武夷山分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/Wuyishan 中国科学技术发展战略研究院研究员;南京大学信息管理系博导

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古今博学多才者名单

已有 2198 次阅读 2018-5-10 06:36 |个人分类:科文交汇|系统分类:博客资讯

 

古今博学多才者名单

武夷山  

(出处:http://www.johnchiappone.com/polymaths.html

 

•Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922),亚历山大.格雷厄姆.贝尔,电话发明者、科学家、工程师。
 

•George Antheil (1900–1959),美国先锋作曲家、钢琴家、作家、内分泌学家、发明家。  

•Gregory Bateson (1904–1980),格雷戈里.贝特森,英国人类学家、社会学家、符号学家、语言学家和控制论学者。

     博主:我有一篇短文“我们身边的双重束缚”是介绍他的思想的,见http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-1557-1806.html 

 

•Imhotep (2650–2611 BC), 伊姆霍特普,埃及人,曾任相当于宰相的权臣、医生、建筑师。


•Pythagoras (580–490 BC),
毕达哥拉斯,古希腊数学家、哲学家、科学家。
 

•Aristotle (384–322 BC), 亚里士多德,古希腊哲学家,其研究领域包括:物理学、形而上学、诗学、戏剧学、音乐学、逻辑学、修辞学、政治学、伦理学、生物学、动物学等。 

  

•Archimedes (c.287–c.212 BC),阿基米德,古希腊数学家、物理学家、工程师、发明家、天文学家。  

 
•Claudius Ptolemy (90 – 168 AD),托勒密,科学家、数学家、天文学家、地理学家和诗人。


•Zhang Heng (78-139),
张衡,中国汉朝政治家、历史学家、哲学家、诗人、数学家、天文学家、地理学家、制图学家、画家、雕塑家和发明家。

•Hypatia (350 ? - 415 AD),希帕蒂亚,古希腊数学家、哲学家和天文学家。她居住在埃及,被基督教暴民杀害。  

  

•Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber) (721–815) ,阿布·穆萨·贾比尔·伊本·哈扬,阿拉伯的穆斯林化学家、炼金术师、天文学家、工程师、药学家、医生、哲学家、物理学家。

•Al-Khwarizmi (c. 780–850), 阿尔·花剌子模,乌孜别克族数学家、天文学家和地理学家。

 

•Ziryab (789-857), 齐亚卜,伊拉克诗人、音乐家、歌手、美容师、时装设计师、天文学家、植物学家和地理学家。

 
•Al-Kindi (Alkindus) (801–873),
阿尔.肯迪,阿拉伯天文学家、地理学家、数学家、气象学家、音乐家、哲学家、医生、物理学家和政治家。他写了265部专著。

 
•Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (Rhazes) (865–925),
穆罕默德·伊本·扎卡里亚-拉齐,波斯医生、炼金术师、化学家和哲学家。

 

•Abhinavagupta (975–1025), 阿毗那婆笈多,印度哲学家、文学批评家、音乐家、诗人、戏剧家、舞蹈家和逻辑学家。

 
•Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1039),
海什木,伊拉克物理学家、解剖学家、医生、心理学家、天文学家、工程师、发明家、数学家、眼科专家、哲学家和神学家。

•Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048),波斯物理学家、人类学家、天文学家、占星术士、百科全书编纂者、地理学家、地质学家、历史学家、数学家、药学家、医生和哲学家。 


•Avicenna (980–1037), 阿维森纳,波斯天文学家、化学家、地质学家、逻辑学家、古生物学家、数学家、物理学家、诗人、心理学家。他被称为现代医学之父。

 

•Ibn Hazm (994–1064), 伊本·哈兹姆,生活在西班牙的穆斯林博学家,有400多部著作,涉及法理学、逻辑学、历史学、伦理学、比较宗教学、神学等学科。 

 
•Shen Kuo (1031–1095), 沈括,中国国务活动家、数学家、天文学家、气象学家、地质学家、动物学家、植物学家、药理学家、农学家、百科全书编纂者、诗人、外交家、液压工程师、发明家。


•Omar Khayyám (1048–1131),
奥玛·海亚姆,波斯诗人、作家、天文学家、数学家、物理学家和哲学家。

    博主:我在博文“英国数学家李特尔伍德最喜欢的几句诗”中,试译了奥玛·海亚姆《鲁拜集》中的几句诗,见http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-1557-451091.html

 (实在没有时间,以下多数条目不再翻译了)

•Acharya Hemachandra (1089–1172), Indian poet, linguist, grammarian, historian, and philosopher.

