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[备课] 电容、电感、电阻的电路模型(“场”是“路”的基础)

已有 2608 次阅读 2021-8-5 14:31 |个人分类:本科生《电工学》资料|系统分类:教学心得

[备课] 电容、电感、电阻的电路模型(“场”是“路”的基础)

                                                                                     

一、实际电容、电感、电阻元件的电路模型

4 Capacitor Models Best Model Ideal Model Better Model 22.jpg

(1)电容器:Capacitor Models Best Model Ideal Model Better Model

https://www.slideserve.com/lis/high-speed-layout-considerations

                                      

5 Inductor Models Best Model Ideal Model Better Model 22.jpg

(2)电感器:Inductor Models Best Model Better Model Ideal Model

https://image1.slideserve.com/2514630/slide5-l.jpg

                                        

6 Resistor Models Best Model Ideal Model Better Model 22.jpg

(3)电阻器:Resistor Models Best Model
https://www.slideserve.com/lis/high-speed-layout-considerations

                                                  
   当信号频率比较高时,理想电容、理想电感、理想电阻已经不能表达实际元件的作用。只能用它们的组合来近似表示出。
   给实际元件建立合理的电路模型,并不容易。正如俞大光院士2002年所言[2]:
   “场”是“路”的基础,路是电磁现象和过程在特定条件下的分析方法

      电路的参数—— 电阻(电导)、电感(自感、互感)、电容(部分电容、分布电容)等都只能运用“场”的知识才能深刻理解。电路理论只研究模型电路,在模型电路中相联结的是理想化电路元件(即元件模型) ,其参数常常是给定的。并认为从实际电路如何建立出合适的电路模型不是电路课程要解决的问题。虽说一门技术基础课无法解决品类繁多的电工设备建立电路模型的问题,但也不应无论简繁一律回避这样的问题,以使理论与实际脱节,对培育工程方面的创新能力是不利的。

                                          

(4)分立元件的容器部分常见外形
https://resources.altium.com/p/high-speed-pcb-design-considerations-bypass-capacitor-place-and-route-tips

                                           

(5)分立元件的电感器部分常见外形

https://ethcircuits.com/what-is-inductor-symbol-types-formula-permeability/

                                

(6)分立元件的电阻器部分常见外形

http://www.51hei.com/dianzi/3489.html

                         

感谢上面6幅图片的原作者和有关人员!

                  

二、爱因斯坦谈提出问题
   “提出一个问题往往比解决一个问题更为重要,因为解决一个问题也许只是一个数学上或实验上的技巧问题。而提出新的问题、新的可能性,从新的角度看旧问题,却需要创造性的想像力,而且标志着科学的真正进步。
   The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advances in science.”
   This quote comes from a book on The Evolution of Physics, co-authored by Albert Einstein with his colleague Léopold Infeld, who worked with him on the theory of relativity at the Institute of Advance Physics of Princeton University.

                        

图片资料来源:
[1] SlideServe, Lis Odo, 2014-07-27,High Speed Layout Considerations, Op AmP, ADC, DAC, Clock
https://www.slideserve.com/lis/high-speed-layout-considerations
https://image1.slideserve.com/2514630/slide4-l.jpg
https://image1.slideserve.com/2514630/slide5-l.jpg
https://image1.slideserve.com/2514630/slide6-l.jpg
[1-2] Donna Cannon, Presentation on theme: "High Speed Layout Considerations"— Presentation transcript:
https://slideplayer.com/slide/4662087/
4 Capacitor Models Best Model Ideal Model Better Model
https://slideplayer.com/slide/4662087/15/images/4/Capacitor+Models+Best+Model+Ideal+Model+Better+Model.jpg

[2] Altium Designer, 2017-10-03, High Speed PCB Design Considerations: Bypass Capacitor Place and Route Tips
https://resources.altium.com/p/high-speed-pcb-design-considerations-bypass-capacitor-place-and-route-tips

[3] ETH Circuits & Projects, How To Make an Inductor
https://ethcircuits.com/what-is-inductor-symbol-types-formula-permeability/
https://ethcircuits.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/types-of-inductor.jpg
   The Inductor is ... – a simple length of wire that is coiled up.

[4] 单片机教程网,2014-04-29,电阻器的电路符号及图片识别
http://www.51hei.com/dianzi/3489.html
http://c.51hei.com/a/old/up/0/44281734627859.jpg

参考资料:

[1] Today in Science History, Albert Einstein, “The formulation of a problem is often far more essential than its solution”
https://todayinsci.com/E/Einstein_Albert/EinsteinAlbert-ProblemQuote500px.htm
https://todayinsci.com/E/Einstein_Albert/EinsteinAlbert-ProblemQuote500px.htm
   This quote comes from a book on The Evolution of Physics, co-authored by Albert Einstein with his colleague Léopold Infeld, who worked with him on the theory of relativity at the Institute of Advance Physics of Princeton University.
   “The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advances in science.”
   The text continues by stressing the “importance of seeing known facts in a new light.” For example, “the principle of inertia, the law of conservation of energy were gained only by new and original thoughts about already well-known experiments and phenomena.”
   Text by Webmaster, with quote from co-authors Albert Einstein and Léopold Infeld, Evolution of Physics (1938, 1966), 92. (source)
[2] 俞大光. 场与路还是合并为好. 南京: [J]电气电子教学学报, 2002, 24(2): 1-2.
http://ifffxaa7a0cc611944276hk0unnb5xkcxp6nx9.ffhh.eds.tju.edu.cn/Qikan/Article/Detail?id=6325437
http://ifffxc1d129f57bb244a4sk0unnb5xkcxp6nx9.ffhh.eds.tju.edu.cn/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?dbname=cjfd2002&filename=dqdz200202000
   电路的参数—— 电阻(电导)、电感(自感、互感)、电容(部分电容、分布电容)等都只能运用“场”的知识才能深刻理解。电路理论只研究模型电路,在模型电路中相联结的是理想化电路元件(即元件模型) ,其参数常常是给定的。并认为从实际电路如何建立出合适的电路模型不是电路课程要解决的问题。虽说一门技术基础课无法解决品类繁多的电工设备建立电路模型的问题,但也不应无论简繁一律回避这样的问题,以使理论与实际脱节,对培育工程方面的创新能力是不利的。

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