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久坐行为与早期死亡之间的关系: 哥伦比亚大学新研究

已有 303 次阅读 2017-9-13 01:31 |个人分类:Observation|系统分类:海外观察

My add-on note: How can you speed up your English learning?

Use it as a tool to gain/obtain information of your interest, only way to speed up and remember a language - everlasting capacity/grip of your skill set, just like using your feet and your hands, daily, as breathing essential for your life. You can't use as a professional tool, only reading scientific English for a language.

Here is a piece this morning -

Yes, sitting too long can kill you, even if you exercise (By Susan Scutti, CNN), Updated 8:46 AM ET, Tue September 12, 2017

**
(CNN) — Take a movement break every 30 minutes, say experts. No matter how much you exercise, sitting for excessively long periods of time is a risk factor for early death, a new study published Monday in Annals of Internal Medicine found.

There's a direct relationship between time spent sitting and your risk of early mortality of any cause, researchers said, based on a study of nearly 8,000 adults. As your total sitting time increases, so does your risk of an early death.

The positive news: People who sat for less than 30 minutes at a time had the lowest risk of early death.

"Sit less, move more" is what the American Heart Association encourages all of us to do. But this simplistic guideline doesn't quite cut it, said Keith Diaz, lead author of the new study and an associate research scientist in the Columbia University Department of Medicine.

"This would be like telling someone to just 'exercise' without telling them how," Diaz wrote in an email.

Exercise guidelines are precise, he explained. For example, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends adults do moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for two hours and 30 minutes every week, plus muscle strengthening activities on two or more days a week.

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"We need similar guidelines for sitting," said Diaz.

"We think a more specific guideline could read something like, 'For every 30 consecutive minutes of sitting, stand up and move/walk for five minutes at brisk pace to reduce the health risks from sitting,' " he said, adding the study "puts us a step closer to such guidelines," but more research is needed to verify the findings.

Aging means more sitting

To understand the relationship between sedentary behavior and early death, Diaz and his colleagues at Columbia, NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center and other institutions turned to the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) project, a study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health.

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"The REGARDS study was originally designed to examine why blacks (and particularly blacks in the Southern US) have a greater risk for stroke than whites," said Diaz. He and his co-researchers tracked for an average of four years 7,985 black and white adult participants, age 45 or older, who had signed on to participate in the REGARDS project.

To measure sedentary time for these adults, the research team used hip-mounted accelerometers. During the study period, the team recorded 340 total deaths considered "all-cause mortality" -- any death, regardless of cause.

Analyzing the data, the team found that sedentary behavior, on average, accounted for about 12.3 hours of an average 16-hour waking day.

"As we age, and our physical and mental function declines, we become more and more sedentary," wrote Diaz.

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Previous studies of adults have found daily sitting time to average just nine to 10 hours per day. The higher average in his own study is likely "due to the fact we studied a middle- and older-aged population," Diaz wrote. "It could also be partly due to the fact that we used an activity monitor to track sedentary time rather than using self-report."

Measuring duration, the researchers clocked participants sitting, on average, for 11.4 minutes at a stretch.

As total sedentary time increased, so did early death by any cause, the results indicated. And the same was true for longer sitting stretches. Overall then, participants' risk of death grew in tandem with total sitting time and sitting stretch duration -- no matter their age, sex, race, body mass index or exercise habits.

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"We found that there wasn't a threshold or cutoff where one's risk for death dramatically increased," said Diaz, explaining that risk of death increased with more sitting. "To give you a specific number, those who sat for more than 13 hours per day had a 2-fold (or 200%) greater risk of death compared to those who sat for less than about 11 hours per day."

"Bout duration is a little trickier," said Diaz. Still, he said, the study results indicate that those who frequently sat in stretches less than 30 minutes had a 55% lower risk of death compared to people who usually sat for more than 30 minutes at a stretch.

Finally, people who frequently sat for more than 90 minutes at a stretch had a nearly two-fold greater risk of death than those who almost always sat for less than 90 minutes at a stretch, he said.

Underlying reasons 'unclear'

How sedentary behavior impacts our health in negative ways is "unclear and complex," wrote Dr. David A. Alter, an associate professor at the University of Toronto in Ontario, in an editorial published with the study. Alter, who did not contribute to Diaz' research, said some scientists theorize that more sitting leads to reductions in insulin sensitivity, while others believe net calorie expenditures decline as sitting increases.

The study was not designed to reveal why sitting increases the risk of early death, noted Alter, who described the study as "methodologically rigorous," and its findings "robust."

