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当达尔文遭遇说唱歌手 精选

已有 6438 次阅读 2011-5-16 13:36 |个人分类:进化漫谈|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:达尔文,进化论,hip-hop| 达尔文, 进化论, hip-hop

灯光变暗,音乐响起,台上,一名hip-hop歌手有节奏的扭动着身体。突然,你听到Richard Dawkins【理查德-道金斯,《自私的基因The Selfish Gene》作者】的声音响起,读得是Charles Darwin《物种起源》中的句子。你不禁开始疑惑,这是哪门子hip-hop表演?接着,台上的歌手开始唱到:“So what-ch-you know about Natural Selection?”你更加吃惊,“自然选择(Natural Selection)”?没错,理查德-道金斯,达尔文,自然选择!这就是Baba Brinkman的精彩演出:“The Rap Guide to Evolution”。

 

Baba Brinkman是来自加拿大温哥华的说唱艺术家和诗人,他自称为“说唱游吟诗人”。从十来岁起,他就对写诗和嘻哈音乐非常感兴趣。Brinkman1996年获得西蒙弗雷泽大学(Simon Fraser University)的英语文学士,本科毕业论文主要比较了饶舌(说唱)中“自由式比赛(freestyle battles)” 的表演形式和乔叟(Geoffrey Chaucer)《坎特伯雷故事集The Canterbury Tales》中“讲故事比赛(storytelling competition)”的写作形式。后来在维多利亚大学(University of Victoria)获得中世纪文学硕士,硕士论文继续关注嘻哈文化和英国文学之间的联系。正是这些学习和研究,让他对于韵律有非常好的理解和把握(这种能力正是创作hip-hop歌曲所需要的)。2002年开始,Brinkman开始了其职业表演生涯,早期的作品主要是对《坎特伯雷故事集》的改编。20048月,其个人hip-hop作品“The Rap Canterbury Tales”在世界上最大的艺术节——爱丁堡艺术节(Edinburgh Fringe Festival)上的演出获得巨大影响。之后,Brinkman一直致力于将hip-hop和文学结合起来,并努力推广这种形式。

 

2008年秋天,伯明翰大学微生物学家和进化生物学家Mark Pallen找到Baba Brinkman,问他是否乐意“do for Darwin what he did for Chaucer”,目地是为2009年庆祝达尔文诞辰200周年及物种起源发表150周年提供一些好玩的东西。Mark Pallen是一名Rap爱好者,他还是《The Rough Guide to Evolution》一书的作者。Brinkman接受了这个挑战,开展了大量工作来学习和研究进化论,最终写就了rap版的进化论:“The Rap Guide to Evolution”。之后Pallen帮助Brinkman对歌词的韵律和科学性进行了详细的检查,也因此Brinkman说:“(这是)唯一经过同行评议的hip-hop作品”。

 

 

The Rap Guide to Evolution2009年庆祝达尔文的活动中在全球各地进行了多次表演,引起了极大反响。“for Innovation and Outstanding New Writing”,获得2009年爱丁堡艺术节“Scotsman Fringe First Award”。纽约时报、星期日泰晤士等媒体对其进行了报道评论,ScienceTrends in Ecology & Evolution杂志也刊发了评论。《The Scientist》杂志曾以“Hip hop Darwin”为题介绍了BrinkmanVancouver Evolution FestivalVEF)演出的情况。西蒙弗雷泽大学进化生物学家Arne Mooers说:我们都被迷住了,你根本想不到能用这样的形式表现科学,我曾在观看演出后的一段时间里向遇到的所有人谈起并赞扬这件事。不列颠哥伦比亚大学动物学家Greg Bole认为Brinkman用真正的激情展现了他的音乐、娱乐了观众,最重要的是用非常有创造性的歌词传达了进化论的重要内容并展现了进化论的美,Greg还认为The Rap Guide To Evolution冲击了大众对进化论和说唱音乐的认识

 

就像Brinkman创造性地将hip-hop和文学结合起来一样,他又将hip-hop和科学结合起来。这或许真的是第一次用hip hop来展现科学。The Rap Guide to Evolution涉及了自然选择、人工选择、神创论、DNA、线粒体、性选择、适者生存等等进化论相关的话题,并用幽默且不失启发性的语言表现出来,很多科学家觉得这种形式很有意思,并认为这不失为一种很好的科学教育和传播形式。

 

让我们来看这些歌词如何展现进化论相关内容:

 

Natural Selection

It takes a certain base kind of impatient mind

To explain away nature with “intelligent design”

But the truth shall set you free

From those useless superstitious beliefs

In a literal Adam and Eve, and that Edenic myth

‘Cause their family tree is showin’ some genetic drift

Take it from this bald-headed non-celibate monk

With the lyrical equivalent of an elephant’s trunk

It’s time to elevate your mind-state

And celebrate your kinship with the primates

The weak and the strong, who got it goin’ on?