 

•Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (Tusi) (1201–1274), Persian writer, astronomer, biologist, chemist, mathematician, philosopher, logician, physician, historian, physicist, and scientist. He was one of the greatest scientists of the thirteenth century.

 

•Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288), Arab physician, anatomist, biologist, physiologist, ophthalmologist, lawyer, philosopher, logician, novelist, psychologist, scientist, science fiction writer, astronomer, cosmologist, geologist, linguist, historian, and sociologist.


•Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472), Italian Renaissance author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher, and cryptographer.

  

•Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519),达.芬奇, Italian Renaissance painter, inventor, engineer, astronomer, anatomist, biologist, geologist, physicist, and architect.

  

•Mário Raul de Morais Andrade (1893–1945) was a Brazilian poet, novelist, musicologist, art historian, critic, and photographer.

 

•Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543),哥白尼, Polish Renaissance astronomer, mathematician, physician, artist, classical scholar, translator,  economist, governor, military leader, and diplomat. 
     He formulated the heliocentric cosmology where the Earth spins,  and revolves around the Sun. This marks the beginning of modern astronomy. It's referred to as the Copernican Revolution - no pun intended.
 

•Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (1475–1564), Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer.
  

•MatrakçıNasuh (? - 1564) Muslim mathematician, historian, geographer, cartographer, calligrapher, artist, and engineer.


•Gerolamo Cardano (1501-1576), Italian mathematician and inventor. 
 

•Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), 利玛窦,Italian Jesuit, mathematics, literature, philosophy, poetry, mechanics, and astronomy. 

•Akbar the Great (1542–1605), Indian Mughal emperor, architect, artisan, artist, blacksmith, engineer, general, inventor, and writer.

 
•Xu Guangqi (1562–1633),
徐光启,中国明代官员、农学家、天文学家和数学家。

 
•Athanasius Kircher (1601- ?), music, Egyptology, and botany.


•Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716), 莱布尼茨,German philosopher, logician, mathematician, scientist, historian, and mechanics. 

He invented calculus at the same time as Newton, and it's his notation that we use today. In logic he created the binary system used in computers. In physics he anticipated Einstein; his theory of motion saw space as relative.
 

•Sir Isaac Newton (1643–1727) ,牛顿,English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and alchemist. His 1687 publication of the Principia is one of the most influential books in science. It is in this work that Newton described gravitation and the three laws of motion.

 

•Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), 富兰克林,American politician, author, printer, scientist, and inventor. He invented the wood burning stove and bifocals. 


•David Hume (1711–1776,
大卫.休谟) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist. He is the most important and consistent empiricist philosopher.

  

•Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765),罗门诺索夫, writer, historian, artist, poet, physicist, chemist, and scientist. He discovered the atmosphere of Venus.

 

•Immanuel Kant (1724–1804,康德) was a German philosopher. His other areas of interest were logic, theology, mathematics, physics, geography, anthropology, law, and history. 

His Critique of Pure Reason is one of the most important works in philosophy. It encompasses an attack on traditional metaphysics and epistemology, and highlights Kant's own contribution to these areas. The other main works of his maturity are the Critique of Practical Reason, which concentrates on ethics, and the Critique of Judgment, which investigates aesthetics and teleology.

 
•Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), 托马斯.杰弗逊,American politician, horticulturist, architect, archaeologist, paleontologist, and inventor. He was the 3rd President of the United States, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the founder of the University of Virginia.


•Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832),
歌德, German Poet, Novelist, Playwright, scientist, philosopher, and Diplomat.

 

•Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834), 柯勒律治,English poet, critic, and philosopher. He coined the phrase suspension of disbelief. Coleridge was bipolar, and an opium addict.
 

•Thomas Young (1773–1829),托马斯.,English polymath who made notable contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, language, musical harmony, and Egyptology.

