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222 Practitioner’s Guide to Functional Behavioral Assessment

已有 415 次阅读 2019-5-17 22:37 |系统分类:科研笔记

Practitioner’s Guide to Functional Behavioral Assessment

Process, Purpose, Planning, and Prevention

Stephanie M. Hadaway 

Alan W. Brue

pages 51-70

process:record review

within the context of FBA,there are two means to collect data that we will discuss,first,there is indirect observational  data,this information comes from secondary sources,such as parents,teachers,administrators,and caregivers,it is the information that is gleaned from interviews,records,and informal assessment.second,there is direct observational data,this is the information you gather,it is the first-hand recording of the student's behavior derived from observation,it does not come from secondary source;it comes from data that you have collect.


attendance records

medical history

disciplinary records

academic history

assessment records

individualized education program:goals,interventions,the behavior intervention plan,extended school year services,accommodations,modifications,testing information,service hours,and programs for student supports,such as speech language,occupational therapy,or physical therapy


an individual's educational and treatment information is protected by both privacy and confidentiality


reviewing a student's records

first,look for standouts:when reading through these documents,take note of exception,上学不缺勤对大多数学生来说是很平常的事,当一个学生缺勤次数过多,就要考虑孩子是否有服药?什么原因导致需要服药?服药多久了?诸如此类的问题

second,look for changes:life events,grades that drop,an outgoing student who suddenly becomes extreamly shy,there are all significant changes,从什么时候开始出现出现变化,发生了什么事情导致出现变化

third,look for patterns:by identifying patterns in behavior,the practitioner can begin to understand the underlying context of behaviors and give the team and investigative area within the occurrences of challenging behaviors,每年一月都要经常去看病?数学课经常违反纪律?是因为学习内容没掌握导不能完成练习抑或是不喜欢上课老师?

look for strategies,goals,and interventions that have been tried.there might be strategies that have worked,there might be strategies that have not worked.


process:interviews

interviews are limited to the recollections of informants and their personal judgements,in this regard,the practitioner must guard against misleading information,certainly,information gathered in interviews,questionnaires,surveys,checklists,and any other type of informal assessment provides unique insight into the individual,the practitioner should remember not to rely on the interviews alone,direct observational data are needed.


rapport and trust help to lower barriers that others might exhibit when sharing information parents might be protective of a child's medical information and demonstrate reluctance to share it,teachers might be concerned that admitting some of their management struggles with a student reflects poorly on their abilities,administrators might be worried that explaning the extent of the student's problem behavior might promtp you to demand strategies or interventions that stretch their overworked personnel,without establishing professional rapport and professional trust,critical information might remain undisclosed.


professionalism involves conduct:dress code,language,and behavior are areas in which people might judge professionals.whether in dress code,language,or behavior,your conduct should match or exceed a standard of behavior that the institution you are working in would uphold.

professionalism involves readiness:if an interviewer is tardy,absent,or comes to the interview unprepared,it can significantly impact the information gained from the interview.it is much easier to give information to someone who cares than to someone who is careless

professionalism involves objectivity:when interviewing others,your own biases,values,and preferences should not enter into the interview setting.

professionalism involves confidentiality:the data that you gain should be treated as confidential,the information that the interviewee shares with you should not be accessible to everyone in the environment.


what was the interview dynamic?

what types of questions were important to the interviewer?

how did you feel in this process?


setting the amosphere,when people feel comfortable,they are more likely to remain accessible throughout the interview.

interviewing the right people,consider how often a person is with a student,for instance,物理老師一週才和孩子見一次面,科學老師每天都和孩子見面,if the student is older and changes classes,it might be advantageous to interview all of the academic teachers as a group,if an individual,such as the counselor,a paraprofessional,or the principal,is frequently involved with the student,it might be wise to consider interviewing them as well,always interview the parent or caregiver,the differences between home and school can further illuminate environmental factors that precipitate behavior,one word of caution:you can interview too many people,so,select prople who will truly offer insight or can speak about experiences that relate to the FBA.

asking the right questions,focus on the information that is needed,avoid the prying,frivolous and unnecessary data collecting


by keeping the interview focused with structured questions,the practitioners is more likely to obtain reliable information,most interviews can be divided into five categories:behaviors, setting events,antecedents,consequences,and interventions

topography:it is important to identify what the target behaviors look like to the person you are interviewing.

characteristics:identify the impression the person you are interviewing has of the characteristics of the target behavior,does these behaviors seem atypical,inappropriate, interfering,uncontrolled,and/or dangerous?

pervasiveness:it is important to understand the frequency,intensity,and duration of the behavior

history/conditions:it is important to use the interview to learn more about situations that might impact the student or resident's behavior,consider physiological factors,cultural factors,pharmacological factors,and life events,physiological factors will include mental health issues,illnesses,genetic disorders,chronic conditions,and/or other types of impairments or difficuluties,cultural factors to be considered are social,responsive, behavioral,or influential differences between the respondent and the environment, pharmacological factors would include andy prescribed medication or treatment that is impacting the student's behavior,finally,life event factors will encompass significant occurrences that might impact the student,such as a death,traumatic event,etc

environmental conditions:environmental conditions involve the context or the circumstances in which the behavior occurs,this is the who,what,when,and where of the behavior

interventions:if a student or resident is exhibiting difficult behavior,most likely the people you are interviewing have attempted strategies to help improve the behavior

functions:the function of the behavior is the purpose it serves the respondent,it can be broken down into two purpose-to gain/obtain or the escape/avoid.

preferences:the interview is an excellent time to ask about contextual preferences,tangible reward preferences,and the types of people and personalities the student prefers,it is also an excellent time to find out contextual dislikes,items that are non-preferred,and personalities that the student struggles to be around.


preparation for the interview 

setting a positive amosphere.relationship building begins the first time you meet someone; during this initial contact,explain the purpose of the interview and the value of the information that you are gathering;prior to the interview,make certain to have secured a private area to meet

identifying areas for clarification.prior to the interview,be sure to review any background information available to you.

identifying an interview tool.after you have reviewed all the information about the student, you will have a clearer picture of his or her history and current behavioral difficulties,from all the information gathered including the target behavior,referal form,etc.,you should have an idea of the types of questions you need to ask,it is best to have a questionnair or survey ready at the time of the interview












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