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根据科学家做出发明与发现的地点来推定哪里是诺贝尔奖的摇篮 精选

已有 2814 次阅读 2021-1-25 07:29 |个人分类:科学计量学研究|系统分类:观点评述

根据科学家做出发明与发现的地点来推定哪里是诺贝尔奖的摇篮

武夷山

 

    很多人都想知道哪些机构是诺贝尔奖的摇篮,即培养了众多诺贝尔奖得主的地方。遗憾的是,许多人统计的是宣布诺贝尔奖时那些获奖者的所在机构。而如果尊重历史,我们应该关注的是诺奖得主做出其重大发现或发明时的工作机构。

    在2020年7月在线出版的英国皇家学会主办的科学史刊物Notes and Records(注记与记录)上,Kevin Orrman-Rossiter(博主:他目前在澳大利亚墨尔本大学从事产学研促进业务,但他一直对科学在社会中的作用抱有浓厚的学术兴趣)发表了题为《“发明与发现”的地点和诺贝尔物理学奖》的文章(https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsnr.2020.0014),对1901-2019年间所有诺贝尔物理学奖得主做出获奖成果时的机构进行了统计分析。

    本博主将Kevin Orrman-Rossiter根据物理学诺奖得主做出其重大发现或发明时的工作机构统计出的清单称为A清单,按照宣布诺贝尔奖时诺奖得主所在机构统计出的清单称为B清单,二者有不小的差异。

    比如,A清单的第一名是英国剑桥大学,8.83名(如果两机构的两个人共同获奖,每个机构算是有0.5人获奖,以此类推)物理学诺奖得主在这里的实验室、图书馆或办公室工作期间做出了重大成果。加利福尼亚大学系统处于B清单的第一位,而在A清单上屈居第6位。B清单上有39家机构与物理学诺奖得主做出发现和发明的地点毫无关联。。

    A清单的第2名是美国贝尔实验室(5.25人),可见认为企业在基础研究中的地位不重要的看法是不符合历史事实的。另外还可以注意到,A清单的前20名中有国家支持的科研机构的身影,如苏联科学院物理问题研究所和欧洲核子研究组织。

 

    下面是文章中的表1。

 

Copyright © 2021 The Royal Society

Table 1. Institutions where Physics Nobel    Laureates worked when they made their respective discoveries or inventions.

Ranking

Institute

Aggregate

Award year(s)

Affiliation aggregate

Affiliation ranking

1

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

8.83

1983, 1977, 1974, 1973, 1951, 1948,   1935, 1933, 1928, 1927, 1915, 1906

3.83

5

2

Bell Telephone Laboratories, (Holmdel,   NJ; Murray Hill, NJ; New York, NY, including AT&T Labs) USA

5.25

2018, 2009, 1998, 1997, 1981, 1978,   1977, 1972, 1956, 1937

2.67

12

3

Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

4.33

1988, 1975, 1964, 1957, 1955, 1944

2.67

12

4

Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA

3.42

2005, 2004, 1989, 1981, 1965, 1952,   1946

4.08

4

5

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

3.33

1996, 1982, 1967, 1965

2.67

12

6

University of California (Berkeley,   Irvine, La Jolla, Santa Barbara), CA, USA

3.25

2011, 1968, 1959, 1939

6.17

1

7

L'Université de Paris (Sorbonne),   Paris, France

3.00

1929, 1926, 1908

3.00

8

7

Leiden University, Leiden, The   Netherlands

3.00

1913, 1910, 1902

1.50

18

7

University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

3.00

1979, 1975, 1932, 1922

1.33

25

10

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL,   USA

2.75

2008, 1969, 1963, 1923

3.00

8

11

Massachusetts Institute of Technology   (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA

2.33

2017, 2001, 1990, 1979, 1976

3.33

7

12

Princeton University, Princeton, NJ,   USA

2.17

2019, 2004, 1980

3.83

5

13

Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität (now   Humboldt-Universität), Berlin, Germany

2.00

1925, 1918

1.50

18

13

CERN (European Organization for   Nuclear Research), Geneva, Switzerland

2.00

1992, 1984

1.33

25

13

Julius-Maximilians-Universität   Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

2.00

1985, 1901

1.00

27

13

Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

2.00

1945, 1943



17

P. L. Kapitza Institute for Physical   Problems (Russian Academy of Sciences), Moscow, Russia

1.83

2003, 1978, 1962

1.50

18

17

P. N. Lebedev Institute of Physics   (Russian Academy of Sciences), Moscow, Russia

1.83

2003, 1964, 1958

1.41

24

19

California Institute of Technology   (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA

1.50

2017, 1983, 1936

4.17

3

19

IBM Zurich Research Laboratory,   Rüschlikon, Switzerland

1.50

1987, 1986

1.50

18

19

école Normale Supérieure, Paris,   France

1.50

2012, 1966

1.00

27

19

Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt,   Berlin, Germany

1.50

1954, 1911



23

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

1.33

1990, 1961, 1952

5.08

2

23

Collège de France, Paris, France

1.33

1997, 1991

1.83

17

23

University of London (incl. Imperial   College, King's College and University College), London, UK

1.33

1979, 1947

3.00

8

26

Rheinische   Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany

1.25

1989, 1905

0.25

87

27

National Institute of Standards and   Technology, Boulder, CO, and Gaithersburg, MD, USA

1.08

2012, 2005, 1997

0.83

47

28

University of Manchester, Manchester,   UK

1.00

2010

2.50

15

28

Bristol University, Bristol, UK

1.00

1950

1.00

27

28

Bureau International des Poids et   Mesures (International Bureau of Weights and Measures), Sèvres, France

1.00

1920

1.00

27

28

Groningen University, Groningen, The   Netherlands

1.00

1953

1.00

27

28

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität   München, München, Germany

1.00

1914

1.00

27

28

Rome University, Rome, Italy

1.00

1938

1.00

27

28

Royal Institution of Great Britain,   London, UK

1.00

1904

1.00

27

28

Swedish Gas-Accumulator Co.,   Lidingö-Stockholm, Sweden

1.00

1912

1.00

27

28

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK

1.00

1917

1.00

27

28

Georg-August-Universität Göttingen,   Göttingen, Germany

1.00

1963, 1954

0.50

51

28

Utrecht University, Utrecht, The   Netherlands

1.00

1999

0.50

51

28

University of Michigan, Ann Arbour,   MI, USA

1.00

1960

0.25

87

28

British Thomson-Houston Co., Rugby, UK

1.00

1971



28

Case School of Applied Science (now   Case Western Reserve University), Cleveland, OH, USA

1.00

1907



28

Federal Office for Intellectual   Property, Bern, Switzerland

1.00

1921



28

Indian Association for the Cultivation   of Science, Calcutta (now Kolkata), India

1.00

1930



28

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,   Berkeley & University of California, Berkeley

1.00

2011, 2006

0.50

51

28

Osaka Imperial University, Osaka,   Japan

1.00

1949



28

SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator   Center), Stanford, CA, USA

1.00

1995, 1976



28

Technische Hochschule (now RWTH Aachen   University), Aachen, Germany

1.00

1913



28

University of Lund, Lund, Sweden

1.00

1924



28

University of Massachusetts Amherst,   MA, USA

1.00

1993



50

University of Birmingham, Birmingham,   UK

0.75

2016,



50

University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

0.75

2015, 2002

0.25

87

52

JILA (formerly Joint Institute for   Laboratory Astrophysics), Boulder, CO USA

0.67

2001



52

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

0.67

2014

0.33

77

52

University of Colorado, CO, USA

0.67


0.92

46

55

University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

0.50

2013

2.00

16

55

Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

0.50

1981

1.50

18

55

école municipale de physique et de   chimie industrielles (Municipal School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry),   Paris, France

0.50

1903

0.50

51

55

Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich,   Germany

0.50

2007

0.50

51

55

University of Geneva, Geneva,   Switzerland

0.50

2019

0.50

51

55

Institute for Advanced Study,   Princeton, NJ, USA

0.50

1957

0.50

51

55

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center,   Greenbelt, MD, USA

0.50

2006

0.50

51

55

Royal Institute of Technology,   Stockholm, Sweden

0.50

1970

0.50

51

55

Standard Telecommunication   Laboratories, Harlow, UK

0.50

2009

0.50

51

55

Strasbourg University, Strasbourg,   Alsace (then Germany, now France)

0.50

1909

0.50

51

55

Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX, USA

0.50

2000

0.50

51

55

The Wireless Telegraph & Signal   Company (Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co.), London, UK

