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安东·契诃夫(Anton Chekhov)受过教育的8个文化素养品质

已有 274 次阅读 2017-9-13 02:02 |个人分类:People history|系统分类:人物纪事

安东·契诃夫(Anton Chekhov)关于受过教育的8个文化素养品质“培养”是什么意思?是作为一个好的读者,还是知道如何谈论你没有阅读过的书籍,还是一般的处理智慧的优雅?这正是俄罗斯作家安东·契科夫(1906年1月29日至1904年7月15日)在致信他的哥哥尼古拉,一位艺术家的信中所怀疑的问题。安东26岁,尼古拉28号,安东·契诃夫(Anton Chekhov)到他的家人和朋友(公共领域|公共图书馆)发现的传记,散发着浓厚的热情,概述了文化人士的八大品质 - 包括诚实,真正有天赋的人总是在人群中隐藏, 利他主义和良好的习惯。Anton Chekhov on the 8 Qualities of Cultured People“In order to feel comfortable among educated people, to be at home and happy with them, one must be cultured to a certain extent.”By Maria Popova

Anton Chekhov on the 8 Qualities of Cultured People

What does it mean to be “cultured”? Is it about being a good reader, or knowing how to talk about books you haven’t read, or having a general disposition of intellectual elegance? That’s precisely the question beloved Russian author Anton Chekhov (January 29, 1860–July 15, 1904) considers in a letter to his older brother Nikolai, an artist. The missive, written when Anton was 26 and Nikolai 28 and found in Letters of Anton Chekhov to His Family and Friends (public domain | public library), dispenses a hearty dose of tough love and outlines the eight qualities of cultured people — including honesty, altruism, and good habits.

Chekhov writes from Moscow in 1886:

You have often complained to me that people “don’t understand you”! Goethe and Newton did not complain of that…. Only Christ complained of it, but He was speaking of His doctrine and not of Himself…. People understand you perfectly well. And if you do not understand yourself, it is not their fault.

I assure you as a brother and as a friend I understand you and feel for you with all my heart. I know your good qualities as I know my five fingers; I value and deeply respect them. If you like, to prove that I understand you, I can enumerate those qualities. I think you are kind to the point of softness, magnanimous, unselfish, ready to share your last farthing; you have no envy nor hatred; you are simple-hearted, you pity men and beasts; you are trustful, without spite or guile, and do not remember evil…. You have a gift from above such as other people have not: you have talent. This talent places you above millions of men, for on earth only one out of two millions is an artist. Your talent sets you apart: if you were a toad or a tarantula, even then, people would respect you, for to talent all things are forgiven.

You have only one failing, and the falseness of your position, and your unhappiness and your catarrh of the bowels are all due to it. That is your utter lack of culture. Forgive me, please, but veritas magis amicitiae…. You see, life has its conditions. In order to feel comfortable among educated people, to be at home and happy with them, one must be cultured to a certain extent. Talent has brought you into such a circle, you belong to it, but … you are drawn away from it, and you vacillate between cultured people and the lodgers vis-a-vis.

Cultured people must, in my opinion, satisfy the following conditions:

  1. They respect human personality, and therefore they are always kind, gentle, polite, and ready to give in to others. They do not make a row because of a hammer or a lost piece of india-rubber; if they live with anyone they do not regard it as a favour and, going away, they do not say “nobody can live with you.” They forgive noise and cold and dried-up meat and witticisms and the presence of strangers in their homes.

  2. They have sympathy not for beggars and cats alone. Their heart aches for what the eye does not see…. They sit up at night in order to help P…., to pay for brothers at the University, and to buy clothes for their mother.

  3. They respect the property of others, and therefor pay their debts.

  4. They are sincere, and dread lying like fire. They don’t lie even in small things. A lie is insulting to the listener and puts him in a lower position in the eyes of the speaker. They do not pose, they behave in the street as they do at home, they do not show off before their humbler comrades. They are not given to babbling and forcing their uninvited confidences on others. Out of respect for other people’s ears they more often keep silent than talk.

  5. They do not disparage themselves to rouse compassion. They do not play on the

    strings of other people’s hearts so that they may sigh and make much of them. They do not say

    “I am misunderstood,” or “I have become second-rate,” because all this is striving after cheap effect, is vulgar, stale, false….

