被软禁在那里好多年的家乡,几千名缅甸人站在街道两旁,挥舞着美国国旗,有个人说:“美国有正义和法律,我们的国家也要这样。”

        为了保卫自由,我们将继续担当从美洲到非洲、从欧洲到亚洲的强大联盟的中坚力量。在中东,我们将与那些争取普世权利的人站在一起,支持向民主制度的稳定过渡。(掌声)

        我们知道,转型的过程会带着混乱。我们不能假设转型的过程一定像埃及等国那样,但我们能够、也一定会坚持对人的基本权利的尊重。我们将对谋杀自己人民的叙利亚政权保持压力,并支持那些尊重每个叙利亚人权利的反对派领导人。我们也会坚定地同追求安全与持久和平的以色列站在一起。(掌声)

        下月我去中东访问时,将传递上述信息。所有这些工作,有赖于那些冒着巨大的个人风险在危险的岗位上工作的人们所付出的勇气和牺牲,他们有外交人员、情报人员和美国武装部队男女官兵。只要我还是总司令,我们将采取所有必要的手段来保护那些在海外执行任务的人,我们将保持一支世界上最好的军队。(掌声)

        尽管减少了浪费和战时支出,我们还是会加大能力建设方面的投入。我们将确保现役人员的同等待遇以及给予他们家庭的同等利益,不论同性恋或异性恋。(掌声)我们信赖姐妹、女儿和母亲们的勇气和技能,因为女性已经被证明做好了进入战场的准备。

        我们将信守对退伍军人的承诺,为了经历创伤的战士提供世界级的医护,包括精神护理;(掌声)援助军人家庭;给予退伍军人赢得的福利,以及受教育和工作的机会。在此,我也要感谢我的妻子米歇尔,和吉尔·拜登(副总统乔·拜登的妻子——译者注)博士,感谢她们长期致力于为军人家庭提供服务,当然她们也为我们服务。谢谢你,亲爱的。谢谢你,吉尔。(掌声)

        然而,保卫我们自由并不仅仅是军队的职责。我们必须从我做起,在国内保卫我们的天赋权利。其中最重要的基本民主权利之一是:投票权。(掌声)如果任何美国人——无论住在何处或属于哪个政党——因为等不起5个、6个或7个小时来投票而舍弃了这项权利,那么我们就被判了自己的理想。(掌声)

        因此,今晚我将宣布一个无党派的委员会,来改进美国的投票体验。当然,这最终需要通过国会批准。这个委员会将由两位实践领域的资深专家来领导,他们分别是我与罗姆尼州长竞选期间的最高法律顾问。我们可以解决这个问题。美国人要求解决这个问题,我们的民主制度也要去解决这个问题。(掌声)

        当然,如果我们不齐心协力保护我们最珍贵的资源——我们的孩子们,我今晚所说的这些就都没有意义。纽镇校园枪击事件已经过去两个月了。我知道这不是美国第一次就缓解涉枪暴力展开辩论,但这次有所不同。数量庞大的美国人——他们信赖第二修正案——联合起来希望改变常识,诸如设立持枪者背景情况调查,以使犯罪分子难以获得枪支。(掌声)来自两党的参议员联合起来草拟新的严格法律,以防止枪支转售给犯罪分子。警方要求我们立法禁止战争武器和大容量弹匣枪支携带上街,因为他们再也受不了警察反被对方火力压制。

        这些提案,每一个都都有理由交国会投票表决。(掌声)现在,如果你想投反对票,这是你的权利。但这些提案有理由提交表决。因为就在纽镇枪击事件两个月后,又有1000多个生日庆祝、毕业典礼、年度纪念被从我们的生活中偷走了,所用的是一支枪、一颗子弹。

        其中有一个失去生命的叫海迪亚·潘德尔顿的小女孩。她才15岁。她喜欢无花果酥和唇膏。她是学校的乐队指挥。她对朋友们很好,他们都把她当最好的朋友。就在三周以前,她还在华盛顿,和同学们一起在我的就职典礼上演奏。一周以后放学时,她在芝加哥一个公园里遭枪击身亡,那里离我家不过一英里。

        海迪亚的父母内特和克里欧今晚就在会场,同时在场还有20多名被涉枪暴力夺去亲人的美国人。他们有理由要求一个表决。他们有理由要求一个表决。(掌声)嘉比·吉福德有理由要求表决。(掌声)纽镇枪击案受害者家庭有理由要求表决。(掌声)奥罗拉电影院枪击案家庭有理由要求表决。(掌声)奥克里克、图森和布莱克斯堡的受害者家庭有理由要求表决。(掌声)无数被涉枪暴力摧毁的社区有理由要求表决——他们有理由要求一个简单的表决。(掌声)他们有理由要求一个简单的表决。

        我们的行动不可能防止这个国家所有无意义的暴力行为。事实上,没有哪个法律、倡议、行政行为能够完全完美地解决所有以上提到的挑战。但我们不是来寻求完美的。我们是来寻求力所能及的改变的,来保护国家、拓展机会,在困难且经常是令人沮丧的境况下坚持我们的理想,进行绝对必要的自我管理。

        我们是来为美国同胞寻求解决办法的,正如他们日复一日、默默无闻地相互为同胞寻找着解决办法。 我们应该以他们为榜样。

        我们应该以纽约市护士曼楚·桑切斯为榜样。当桑迪飓风笼罩她所在的医院时,她想到的不是自己的家,而是通过精心照料和施救,保全了医院里20个珍贵的新生儿。

        我们应该以北迈阿密女性德斯琳·维克多为榜样。她到投票点的时候,有人告诉她需要等6个小时,而她想到的不是身体的疲惫和脚的酸痛,而是像她一样的人能够投下自己的一票。时间一点点过去,一大群人在支持着她,因为德斯琳已经102岁了。(掌声)当她最终投下一票时,人群中爆发出热烈的欢呼声。(掌声)

        我们应该以警官布莱恩·墨菲为榜样。当一名枪手在威斯康辛州一个锡克教神庙开枪时,布莱恩第一个赶到,他不顾安危保护正在庙里参拜的公民,直到后援赶到。而他身中12枪,倒在地上流血不止。事后有人问他是如何做到的,布莱恩说:“我们就是干这些事的。”

        我们就是干这些事的。我们可能干着不同的工作,穿着不同的制服,怀着不同于身边人的想法。但作为美国人,我们共同拥有一个自豪的头衔:我们是公民。这个词不仅仅描述了我们的国籍或法律地位。它描述了我们是如何被造就的。它描述了我们所深信的。它体现了一个经久不变的信念,那就是:只有当我们接受对彼此、对后代的特定义务时,这个国家才会运转;我们自己的权利是通同他人的权利密不可分的;面向建国以来的第三个世纪,作为美利坚合众国公民的我们依旧面临一项任务,去书写美国传奇的下一个伟大篇章。

        谢谢你们。上帝保佑你们,上帝保佑美利坚合众国。(掌声)



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