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[转载]Technology, Medicine & Health, Chemistry news(Jan. 19)

已有 1234 次阅读 2015-1-20 17:35 |个人分类:新科技|系统分类:博客资讯|关键词:Technology, Medicine & Health, Chemistry, news|文章来源:转载

Nanotechnology news

Graphene multiplies the power of light

Could graphene turn light to electricity? Scientists have shown that graphene can convert a single photon into multiple electrons, showing much promise for future photovoltaic devices.

Researchers build an array of light detectors on a photonic chip able to record single photons

A large team of researchers with members from MIT, IBM, NASA's JPL and Columbia University has developed a process that that enables scalable integration of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on a range of photonic circuits. In their paper published in the journal Nature Communications, the team describes their new process and why they believe it may lead one day to a practical photonic quantum processor on a chip.

Technology news

Battery recipe: Deep-fried graphene pom-poms

In Korea, the work of materials scientists is making news worldwide this week, following publication of their article, "Spray-Assisted Deep-Frying Process for the In Situ Spherical Assembly of Graphene for Energy-Storage Devices," in Chemistry of Materials. Its eight authors used a spray of graphene oxide into hot solvent to form pom-pom-like particles suitable for electrodes and discussed the results of their spray-assisted deep-frying process. "A simple, spray-assisted method for the self-assembly of graphene was successfully demonstrated by using a high temperature organic solvent in a manner reminiscent of the deep-frying of food." Pratchi Patel, in Chemical & Engineering News, presented a detailed explanation of their accomplishments, saying they constructed round, pom-pom-like graphene microparticles by spraying the graphene oxide droplets into a hot solvent. Their process was like deep-frying. The technique could provide "a! simple, versatile means to make electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors, possibly leading to devices with improved energy and power densities."

OneWeb satellite constellation plan wants Internet for billions

OneWeb has announced a satellite constellation concept to make high-speed Internet and telephony available to billions of people lacking access. OneWeb plans to launch a network of satellites to deliver such access affordably, across the world. The Virgin Group and Qualcomm are initial investors for what Richard Branson said will be the world's largest-ever satellite network.

Oil price slump puts at risk clean energy push, experts say

Falling oil prices could have a negative impact on global efforts to develop renewable energy sources, experts warned Saturday at a conference in Abu Dhabi.

Robot pens bond with grandpas, corporate execs

You call this evolution? Software-driven handwritten signatures are yesterday. In 2015, we can use technology to the point where we not only turn to humans to make robots that look human but we turn to robots that write to make us look human.

System encourages creativity, makes robot-design fun

A new cardboard-robotic toolkit allows children to create custom robots they control wirelessly with hand gestures without formal education in programming or electronics.

Google deals out 'tough love' as it ends security updates for a billion Android users

Google's announcement that it will not provide security updates for older versions of its Android mobile operating system means that more than a billion users face growing security risks to their phones or tablets.

AT&T to take $10 billion in charges in 4Q

AT&T says it will record $10 billion in charges in its fourth quarter.

VC firms rain down cash on tech startups, is bubble brewing?

Cash rained down on startups in 2014, as venture capitalists poured a whopping $48.3 billion into new U.S. companies—levels not seen since before the dot-com bubble burst in 2001. Strong technology IPOs are luring investors chasing the next big return, but with valuations this high, critics suggest some investors may be setting themselves up for a major fall.

After Paris attacks, US and UK discuss privacy vs. security

President Barack Obama argued Friday that a resurgent fear of terrorism across Europe and the United States should not lead countries to overreact and shed privacy protections, even as British Prime Minister David Cameron pressed for more government access to encrypted communications used by U.S. companies.

Abu Dhabi fund offers $57 mn loans for clean energy

An Abu Dhabi fund said Sunday that it will provide $57 million worth of concessional loans for clean energy projects in five developing countries.

Snowplow tracking apps hold cities accountable for cleanup

As another storm flung snow at Chicago, Alexandra Clark wondered how she'd get to work. Like an increasing number of snowbound city dwellers, she had a ready tool at hand: an app that tracks hundreds of city snowplows in close to real time.

US penetrated N. Korea computer systems in 2010: report

The United States secretly penetrated North Korea's computer systems four years ago—a breach that allowed Washington to insist Pyongyang was to blame for the recent cyberattack on Sony Pictures, the New York Times reported Monday.

Bicyclists willing to ride up to 3 miles to catch bus, train, study shows

If three American metro areas are any indication, few people ride their bicycles to a bus or train station to commute to work, and those who do only travel an average of 1 to 2 miles. That suggests to a University of Florida researcher that American cities should make the 2-mile radius around transit hubs more bike-friendly.