We lived in the dark for so long

The weak and the strong, Darwin got it goin’ on

Creationism is dead wrong

这里说人们应该庆祝自己和灵长类动物的亲缘关系,并指出“智能设计”和“神创论”大错特错。也正是由于Brinkman如此的表达,在他演出时有些支持神创论的观众提出抗议并中途退场。

 

Creationist Cousins

Creationist cousins, they’re my relations, I love ‘em

But when they talk about Jesus and Revelations and Judges

I’ve gotta take it up with them

Cause there’s a better explanation for the place that we come from, okay?

Creationist cousins, they’re my relations, I love ‘em

But at the dinner table we get on some crazy discussions

I’m always questioning their basic assumptions

And saying, “yes I believe we came from monkeys, okay?”

“我相信我们来自于猴子”,这些词也是反映了对“神创论”的批判。

 

I'm a African

No I wasn't born in Ghana but Africa is my mama

'Cause that's where my mama got her mitochondria

You can try to fight if you wanna, but it's not gonna change me

'Cause it's plain to see, Africans are my people

And if it's not plain to see then your eyes deceive you

I'm talkin' primeval; the DNA in my veins

Tells a story that reasonable people find believable

But it might blow your transistors; Africa

Is the home of our most recent common ancestors

Which means human beings are all brothers and sisters.

这些词提到的是人类的非洲起源说。Brinkman的歌词说非洲是我们人类共同祖先的家乡,世界上的所有人都是兄弟姐妹。想必很多人读过理查德-道金斯的书《伊甸园之河》,其中提到“非洲夏娃或线粒体夏娃”,道金斯认为人类的历史正是一条“DNA之河”。

 

Group Selection

Cause survival of the fittest also applies to groups

And the fittest group makes the best combined moves

So, can’t we all just get along, whatever we try and do?

Where’s the altruism? Where’s the love? Where’s the altruism?

All these vultures talkin’ ‘bout survival of the fittest

But the atruism y’all, come on, where’s the altruism?

We need to get together on a common vision!

适者生存也适用于群组,最适合的群组能够取得最好的进步。所以,我们需要利他主义、需要爱,一起为共同的愿景努力。

 

Sexual Selection

Charles Darwin saw natural selection as the most serious cause

Of evolution, but what was going on with bird songs

And peacocks? They follow mysterious laws

And then Darwin had a curious thought

It probably occurred to him while explaining his theory

To a young Victorian blond, whose face displayed

A mixture of desire and feverish awe

The immediate cause of which Darwin clearly saw

So he said: “My dear, descent with modification comes from

The struggle for survival and reproduction

Hence, the reason for some structures must be seduction”

In fact, Darwin’s brain was probably one such structure

Just as peacocks’ tails show off the genes of the top males

And likewise the songs of nightingales, the fighting skills

Of elephant seals, and minnows with colourful scales

These are all traits that sexual selection has shaped

Through the female preference to get with the fittest mates

But in human beings that selection goes both ways

性选择也是重要的进化驱动力。孔雀的尾巴、夜莺的歌声、海象的打斗技巧、彩色鱼鳞等等,自然界中的雌性动物一般凭这些性状来选择雄性。但对于人类,情况可能更复杂,除了外表,语言(比如思想的表达)也可能是重要的人类性选择机制。

 

Darwin’s Acid

So your decisions affect evolution – it isn’t directionless

Now, before you dismiss me as a mad environmentalist

Just try to imagine how natural selection applies

To countries that have industrialized

Companies live and companies die

And when customers buy based on a company’s green plan

That affects the economy, just ask Alan Greenspan

Cultural evolution is ours to reinvent

Wait, can we affect current events? Yes We Can

And when we choose who to sleep with and reproduce

Our sexual choices affect the gene pool

So it’s simple, all we need to do is refuse

To sleep with mean people, and things will improve

Brinkman认为进化不是没有方向的,我们的日常决定都会影响进化,尤其是文化进化。

很有趣,他说道:当我们选择跟谁睡觉和繁殖后代的时候,就影响了人类的基因库,所以,我们要做的是拒绝跟小人(mean people)睡觉,这样会改变很多(不好的)事情。

 

 

这里是The Rap Guide to Evolution专辑的网址,建议大家一定要听听:

http://bababrinkman.bandcamp.com/album/the-rap-guide-to-evolution


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