  6. They have no shallow vanity. They do not care for such false diamonds as knowing celebrities, shaking hands with the drunken P., [Translator’s Note: Probably Palmin, a minor poet.] listening to the raptures of a stray spectator in a picture show, being renowned in the taverns…. If they do a pennyworth they do not strut about as though they had done a hundred roubles’ worth, and do not brag of having the entry where others are not admitted…. The truly talented always keep in obscurity among the crowd, as far as possible from advertisement…. Even Krylov has said that an empty barrel echoes more loudly than a full one.

  7. If they have a talent they respect it. They sacrifice to it rest, women, wine, vanity…. They are proud of their talent…. Besides, they are fastidious.

  8. They develop the aesthetic feeling in themselves. They cannot go to sleep in their clothes, see cracks full of bugs on the walls, breathe bad air, walk on a floor that has been spat upon, cook their meals over an oil stove. They seek as far as possible to restrain and ennoble the sexual instinct…. What they want in a woman is not a bed-fellow … They do not ask for the cleverness which shows itself in continual lying. They want especially, if they are artists, freshness, elegance, humanity, the capacity for motherhood…. They do not swill vodka at all hours of the day and night, do not sniff at cupboards, for they are not pigs and know they are not. They drink only when they are free, on occasion…. For they want mens sana in corpore sano [a healthy mind in a healthy body].

And so on. This is what cultured people are like. In order to be cultured and not to stand below the level of your surroundings it is not enough to have read “The Pickwick Papers” and learnt a monologue from “Faust.” …

What is needed is constant work, day and night, constant reading, study, will…. Every hour is precious for it…. Come to us, smash the vodka bottle, lie down and read…. Turgenev, if you like, whom you have not read.

You must drop your vanity, you are not a child … you will soon be thirty.
It is time!
I expect you…. We all expect you.

A. P. Chekhov (left) with Nikolai Chekhov (right), 1882; public domain image via Wikimedia Commons

For more epistolary notes on the building of character, complement with history’s finest letters of fatherly advice.

(origin: assessed Sept. 12, 2017, at https://www.brainpickings.org/2013/01/29/anton-chekhov-8-qualities-of-cultured-people/ )  


Robotic translation ---------------------

安东·契诃夫(Anton Chekhov)关于文化素养的8个品质

“为了在受过教育的人中感到舒适,在家里和他们一起快乐,必须在一定程度上培养。”

玛丽亚波波娃


安东·契诃夫(Anton Chekhov)关于文化素养的8个品质

“培养”是什么意思?是作为一个好的读者,还是知道如何谈论你没有阅读过的书籍,还是一般的处理智慧的优雅?这正是俄罗斯作家安东·契科夫(1906年1月29日至1904年7月15日)在致信他的哥哥尼古拉,一位艺术家的信中所怀疑的问题。安东26岁,尼古拉28号,安东·契诃夫(Anton Chekhov)到他的家人和朋友(公共领域|公共图书馆)发现的传记,散发着浓厚的热情,概述了文化人士的八大品质 - 包括诚实,利他主义和良好的习惯。

契诃夫1886年从莫斯科写道:

你经常向我投诉,人们“不明白你”!歌德和牛顿没有抱怨说...只有基督才抱怨,但他正在讲他的教义,而不是说自己。人们都很了解你。如果你不明白自己,这不是他们的错。

我向你保证,作为一个兄弟,作为一个朋友,我明白你,全心全意为你而感受。我知道你的良好品质,因为我知道我的五个手指;我珍视和深切地尊重他们。如果你喜欢,为了证明我明白你,我可以列举这些品质。我认为你是善良的,宽宏大量,无私的,准备分享你最后一次的快乐;你没有嫉妒和仇恨;你是简单的,你可怜的人和野兽;你是信任的,没有吝啬或诡计,不记得邪恶...你有从上面的礼物,如其他人没有:你有天赋。这个天赋让你成千上万的男人,在地球上只有一百万人是艺术家。你的才能使你分开:如果你是蟾蜍或狼蛛,即使如此,人们会尊重你,因为所有的东西都被赦免。

