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2018年诺贝尔医学或生理学奖预测

已有 2609 次阅读 2018-9-26 20:52 |个人分类:On Culture|系统分类:科研笔记

 2018年诺贝尔医学或生理学奖预测

首选项:
     

 单独获奖:
Joanne Chory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for discovering how plants optimize their growth, development, and cellular structure to transform sunlight into chemical energy.
(美国)

Kim Nasmyth, University of Oxford, for elucidating the sophisticated mechanism that mediates the perilous separation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division and thereby prevents genetic diseases such as cancer.
(英国)

共同获奖:


Don W. Cleveland, University of California, San Diego, for elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of a type of inherited ALS, including the role of glia in neurodegeneration, and for establishing antisense oligonucleotide therapy in animal models of ALS and Huntington disease.

Huda Yahya Zoghbi, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children’s Hospital and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for discoveries of the genetic causes and biochemical mechanisms of spinocerebellar ataxia and Rett syndrome, findings that have provided insight into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. 

John Hardy, University College London, for discovering mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene that cause early onset Alzheimer’s disease, linking accumulation of APP-derived beta-amyloid peptide to Alzheimer’s pathogenesis and inspiring new strategies for disease prevention.    

(美英3人组合)


共同获奖:

Peter Walter, University of California, San Francisco and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for elucidating the unfolded protein response, a cellular quality-control system that detects disease-causing unfolded proteins and directs cells to take corrective measures.

Kazutoshi Mori(森和俊), Kyoto University, for elucidating the unfolded protein response, a cellular quality-control system that detects disease-causing unfolded proteins and directs cells to take corrective measures.

Yoshinori Ohsumi, Tokyo Institute of Technology, for elucidating autophagy, the recycling system that cells use to generate nutrients from their own inessential or damaged components.(大偶良典,这个已经2016获奖)

(这个美日组合3人组获奖的机会大打折扣)但是我们可以加上Alexander Varshavsky (California Institute of Technology), for discovering critical molecular determinants and biological functions of intracellular protein degradation这个选项,组成“蛋白质监管三人诺奖组”(美日3人组)


共同获奖:


C. David Allis, The Rockefeller University, for the discovery of covalent modifications of histone proteins and their critical roles in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin organization, advancing the understanding of diseases ranging from birth defects to cancer.

Victor Ambros, University of Massachusetts Medical School, and Gary Ruvkun, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, for the discovery of a new world of genetic regulation by microRNAs, a class of tiny RNA molecules that inhibit translation or destabilize complementary mRNA targets.

(美国2人组合,表观遗传学)


共同获奖2人组合

Alim-Louis Benabid, Joseph Fourier University, for the discovery and pioneering work on the development of high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS), which has revolutionized the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

Mahlon DeLong (Emory University), for defining the interlocking circuits in the brain that malfunction in Parkinson's disease. This scientific foundation underlies the circuit-based treatment of Parkinson's disease by deep brain stimulation.


也说不定就给了“癌基因”和“抑癌基因”组合(3人组)

Charles L. Sawyers (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center),for cancer genes and targeted therapy.

Robert A. Weinberg (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Whitehead Institute), for characterization of human cancer genes.

Bert Vogelstein (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University), for cancer genomics and tumor suppressor genes.


做为美国率先发起的针对肿瘤的精准医学(Precison Medicine)的一种陪衬,从而夯实美国分子医学的领头雁地位。



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