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Arguably, he said, the study's most important contribution involved disentangling two sedentary behaviors: total daily sedentary time and uninterrupted sedentary bout duration.

"Persons with uninterrupted sedentary bouts of 30 minutes or more had the highest risk for death if total sedentary time also exceeded 12.5 hours per day," noted Alter. "Conversely, in those whose daily sedentary volumes were low, uninterrupted bout lengths had little if any associated effects on mortality."

By teasing out these two threads, the findings show excessive sitting is bad and even worse if it is accumulated in lengthy, uninterrupted bouts throughout the day, noted Alter.

Dr. Suzanne Steinbaum, director of women's heart health at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York said, "The more we sit the worse it is. The longer the duration of sitting, the more negative the impact on our cardiovascular health."

Steinbaum, who was not involved in the study, said moving around every 30 minutes is recommended.

"The first time we do this, the positive effects are immediate," she said. "We need to pay more attention to moving."

Join the conversation

See the latest news and share your comments with CNN Health on Facebook and Twitter.

Asked if, say, a standing desk might be helpful for those who work desk jobs, Diaz said "there is limited evidence to suggest that standing is a healthier alternative to sitting."

"So if you have a job or lifestyle where you have to sit for prolonged periods, the best suggestion I can make is to take a movement break every half hour," said Diaz. "Our findings suggest this one behavior change could reduce your risk of death."
Ref.: http://www.cnn.com/2017/09/11/health/sitting-increases-risk-of-death-study/index.html
- Write with meticulous search and fun.

Robotic translation -

是的,坐太久可以杀死你,即使你锻炼了(作者:Susan Scutti,CNN),2017年9月12日星期二上午8:46更新

**
(CNN) - 专家说,每30分钟休息一下。不管你多少运动,坐在很长一段时间是早期死亡的一个风险因素,星期一发表在“内科学杂志”上发表的一项新研究。

研究人员基于对近8000名成年人的研究,他们之间的直接关系在于休息时间与任何原因的早期死亡风险之间的直接关系。随着您的总坐时时间的增加,您的早期死亡风险也会增加。

积极的消息:一次坐不到30分钟的人的死亡风险最低。

美国心脏协会鼓励我们所有人做的事情“坐得更少,移动更多”。哥伦比亚大学医学系新研究的主要作者和副研究科学家Keith Diaz说,但是这个简单的指导方针并没有减少。

“这就像告诉别人只是”锻炼“而不告诉他们怎么样,”迪亚兹在一封电子邮件中写道。

他解释说,运动指南是准确的。例如,美国疾病控制和预防中心建议大家每周进行中等强度的有氧运动2小时30分钟,加上每周两到两天的肌肉强化活动。

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迪亚斯说:“我们需要类似的坐位准则。

“我们认为一个更具体的指导方针可以看出:”连续每30分钟的坐起来,站立起来,步行五分钟,以缓解健康风险,“他补充说,使我们更接近于这样的指导方针,“但是需要更多的研究来验证调查结果。

老化意味着更多的坐着

为了了解久坐行为与早期死亡之间的关系,Diaz及其同事在哥伦比亚,纽约长老会/威尔康奈尔医学中心等机构转向了“中华人民共和国地理与种族差异”(REGARDS)项目的原因,该项目由国立卫生研究院。

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迪亚斯说:“REGARDS的研究最初是为了研究为什么黑人(特别是美国南部的黑人)比白人有更大的卒中风险。他和他的共同研究人员平均追踪了四年来签署了参加REGARDS项目的年龄在45岁或以上的黑人和白人成年参与者。

为了测量这些成年人的久坐时间,研究团队使用髋关节加速度计。研究期间,该队录得340人死亡.


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Heritage landmarks of my horizons (我的视野的传统地标 ) - - -


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转载授权说明 - Postscript(epilogue) - 阅读我写博文的视野角度 -
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独立的时空, 自由的思写。劳作 (Labor)、艺术 (art)、游戏 (game)、学问 (knowledge), 四位一体; 四愿读写博文: 正义(Justice)、良知 (conscience)、自由 (freedom)、独立 (independence)- leading to integrity, compassion, and mutual respect 照镜验心,久而久之习惯自然, 我手写我心,写出心安而淡然、端然、坦然。


I can't ask or practice wisdom as I believe it's not by gain of your own effort but given by God like kindness, grace and mercy.
劳作(劳工),艺术,游戏,学问(知识)-
我不能要求或实践获得智慧,因为我相信这智慧不是因为你自己的努力而得到的,而是像上帝的慈爱,恩典和怜悯所给予的






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