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(198)basic concepts and principles

已有 386 次阅读 2019-4-21 20:29 |系统分类:科研笔记


Functional Behavioral Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Third Edition

Ennio Cipani, PhD

pages 1-17

孩子為什麼會那樣做?

what can be done in the interim to reduce the child's tantrums and develop a more acceptable manner of dealing with his or her social environment?


functional behavior-analytic approach

如何改變一個孩子的行為?it is up to the care providers and parents to change their own bahavior in order to change the child's behavior.

每一種行為背後都有其功能與目的


正強化/負強化

正強化

positive reinforcement functions invlove behaviors that produce an environmental event that subsequently increase the likelihood of that behavior under the same or similar antecedent motivating conditions.in other words,the operation of positive reinforcement involves a behavior that produces an event(ativity,object)that subsequently strengthens the occurrence of that behavior in the future.

positive reinforcement functions are termed access functions,that is,these bahavior access preferred items,events,or activities.


出現捏人行為—被帶離現場去散步—想去散步就跑去捏人


出現吼叫、踢人、打自己的行為——給孩子吃的——問題行為停止——想得到吃的或想要的東西就吼叫、踢人、打自己


一個自閉症小男孩經常尖叫和大打自己

有人會說:他發脾氣全因他是自閉症,自閉症導致他出現這樣的行為。

這樣的解釋合理嗎???

為什麼會尖叫?

尖叫可能是想獲得父母的注意,可能是肚子餓了,可能是想進行做某件事或進行某種活動

偶爾發脾氣能獲得父母的注意,下次想獲得父母注意的時候會更傾向於發脾氣(孩子明白這招有效)


負強化

an understanding of negative reinforcement operations is critical to the design of effective treatments,particularly if you serve individuals who often engage in behavior problems during task demands,compliance situations,instructional conditions,or chores and work tasks.


negative reinforcement functions are called escape functions(include avoidance functions in this terminology)


要求小朋友打掃房間,小朋友不幹,⚠小朋友如果不做晚上就沒得看📺

可能會有兩種情況

小朋友尖叫,被帶離現場晚上沒得看📺

小朋友尖叫,如果保證不吵不鬧,工作人員幫她把房間打掃乾淨讓她能看電視

下次還是會繼續尖叫


another example illustrating a negative reinforcement function is the self-abusive behavior of a child 

unfortunately,self-abusive is often unitentionally exacerbated


the same behavior can produce different environmental effect

             想吃🍪                                                   下次想吃饼干就哭

小孩子哭

             不听话被🔒在房间里,想出来                 下次被关房子里就哭


                        求安慰,关注,想护士陪聊天

病人跺脚、踢墙

                        不想吃药,想护士离开


         👩对弟弟说,哥哥都酱紫了,把玩具让给哥哥

打弟弟

           想让弟弟走开


                                                        老师把球传给孩子

学生说:不公平,每次都轮不到我

学生说:不公平,我每次都要做那么多

                                                         老师同意把作业减半


compliance situations can be context where problem behavior arise,there are two types of commands

a "do" command(“把垃圾撿起來放進垃圾桶裡”;打開洗衣房的門““把👟穿上”)

a "don't" command(“不要在走廊上🏃♀”“不要叫“”不要把🏀扔到🏠裡)

in some case,noncompliance taks an innocuous forms,such as the individual simply not attending to the person issuing the command.

deaf ear approach(裝聽不到?)

孩子在看📺,讓孩子做一件事(比如晾衣服),孩子就是諸多藉口,磨磨蹭蹭,甚至躲進房間裡,就是不去做?怎麼辦?

跟孩子耗著,把孩子揪出來,哪怕抓著他的手哭著也要他完成?

耗不過孩子,最後自己做把衣服晾好,讓孩子繼續看📺。(這次成功了,下次再讓孩子晾衣服,孩子會不會又躲起來逃避任務?)


為什麼有些孩子會有嚴重的問題行為?

自傷、攻擊他人、毀壞財物

一個孩子發脾氣剛開始可能不會出現破壞性行為,如果問題行為處理不當或不及時,慢慢也會出現

發脾氣升級(從低聲哭泣——大聲哭泣——跺腳——在地上打滾——踢人、打人——摔東西——自傷、傷害他人),從弱到強,一步步升級,shap by the social environment

孩子犯錯,把孩子關進🏠裡,堅決不讓孩子出來,孩子一開始😢並不奏效,😢大點聲還是不奏效,把東西往牆上扔,嗯,👨👩跑過來瞅瞅是咋回事。孩子心裏就知道,如果😢不管用,那就扔東西。

隨著時間的推移,扔東西父母也不管,知道把牆砸出個洞,父母不得不出來制止。問題就是一步一步升級的。


there are two ways to access positive reinforcement:directly and social mediated

escape behaviors can function to produce the termination of an aversive event in the same two ways: directly and socially mediated

direct access(DA)

肚子餓了,打開冰箱拿出一個🍎吃掉

想去別的地方就要拿🔑發動🚗

想休息躺🛏上

these behavior produce the reinforcer immediatly and directly.