0.50

1909

0.50

51

55

Université de Grenoble, Grenoble,   France

0.50

1970

0.50

51

55

Université Libre de Bruxelles,   Bruxelles, Belgium

0.50

2013

0.50

51

55

Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France

0.50

2007

0.50

51

55

American Science & Engineering   (AS&E), Billerica, MA, USA

0.50

2002



55

Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory, Deep   River, ON, Canada

0.50

1994



55

Institute for Radium Research, Vienna,   Austria

0.50

1936



55

Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM,   USA

0.50

1995



55

Muséum national d'histoire naturelle,   Paris, France

0.50

1903



55

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak   Ridge, TN, USA

0.50

1994



55

Queen's University, Kingston, ON,   Canada

0.50

2015



55

Technische Hochschule (now   Universität) Munich, Germany

0.50

1961



55

Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin,   Germany

0.50

1986



55

Universität Zürich, Zürich,   Switzerland

0.50

1933



55

University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK

0.50

1937



55

University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

0.50

1915



55

Washington University, St Louis, MI,   USA

0.50

1927



55

University of Rochester, Rochester,   NY, USA

0.50

2018



84

University of Illinois,   Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA

0.33

1972

1.00

27

84

Tokyo University of Education, Tokyo,   Japan

0.33

1965

0.33

77

84

Lawrence Livermore National   Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA

0.33

1998



84

Nichia Corporation, Tokushima, Japan

0.33

2014



84

University of Sussex, Brighton and   Hove, Brighton, UK

0.33

2003



84

University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,   USA

0.33

1977



90

Max-Planck-Institut (previously also   Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut), Germany

0.25

2005

2.75

11

90

Australian National University, Weston   Creek, Australia

0.25

2011

0.25

87

90

General Electric Company, Schenectady,   NY, USA

0.25

1973

0.25

87

90

University of Southern California, Los   Angeles, CA, USA

0.25

2016



90

University of Washington, Seattle, WA,   USA

0.25

1989

0.25

87

90

A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical   Institute (Russian Academy of Sciences), St Petersburg, Russia

0.25

2000

0.25

87

90

Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton,   NY, USA

0.25

2002



90

Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

0.25

2008



90

High Energy Accelerator Research   Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan

0.25

2008

0.25

87

90

Technische Hochschule (now   Universität) Hannover, Germany

0.25

1963



90

Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo (now Sony Corp.),   Tokyo, Japan

0.25

1973



90

Varian Associates (now part of Agilent   Technologies), Palo Alto, CA, USA

0.25

2000




Amsterdam University, Amsterdam, The   Netherlands



1.50

18


Calcutta University, Kolkata, India



1.00

27


Carnegie Institute of Technology,   Pittsburgh, PA, USA



1.00

27


Department of Scientific and   Industrial Research, London, UK



1.00

27


école Supérieure de Physique et   Chimie, Paris, France



1.00

27


Frankfurtam Main University, Frankfurtam   Main, Germany



1.00

27


Greifswald University, Greifswald,   Germany



1.00

27


Kiel University, Kiel, Germany



1.00

27


Kyoto Imperial University, Kyoto,   Japan



1.00

27


Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany



1.00

27


Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,   Heidelberg, Germany



0.75

48


University of Moscow, Moscow, Russia



0.67

49


University of Pennsylvania,   Philadelphia, PA, USA



0.58

50


Associated Universities, Washington,   DC, USA



0.50

51


Atomic Energy Research Establishment,   Harwell, UK



0.50

51


école Polytechnique, Paris, France



0.50

51


Enrico Fermi Institute, University of   Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA



0.50

51


Halle University, Halle, Germany



0.50

51


Innsbruck University, Innsbruck,   Austria



0.50

51


McMaster University, Hamilton, ON,   Canada



0.50

51


Technische Universität München,   Germany



0.50

51


Trinity College Dublin, Dublin,   Ireland



0.50

51


Unaligned



0.50

51


Digital Pathways, Mountain View, CA,   USA



0.33

77


Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne,   IL, USA



0.33

77


Beckman Instruments, Mountain View,   CA, USA



0.33

77


Brown University, Providence, RI, USA



0.33

77


Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,   Batavia, IL, USA



0.33

77


International Centre for Theoretical   Physics, Trieste, Italy



0.33

77


Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan



0.33

77


Nordita, Copenhagen, Denmark



0.33

77


IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center,   Yorktown Heights, NY, USA



0.25

87


Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,   MD, USA



0.25

87


Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto, Japan



0.25

87


University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON,   Canada



0.25

87

 




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