Uber says it can create 50,000 jobs in Europe

The car-sharing start-up Uber can create as many as 50,000 jobs in Europe this year as part of a "new partnership" with European cities, its chief executive told a conference in Munich.

Dubai team creates virtual online tour of the Gulf boomtown

Armchair travelers can now take a virtual tour of Dubai skyscraper rooftops, glitzy hotel interiors and other sights in the Middle East's brashest city on their laptops or tablets.

Scientists discover a better metal contact that improves two-dimensional transistor performance

Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as molybdenum-disulfide (MoS2) are attracting much attention for future electronic and photonic applications ranging from high-performance computing to flexible and pervasive sensors and optoelectronics. But in order for their promise to be realized, scientists need to understand how the performance of devices made with 2D materials is affected by different kinds of metal electrical contacts.

Chevrolet helps customers put the brakes on rear crashes

Tailgating is great before football games, but in traffic, not so much. Rear-end crashes make up more than one in four of collisions reported to police each year, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration – and many are preventable.

Queensland Election Social Index to track social media campaign as it happens

Researchers from QUT's Social Media Research Group (SMRG) are ramping up their analysis of social media activities surrounding the Queensland state election campaign this year, by drawing on cutting-edge social media analytics technologies developed at QUT.

US and UK play war games as banks try to get their act together on hacking

The financial institutions of the City of London and Wall Street are to take part in a series of "war game" exercises aimed at testing their resilience to cyber attack. The announcement comes as prime minister David Cameron travelled to the White House to discuss with president Barack Obama closer UK-US intelligence and cybersecurity cooperation.

Optic fiber for recording the temperature in extreme industrial environments

Optic fiber is normally used in the field of telecommunications to transmit information using light, but a group of researchers at the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) has developed a technique that makes it possible to use optic fiber as a thermometer in extreme industrial environments.

Amazon to produce, acquire original movies (Update)

Amazon is getting into the movie business.

Clean energy risks over oil price fall: French minister

The fall in oil prices poses a threat to global efforts to boost renewable energy use and lower carbon emissions, France's ecology and energy minister said Monday.

UAE says falling oil prices will not impact clean energy

The United Arab Emirates on Monday downplayed fears that the fall in oil prices could negatively impact the development of renewable energy projects.

Bangladesh shuts down messaging services to quell violence

Bangladeshi telecoms authorities Sunday shut down smartphone messaging and voice services Viber and Tango, which have become a popular communication medium for supporters of the anti-government protests now in their third week.

Starving the energy monster for energy efficient buildings

There are one and a half million commercial buildings in the U.S. Less than ten percent of them have energy management systems. Technology from a Siemens company in Austin, Texas has what it takes to steadily ramp down this huge sector's appetite for energy.

Medicine & Health news

Brain recalls old memories via new pathways

People with anxiety disorders, such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), often experience prolonged and exaggerated fearfulness. Now, an animal study suggests that this might involve disruption of a gradual shifting of brain circuitry for retrieving fear memories. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have discovered in rats that an old fear memory is recalled by a separate brain pathway from the one originally used to recall it when it was fresh.

How does the brain adapt to the restoration of eyesight?

Recent scientific advances have meant that eyesight can be partially restored to those who previously would have been blind for life. However, scientists at the University of Montreal and the University of Trento have discovered that the rewiring of the senses that occurs in the brains of the long-term blind means that visual restoration may never be complete.

Researchers discover 'idiosyncratic' brain patterns in autism

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been studied for many years, but there are still many more questions than answers. For example, some research into the brain functions of individuals with autism spectrum have found a lack of synchronization ('connectivity') between different parts of the brain that normally work in tandem. But other studies have found the exact opposite - over-synchronization in the brains of those with ASD.

Common degenerative eye disease may be triggered by tiny mineral deposits

New research from scientists at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UM SOM) has found that tiny lumps of calcium phosphate may be an important triggering factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative eye disease that can cause severe vision loss and blindness. This is the first time these mineral deposits have been implicated in the disease, which affects more than 10 million Americans. The article appeared in the latest issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Bed nets and vaccines: Some combinations may worsen malaria

Combining insecticide-treated bed nets with vaccines and other control measures may provide the best chance at eliminating malaria, which killed nearly 600,000 people worldwide in 2013, most of them African children.