你只有一个失败,你的位置的虚伪,你的不快乐和你的肠道的阴道都是由于它。那就是你完全缺乏文化。请原谅我,但veritas magis amicitiae ...。你看,生活有其条件。为了在受过教育的人中感到舒适,要在家里和他们一起快乐,必须在一定程度上培养。人才带给你这样一个圈子,你属于它,但是......你被剥夺了,你们在文化的人和住客之间摇摆不定。

在我看来,培养的人必须满足以下条件:


在我看来,培养的人必须满足以下条件:
1) 他们尊重人的个性,所以他们总是善良,温柔,有礼貌,准备放弃别人。他们不是因为一个锤子或一块失去的印度橡胶而排成一排;如果他们和任何人生活在一起,他们不认为它是一种恩惠,而且离开,他们不会说“没有人可以和你同在”。他们原谅了噪音,冷和干燥的肉和智慧,以及陌生人在家里的存在

2) 他们不仅仅只是怜悯乞丐和猫。他们的心脏疼痛,眼睛看不到...。他们晚上坐起来帮助P ...在大学支付兄弟,为他们的母亲买衣服。


3) 他们尊重他人的财产,偿还债务。


4) 他们是真诚的,害怕像火一样躺着。他们甚至不会躺在小东西里。一个谎言侮辱了听众,把他放在了演讲者眼中的较低位置。他们不会像在家里一样在街上表演,他们不会在谦卑的同志面前炫耀。他们没有被嘲笑和强迫他们对他人的不受欢迎的信任。不尊重别人的耳朵,他们经常保持沉默而不是说话。


5) 他们不会贬低自己的怜悯。他们不会在别人的心中发挥作用,所以他们可能会叹口气,大部分都是这样。他们不会说“我被误解了”,还是“我已经成为二等奖”,因为所有这些都是以廉价的效果努力,是粗俗的,陈旧的,虚假的。


6) 他们没有浅浅的虚荣心。他们不关心这样的假钻石,如知道名人,与醉酒的P握手,[译者注:可能是Palmin,一个小诗人。]听着一个流浪观众在图片秀中的狂喜,在酒馆里闻名...。如果他们做一个pennyworth,他们不会像以前那样做了一百卢布的价值,而不要吹嘘别人不被接纳的条目。真正有天赋的人总是在人群中隐藏,尽可能地从广告...。即使克里洛夫也表示一个空桶比一个空桶更响亮。
如果他们有天赋他们尊重它。他们牺牲了休息,妇女,葡萄酒,虚荣心...。他们为自己的天赋而自豪。此外,他们很好。


7) 他们自己会发现审美感。他们不能在衣服上睡觉,看到墙上充满臭虫的裂缝,呼吸不好的空气,走在已经唾液的地板上,在油炉上煮饭。他们尽可能地寻求约束和释放性本能...。他们想要在一个女人不是一个床上的人...他们不要求聪明,表明自己在持续的谎言。他们特别想要,如果他们是艺术家,就会变得更加鲜明



8) 他们尊重人的个性,所以他们总是善良,温柔,有礼貌,准备放弃别人.


+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Heritage landmarks of my horizons (我的视野的传统地标 ) - - -


** Epilogue **

转载授权说明 - Postscript(epilogue) - 阅读我写博文的视野角度 -
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四位一体, 四愿读写博文 Postscript(epilogue) for governing all my blog posts

独立的时空, 自由的思写。劳作 (Labor)、艺术 (art)、游戏 (game)、学问 (knowledge), 四位一体; 四愿读写博文: 正义(Justice)、良知 (conscience)、自由 (freedom)、独立 (independence)- leading to integrity, compassion, and mutual respect 照镜验心,久而久之习惯自然, 我手写我心,写出心安而淡然、端然、坦然。


I can't ask or practice wisdom as I believe it's not by gain of your own effort but given by God like kindness, grace and mercy.
劳作(劳工),艺术,游戏,学问(知识)-
我不能要求或实践获得智慧,因为我相信这智慧不是因为你自己的努力而得到的,而是像上帝的慈爱,恩典和怜悯所给予的




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