跳輪椅的故事(p .11)

一天坐輪椅12-16個小時,換個角度想像一下一個人一天都在開車或者一天都在坐飛機,是什麼心情?


socially mediated access(SMA)

these behaviors produce the desired positive reinforcer through the efforts and actions of someone else.(需要别人的帮忙)

肚子饿了,想吃苹果,请站在冰箱旁的人把🍎拿过来

socially mediated access一般需要vocal request,但不是一定

比如,名流不需要说话,只要一个动作或眼神司机会走过去把🚗门打开

with socially mediated access functions,people play a major role in the development and maintenance of target problem behavior becoming functional.


direct escape(DE)

比如:一個人走進一個嘈雜的房間裡,覺著太嘈,隨後走出房間。

從房間走出來就聽不到嘈雜聲了

眼光太刺眼拉窗簾或者把百葉窗拉下來

感覺太熱或者身上濕濕的就去洗個澡

these are all examples of chains of behaviors that produce escape(or avoidance)of aversive stimulation in a direct manner.


socially mediated escape(SME) behavior

escape behaviors can often achieve their effect of removing or avoiding an aversive condition through the behavior of someone else

看電影的時候很吵,跟經理提出來,經歷讓大家保持安靜

直接大聲說:安靜點!大家靜下來了


孩子為什麼要醬子做?

把孩子關🏠裡,整個🏠裡充斥著孩子的哭聲,把孩子放出來,孩子不哭了

孩子通過哭讓自己早點從🏠裡放出來

父母通過把孩子從🏠裡放出來,終止孩子哭泣(想讓孩子不哭,就得放他出來)

明知道隔離孩子會這麼鬧就不要選擇隔離這種方式,選擇其他方式

孩子跟媽媽去超市,孩子想買🍬,👩不允許

孩子大聲哭,甚至在地上打滾,就為了讓👩給她買糖

👩覺著孩子在大庭廣眾下又哭又鬧,很難看,為了讓孩子停止哭泣,選擇給孩子買🍬(想讓孩子安靜下來,就給她買🍬)


what makes a reinforcer a reinforcer?

different strokes for different folks蘿蔔青菜各有所愛

一種東西或活動對一些人來說是喜歡的,對一些人來說可能是討厭的

就算同一種活動或者同一樣東西對某個人來說,某個時期可能是喜歡的,到了某個階段可能會很討厭


we need a more precise terminology that allow us to analyze the environmental factors that lead a person to "want" a particular item or event.


there are two variables that are inherent in antecedent conditions:motivational and discriminative variables.


establishing operation(EO)


一個小朋友每天都要去散步,這一天他還沒散過步,他在被要求著做不喜歡的事情,他想去散步,他想起上次他捏人了,老師把他帶操場上散步了,此時,捏人的行為很可能再次發生


the greater the strength of the EO the greater the likelihood the person will engage in a behavior that effectively produces the particular outcome.the lower the strength of the EO the lower the likelihood the person wil engage in such a functional behavior.


all EOs appera to be unique to the individual person,each person will differ with regard to the specific level of deprivation or aversion that establishes the value of a particular outcome(be it access or escape function)


absence makes the heart grow fonder小別勝新婚


EO s for access functions

deprived of food——感覺肚子餓——需要food

deprived of drink——感覺口渴——需要drink,liquids

ingested salt——感覺口渴——需要drink,liquids

deprived of physical contact——想要抱抱——需要physical contact

deprived of attention——感到煩惱,求關注——需要注意(specific person/type)

deprived of tv——想看📺——需要📺

deprived of stimulation,all varieties——wants stimulation——stimulation(specific type)

smoker deprived of cigarettes——想抽菸——inhalation of cigarette smoke


EOs for escape functions

establishing operations for escape functions

establishing operation                                      lay term         reinfocer for some behavior

presence of difficult task                                lazy               removeal of task

person acting in an obnoxious manner               annoyed         terminating engagement in social situation

presence of pain                                               in pain           termination of painful stimulus

rain on the head                                               does not want to get wet        termination of rain on head

occurrence of extra pyramidal symptoms         wants symptoms to stop      termination of the EPS

allergic rhinitis                     wants relief from allergies      termination or reduction in allergy symptoms

drug withdrawal symptoms    wants more drugs.            termination or reduction of withdrawal symptoms

alcohol withdrawal symptoms  wants more alcohol         termination or reduction of withdrawal symptoms

 







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