行为安全博客 Behavioral Safety分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/Greg66 行为安全-用科学方法长效地解决“违章行为”

博文

几个标准中的危险源(hazard)定义及分析 精选

已有 6467 次阅读 2016-8-8 12:55 |个人分类:1|系统分类:观点评述|关键词:标准,危险源,hazard,,定义,分析| 定义, 标准, 分析, hazard, 危险源

几个标准中的危险源(hazard)定义及分析

一、DEPARTMENTOF DEFENSE STANDARD PRACTICE-SYSTEM SAFETY(MIL-STD-882E,11 May 2012)对危险源的定义红色字体为作者的注释)

3.2.14 Hazard. A real or potentialcondition that could lead to an unplanned event or series of events (i.e.mishap) resulting in death, injury, occupational illness, damage to or loss of equipmentor property, or damage to the environment. (hazard是现实明确存在或者潜在的导致事故的因素,即明确或者潜在的事故原因。在这个标准里hazard主要指物态,没提到人的行为因素,但也没有排除人的行为因素

二、煤矿安全风险预控管理体系-规范( AQ/T1093-2011)根据GB/T28001-2001定义3.4]定义的危险源:

危险源(hazard):可能导致伤害或疾病、财产损失、工作环境破坏或这些情况组合的根源或状态。GB/T28001-2001的更新版GB/T28001-2011《职业健康安全管理体系-要求》在3.6节已经将危险源的定义改为“可能导致人身伤害和(或)健康损害的根源、状态或行为,或其组合”。GB/T28001-2011仅仅是BS-OHSAS18001:2007的汉译而已,“根源”一词的使用并不恰当。

三、OCCUPATIONALHEALTH AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT SERIES(BS-OHSAS18001:2007)关于危险源的定义:

3.6 hazard

source, situation, or act with a potentialfor harm in terms of human injury or ill health (3.8), or a combination of these.(source没有根源的意思,理解为“来源”更确切,事故的来源也就是事故原因

四、ISO/DIS45001:2016(E)没有专门定义危险源,但是在危险源识别一节,说了在很多方面识别危险源,其实就是很多的事故原因,也就是说,事故原因就是危险源。详细列出:

6.1.2.1 Hazard identification

Theorganization shall establish, implement and maintain a process for the on-goingproactive identification of hazards arising. The process shall take intoaccount but not be limited to:

a) routine and non-routineactivities and situations, including consideration of:

1) infrastructure,equipment, materials, substances and the physical conditions of the workplace; (物体或物质方面,即物方面)

2) hazards that arise asa result of product design including during research, development, testing, production,assembly, construction, service delivery, maintenance or disposal; 设计、研发、测试等过程中产生的危险源,可以看作是管理程序或者技术管理程序(方案)缺欠。这些程序的结果是不安全物态或者不安全的操作方案,分别归为不安全物态和管理体系的缺欠)

3) human factors;(人的因素,归为5个习惯性不安全行为中的一个或者几个、不安全动作)

4) how the work isactually done;(归为某种个人行为)

b) emergency situations;(紧急情况下的做法,属于个人行为或者组织行为或者物态)

c) people, including considerationof:(归为行为或者物态)

1) those with access tothe workplace and their activities, including workers, contractors, visitors andother persons;

2) those in the vicinityof the workplace who can be affected by the activities of the organization;

3) workers at a locationnot under the direct control of the organization;

d) other issues, includingconsideration of:(归为某种行为或者物态)

1) the design of workareas, processes, installations, machinery/equipment, operating procedures andwork organization, including their adaptation to human capabilities;

2) situations occurringin the vicinity of the workplace caused by work-related activities under the controlof the organization;

3) situations notcontrolled by the organization and occurring in the vicinity of the workplacethat can cause work-related injury and ill health to persons in the workplace;

e) actual or proposed changes inthe organization, its operations, processes, activities and OH&S managementsystem (see 8.2);属于管理体系缺欠

f) changes in knowledge of, andinformation about, hazards;知识和信息(实际也是知识)危险源

g) past incidents, internal orexternal to the organization, including emergencies, and their causes;属于识别方法

h) how work is organized and socialfactors, including workload, work hours, leadership and the culture in theorganization.影响因素,归为某种行为或者物态

五、分析结论:(1)危险源=事故来源=事故原因;(2)事故的各种原因(各层面的不安全行为+不安全物态)都是危险源;(3)标准(国际范围内很多个人和组织的综合意见)的定义比有关学者的的定义(个人意见)更具有学术意义、实践意义。




http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-603730-995219.html

上一篇:行政管辖权是安全监管内容的确定依据
下一篇:关于建立安全管理体系的想法

4 黄永义 王秀明 师尚红 zjzhaokeqin

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (2 个评论)

数据加载中...
扫一扫,分享此博文

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2020-4-6 04:28

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部