Know your enemy: Combating whooping cough requires informed vaccine booster schedules

A key to victory in battle, according to Chinese general and military strategist Sun Tzu, is to know your enemy. In the current fight against whooping cough resurgence, perhaps the biggest obstacle is an incomplete understanding of its underlying causes, according to a University of Michigan population ecologist.

Insights into a rare genetic disease

Recently, a grassroots effort initiated by families and clinicians led to the discovery of a human genetic disorder with severe consequences that is linked to a mutation in the human NGLY1 gene. In a big step towards understanding the effects of this mutation, research by scientists at the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center in Japan implicates the enzyme ENGase as the factor responsible for deficient protein degradation that occurs in the absence of mouse Ngly1 gene expression. Published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, the paper details how lack of the Ngly1 peptide results in the incomplete removal of the sugar portion of glycoproteins—a process called deglycosylation. The result is that proteins that should be broken down in the cytostol are instead aggregated in the cells.

New cellular pathway triggering allergic asthma response identified

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, with collaborators in Korea and Scotland, have identified a novel signaling pathway critical to the immune response of cells associated with the initiation of allergic asthma. The discovery, they say, could point the way to new therapies that suppress the inflammatory allergic response, offering potential relief to millions of Americans with the chronic lung condition and potentially other allergic diseases.

Industrialisation, WWI helped fuel TB spread, study says

A virulent group of tuberculosis germs spread from East Asia in waves propelled by industrialisation, World War I and Soviet collapse to yield some of the drug-resistant strains plaguing the world today, a study said Monday.

Mystery kidney disease killing Sri Lankan farmers

Karunawathie isn't hungry for breakfast. She rarely is these days, but she forces herself to choke down a few bites of rice, dried fish and a simple coconut mix. The doctors say it's better to have something in her stomach before the four-hour dialysis treatments.

Two die of bird flu in China

Two people have died of the H7N9 strain of avian flu in China's eastern province of Fujian, state media said Saturday, quoting local health officials.

Study identifies geographic clusters of underimmunization in Northern California

Researchers used spatial analysis software and electronic medical records to identify clusters of underimmunization and vaccine refusal among Kaiser Permanente members in Northern California, according to a study published today in the journal Pediatrics.

Gut microbes trigger autoimmune disease later in life in mice

Researchers have revealed that the colonization of the gut of young mice by certain types of bacteria can lead to immune responses later in life that are linked to disease. Increases in the levels of segmented filamentous bacteria can trigger changes in the lymphoid tissue of the mouse gut that result in the production of antibodies that attack components of the cell nucleus. This type of damage is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis where organs throughout the body are damaged by wayward immune responses. The findings are published in The EMBO Journal.

'Lifestyle' diseases kill 16 mn prematurely: WHO

Diseases linked to lifestyle choices, including diabetes and some cancers, kill 16 million people prematurely each year, the World Health Organization said Monday, urging action to stop the "slow-moving public health disaster".

To beet or not to beet? Researchers test theories of beet juice benefits

Athletes who down beet juice before exercising to increase blood flow and improve performance may be surprised at the results of a recent study conducted at Penn State's Noll Laboratory. While beetroot juice rich in nitrates did not enhance muscle blood flow or vascular dilation during exercise, researchers found that it did "de-stiffen" blood vessels under resting conditions, potentially easing the workload of the heart.

How decision making and personality may be related to weight

Monash University researchers are investigating how people's decision making ability and personality may be related to how much they weigh.

Common risk factor for heart disease may be more prevalent among football players, study shows

Researchers at the Emory University School of Medicine have found that after completing one full season of college football, players demonstrate relatively stiffer arteries compared to other non-athletic college students. Findings were published in the Jan. 15 edition of the American Journal of Cardiology.

Secondhand smoke and cavities: Research indicates link between the two

Exposure to secondhand smoke could make children more susceptible to cavities, although more research is needed before it can be considered a risk factor. One way to accomplish this would be to look for evidence of exposure to nicotine in the blood of young children, suggests a Tufts dentist.

Obama child and sick leave directive more inclusive for low-income families—including men

President Barack Obama signed a memorandum Jan. 15 directing agencies to allow federal workers to take six weeks of paid sick leave to help with a new child or a sick relative.

Uneven impact found for those with serious mental illness in transition from Medicaid to Medicare Part D

When Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage started in 2006, many experts voiced concerns about disabled patients with serious mental illness making the transition from Medicaid to Medicare.

Ex-offenders not using mental health services

Ex-offenders in Western Australia may not be seeking out or receiving the mental health services they need, research suggests.

