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223 Practitioner’s Guide to Functional Behavioral Assessment

已有 382 次阅读 2019-5-17 22:38 |系统分类:科研笔记

Practitioner’s Guide to Functional Behavioral Assessment

Process, Purpose, Planning, and Prevention

Stephanie M. Hadaway 

Alan W. Brue

pages 71-98

process:informal and formal assessment

an informal assessment can include observations,interviews and questionnaires.

a formal assessment includes standardized measures that allow you to compare one student's behavior to many other students(perhaps serval thousand) of the same age-that is ,the standard.

formal assessments allow you to see which behaviors are not problematic,which ones are slightly problematic,and which ones are significantly problematic


functional analysis screening tool

the functional analysis screening tool is a questionnaire used to identify factors that may influence the occurrence of problem behaviors

motivation assessment scale

the motivation assessment scale is a questionnaire that helps to identify situations in which a person is likely to behave a certain way.

questions about behavioral function

the questions about behavioral function is a scale used to assess the function of maladaptive behaviors in persons who have been diagnosed with a developmental disability.


fomal measures量表

achenbach system of empirically based assessment

behavior assessment system for children,third edition

beck youth inventories,second edition

social skills improvement system rating scale

conners comprehensive behavior rating scales

burks behavior rating scales,second edition


formal measures for specific problems(p.80)

assessing anxiety

assessing attention/hyperactivity/impulsivity

assessing autims

assessing depression


there are many different tools that can be used to collect information about a student and his or her behavior,informal and formal measures may be used individually or in combination,while formal measures will cost money,their use can be very beneficial when you need to demonstrate that a student's behavior is problematic compared to other students of the same age,when used in conjunction with interviews,you should have collected enough information from informal and formal measures to begin the data analysis process.


process:observation

direct observation is not just about watching a student,it requires knowledge of data collection methods and an understanding of when to use these methods.

direct observation data is the information you gather,it is the firsthand recording of the student or resident's behavior derived from observation.

subjects who are being observed will demonstrate a change in their behavior based on the observation being conducted.


five recommendations for observer conduct

preparation

professionalism

focus,avoid interjecting yourself into the lesson,tasks or activities in the classroom or treatment environment

positioning

confidentiality


four guidelines for successful observations

objectivity,the observations need to remain objective.

accuracy,make certain the data is accurate

meaningfulness,insure the data you are collecting is meaningful,in the development of FBA, the focus should be on the target behavior and the events surrounding the occurrence of the target behavior

timeliness,data collections should be timely,old data give us historical information and a way to measure improvement or lack of improvement,but we are looking for recent data.


observe the student long enough to obtain sufficient data


it is preferable to gather information about behavior exhibited during a range of activities or events,this gives you a truer picture of the behavior that you are observing,even though we have heard of very brief observation,最少持續三十分鐘

observing a student across a rang of settings allows the observer to gain a clearer understanding of day-to-day functioning

there are many individuals whose behavior improves in the presence of an observer,most of the time,if we observe long enough,this type of individual will eventually become familiar with our presence,and the target behavior will reemerge


data collection methods

event recording,documenting the numner of times a behavior occurs in a specified time period

frequency collection,simply count the number of times the student is engaged in the target behavior,at the end of the time period,you have the frequency of the behavior

rate,count the number of times the student engaged in the targeted behavior,then devide the engagement amount by the length of time the behavior occurred

event recording is best used when

the behavior does not occur with a high rate of frequency(e.g.,tapping foot or talking with friends)

the behavior has a clear beginning and end(e.g.,temper tantrum)

limited staff to record data

it is important to know the amount of time a behavior occurs



interval recording decumenting the occurrence or lack of occurrence of the target behavior in a specified time interval

partial-interval recording.utilize method when the actual time of occurrence of the target behavior is important and the intention of data collection is behavior reduction,this method is also used when event recording is not feasible

whole-interval recording.utilize this method when you want to estimate the duration of a target behavior and you want to increase a behavior,this method is also used when event recording is not feasible

scatterplot.utilize this method when you want to know the time of day a behavior occurs

interval recording is best used when

the behavior occurs with a high frequency

the behavior does not have a clear beginning and end

access to experienced and additional staff


duration recording,this is a method of data collection documenting how long a behavior occurs,duration recording will record the total time or percentage of time that a behavior occurs within a specified time period,behavior is measured from the time it begins until the time it stops

duration recording is best used when 

the length of the behavior is the focus of the observation

the behavior does have a clear beginning and end

the behavior occurs over a period of time,not in quick succession or rapidly


latency recording,this is a method of data collection documenting the length of elapsed time between the onset of a stimulus and the occurrence of a particular behavior,latency recording can be used when you want to decrease the amount of time it takes for a student to respond to a specific instruction

latency recording is best used when

the length of time it take the individual to begin the expected behavior is needed

the behavior does have a clear beginning and end

the behavior is not ongoing

the behavior does not occur in quick succession or rapidly


ABC data collection,this is a method of descriptive analysis that allows the observer to document the environmental variables ralate to the target behavior

ABC data recording is best used when

an FBA is being completed

additional personnel are available

the observer has an ample amount of time to record events


antecedent-this is the preceding sitmulus,it is the event,experience,or circumstance that happened just before the behavior

behavior-this is the target behavior,it is the act or action that the student or client exhibited

consequence-this is the event,experience,or circustance that happened right after the behavior












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