 

•Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919,海克尔) was a German naturalist, philosopher, physician, and artist. He discovered and named thousands of new species. view work

 
•Jose Rizal (1861–1896), Filipino ophthalmologist, poet, journalist, novelist, volcanologist, biologist, political scientist, painter, and polyglot.


•Edward Heron-Allen (1861–1943), Lawyer, writer, violin builder, marine zoologist, meteorologist, historian, archaeologist, Buddhist philosopher.

 

•W. E. B. Du Bois (1868–1963) was an author, sociologist, historian, economist, and civil rights activist. He was the first African American to graduated from Harvard University where he earned his PhD in History. He was a professor of history and economics at Atlanta University, the head of the NAACP in 1910, founder, and editor of the NAACP's journal The Crisis.

Read: 
The Souls of Black Folk


•Walter Russell (1871–1963)  painter, sculptor, architect, philosopher, and physicist. He believed mediocrity is self-inflicted, and genius is self-bestowed.


•Bertrand Russell (1872–1970,贝特兰.罗素) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, pacifist, and social critic. In 1950 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

 
•Charles Burgess Fry (1872–1956), English politician, publisher, teacher, writer, and athlete. He held the world record for the long jump.


•Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965), German theologian, philosopher, musician, physician, humanitarian, and activist. He won the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize, and spent the last years of his life campaigning against nuclear weapons.

 

•Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951), 维特根斯坦,Austrian-British philosopher, logician, mathematician, architect, aeronautical engineer, and musician. Wittgenstein is one of the greatest philosopher of the 20th century. He inspired logical positivism and the philosophy of language.

 

•Jean Cocteau (1889–1963), French poet, novelist, artist, filmmaker, dramatist, designer, boxing manager, ballet scenarist, illustrator, and playwright.

 

•William James Sidis (1898–1944), Russian-Jewish child prodigy. He wrote on mathematics, cosmology, psychology, Native American history, and public transportation. "His sister, Helena, said of him that he could learn a new language in one day.

 

•André Malraux (1901–1976), French novelist, art historian, adventurer, and politician. 
 

•Howard Hughes, Jr. (1905 – 1976),霍华德.休斯 American aviator, engineer, industrialist, film producer, film director, philanthropist, and one of the wealthiest people in the world.

Hughes set multiple world air-speed records, and expanded Trans World Airlines. Hughes was an eccentric obsessive–compulsive.

 

•John von Neumann (1903–1957), 约翰..诺依曼 Hungarian American physicist, mathematician, contributions to game theory, economics, pioneering computer scientist.


•Jacques-Yves Cousteau (1910–1997), French oceanographer, naval officer, explorer, ecologist, filmmaker, scientist, photographer, author, and inventor. He co-developed the aqua-lung.

  

•Herbert Simon (1916–2001),赫伯特.西蒙,中文名“司马贺”  American political scientist, psychologist, computer science, philosophy of science, a leader in artificial intelligence, and Nobel Prize winner in Economics. He wrote almost a thousand publications. 

博主:我翻译过他的著作《人工科学》。
 

•George Price (1922–1975) was an American mathematician, chemist, and geneticist, biologist, and science journalist. He he committed suicide after giving all his possessions to the poor.

•Desmond Morris (1928 - ), British zoologist, painter, and author.

 
•Naquib Al-Attas (1931 - ), Islamic philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, art, architecture, and military science.


•Jonathan Miller (born 1934), British theatre and opera director, author, television presenter, sculptor, and doctor. 


•Rowan Williams (1950 -), Archbishop of Canterbury, theologian, poet, and speaks 12 languages, .

Views on creationism:
His believes that creationism should not be taught in schools as an alternative to evolution. He said, "I think creationism is, in a sense, a kind of category mistake, as if the Bible were a theory like other theories…, it's not what it's about." 
 

•Julie Taymor (1952 - ) is an American director, actor, set designer, costume designer, and puppeteer. She has two Tony Awards, the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Costume Design, an Emmy Award, and an Academy Award nomination for Original Song.


•Jamie Foxx / Eric Marlon Bishop (1967 - ), is an American actor, comedian, singer, and pianist. He won an Academy Award (Best Actor) for his performance in Ray. He's a Grammy Award winning musician (Unpredictable and Intuition).
 



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