Breast cancer research shapes prevention policy with leading US health body

A ground-breaking resolution developed by University of Stirling academics on the elevated breast cancer risk faced by women in certain occupations has been adopted by the influential American Public Health Association (APHA), the largest public health organization in the world.

Early parental program improves long-term childhood outcomes

Children whose parents participated in a prenatal program aimed at enhancing couples' co-parenting relationship were better adjusted at age seven than children whose parents were assigned to a control group, according to Penn State researchers.

School cafeterias use technology to create healthy eating 'report card'

Childhood obesity is a national issue and many communities have looked to their schools for help. While schools are required to follow new federal guidelines for healthier lunch options, whether students are actually eating the healthier food provided and making healthier behavior changes have yet to be determined.

Early knee arthritis symptoms first felt when using stairs

People who suffer from knee pain when using the stairs may be experiencing the early symptoms of osteoarthritis, according to a new University of Leeds study.

Parents seek school readiness tests for children

Do children have the self-help, social-emotional and cognitive skills to cope with the school year ahead?

Terpenes inhibit liver cancer

As main component of essential oils, terpenes can inhibit the growth of different cancer cells. Researchers from the Ruhr-University Bochum headed by Prof Dr Dr Dr Hanns Hatt have analysed this process in liver cancer cells in detail. They shed light upon the molecular mechanisms that resulted in cancer cells stop growing, following the application of (-)-citronellal, and they proved that the olfactory receptor OR1A2 is the crucial molecule for that purpose. In future, the olfactory receptor could serve as target for liver cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Pizza takes a slice out of kids' health, study finds

(HealthDay)—On the days your kids eat pizza, they likely take in more calories, fat and sodium than on other days, a new study found.

Family income, expectations tied to kindergarten performance

(HealthDay)—U.S. children entering kindergarten do worse on tests when they're from poorer families with lower expectations and less focus on reading, computer use and preschool attendance, new research suggests.

Cold effects on skin in raynaud's impacted by age, BMI

(HealthDay)—For patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), cold-induced decrease in skin temperature is related to age and body mass index (BMI), according to a study published in the January issue of Arthritis & Rheumatology.

Nutritional supplement reduces hair loss in females

(HealthDay)—A nutritional supplement with specific omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and antioxidants can improve hair density and reduce the telogen percentage, according to a study published online Jan. 8 in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology.

Vaccine opponents often cluster in communities

(HealthDay)—Parents who refuse to have their children vaccinated appear to be clustered in certain areas, a new study suggests.

Prostate cancer mortality benefit seen for family Hx-based screens

(HealthDay)—Screening white men with a family history of prostate cancer appears to be associated with a decrease in prostate cancer-specific mortality, according to a study published in the January issue of The Journal of Urology.

A new neural circuit controls fear in the brain

Some people have no fear, like that 17-year-old kid who drives like a maniac. But for the nearly 40 million adults who suffer from anxiety disorders, an overabundance of fear rules their lives. Debilitating anxiety prevents them from participating in life's most mundane moments, from driving a car to riding in an elevator. Today, a team of researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) describes a new pathway that controls fear memories and behavior in the mouse brain, offering mechanistic insight into how anxiety disorders may arise.

Couples more likely to get healthy together

People are more successful in taking up healthy habits if their partner makes positive changes too, according to research published in JAMA Internal Medicine today (Monday).

Study suggests increase in falls among the elderly

Over a 12-year period, the prevalence of self-reported falls among older adults appeared to be on the rise, according to a new nationally representative study.

Researchers identify rare shared genetic mutation for disease in Inuit

A team of Canadian and Japanese researchers has identified the genetic mutation responsible for glycogen storage disease type IIIa in Inuit in northern Quebec, Canada, in a study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). The paper identifies a mutation in the gene encoding the glycogen debranching enzyme (AGL), which had previously been undetected in a decade of investigation by the same authors.

First successful organ donation from newborn carried out in UK

The very first successful organ donation from a newborn carried out in the UK is reported in the Fetal & Neonatal Edition of Archives of Disease in Childhood.

UK holds first trial over female genital mutilation

A London doctor went on trial on Monday for carrying out female genital mutilation in only the first such case to be prosecuted in Britain despite pressure from campaigners.

AbbVie's new hepatitis C treatment gets approval in EU

Drugmaker AbbVie Inc. said Monday that its new, all-pill hepatitis C combo treatment has been approved for patients in the 28 European Union member countries.

Could the Pap smear be ousted by HPV testing?

A Pleasanton firm that received FDA approval for a test against cervical cancer said it has gained the support of a panel of medical experts to use the test as a frontline screening for women as young as 25, but the announcement only reopened the debate of whether the mainstay of women's health, the Pap smear, will become a thing of the past.

Chinese need to exercise more, smoke less, new report says

More than three million Chinese are dying prematurely each year from diseases that could be prevented with regular exercise and programs to cut smoking and alcohol abuse, the World Health Organization said in a report released Monday.

A bit more salt each day may not harm older adults

(HealthDay)—Consuming a "modest" amount of salt might not harm older adults, but any more than that can damage health, a new study finds.

TV alcohol ads tied to problem drinking for teens, study finds

(HealthDay)—A new study finds a link between the number of TV ads for alcohol a teen views, and their odds for problem drinking.

Overactive bladder a common problem, FDA says

(HealthDay)—More than 33 million Americans suffer from overactive bladder, including 40 percent of women and 30 percent of men, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration says.

Mindfulness intervention de-stresses cancer survivors

(HealthDay)—A brief mindfulness-based intervention has a positive short-term effect on psychological and behavioral measures as well as proinflammatory signal markers in younger breast cancer survivors, according to a study published online Dec. 23 in Cancer.

BMI and waist circumference are frequently discordant

(HealthDay)—Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are frequently discordant, generally because of variability in visceral adiposity (VAT) within BMI categories, according to a study published in the Feb. 1 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

Rx adherence lower for patients new to diabetes therapy

(HealthDay)—Factors associated with adherence to medications for treatment of diabetes include experience with diabetes therapy and related costs, thus efforts to reduce out-of-pocket costs may result in higher adherence, according to research findings published online Jan. 8 in Diabetes Care.

Supplements curb isotretinoin-associated triglyceride increase

(HealthDay)—For patients with preexisting hypertriglyceridemia, ω-3 fatty acid (ω-3FA) supplementation stabilizes the expected increase in triglycerides during isotretinoin therapy, according to research published in the January issue of JAMA Dermatology.

Age at gluten introduction not linked to risk of celiac disease

(HealthDay)—The age of introduction of gluten is not associated with risk of celiac disease (CD) in genetically predisposed children, according to a study published online Jan. 19 in Pediatrics.

Obesity more expensive to treat than smoking

(HealthDay)—Annual health care expenses are substantially higher for smokers and the obese, compared with nonsmokers and people of healthy weight, according to a report published online Dec. 24 in Public Health. In fact, obesity is actually more expensive to treat than smoking on an annual basis, the report author concludes.

Epidural steroid injections tied to small surgery-sparing effect

(HealthDay)—For patients with low back pain, epidural steroid injections (ESIs) could reduce the need for surgery, but the evidence is limited, according to research published in the Feb. 1 issue of The Spine Journal.

Fighting the spread of HIV by posing on the dance floor

Baltimore's health department is taking a unique approach to fighting HIV.

Mali government, UN declare country Ebola-free (Update)

The Malian government and the United Nations on Sunday declared the country free of Ebola after 42 days without any new cases of the deadly virus.

Guinea schools reopen, but Ebola fears still keep many home

Schools shuttered during the height of the Ebola crisis in Guinea began reopening Monday, but many parents were still too afraid to send their children to classes.

Schools reopening as W.Africa turns page on Ebola epidemic

Children on Monday trickled back to school in Guinea, where the Ebola epidemic broke out in December 2013, as west Africa cautiously began turning the page on the deadly outbreak.

Chemistry news

Cellulose with Braille for cells

Artificial implants such as pacemakers often cause complications because the body identifies them as foreign objects. Researchers at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated a simple method to fabricate cellulose-sheaths for implants, whose micro-structured surface makes them especially biocompatible.

Preserving the genetic diversity of livestock species

Muhammad Anzar, a research scientist for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, is an expert in cryopreservation—you know, freezing living matter to cheat death.

Global bonds boost chemists' pace of research and discovery

A pair of chemistry graduate students, from Emory and Nagoya University in Japan, combined forces to demonstrate how a newer, more efficient strategy can be applied to synthesize natural compounds that hold potential medicinal benefits.

How stable are arsenic compounds found in edible algae?

Researchers at UPM have studied the stability of diverse arsenic species found in edible marine algae and have established the best conditions for their storage and preservation.

Switchable adhesion principle enables damage-free handling of sensitive devices even in vacuum

Researchers at the Leibniz Institute for New Materials (INM) enhanced the Gecko adhesion principle such that adhesion can be switched on and off in vacuum.




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