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氮循环

已有 2966 次阅读 2019-4-23 12:01 |个人分类:自然之旅|系统分类:科普集锦


Figure Schematic processes of nitrogen cycle driven by microorganisms (Francis CA, Beman JM, Kuypers MMM. New processes and players in the nitrogen cycle: the microbial ecology of anaerobic and archaeal ammonia oxidation. ISME Journal, 2007, 1: 19‒27.; Canfield DE, Glazer AN, Falkowski PG. The evolution and future of earth’s nitrogen cycle. Science 2010, 330: 192‒196.; Coskun D, Britto DT, Shi WM, Kronzucker HJ. 2017. How plant root exudates shape the nitrogen cycle. Trends in Plant Science 22: 661‒673.; Kuypers MMM, Marchant HK, Kartal B. 2018. The microbial nitrogencycling network. Nature Reviews Microbiology 16, 263‒276).


注:Oxic,常氧环境;Suboxic,次氧化环境;N2 fixation,固氮作用;Nitrification,硝化作用;Ammonia oxidation,氨氧化作用;Nitrite oxidation,亚硝化作用;Denitrification,反硝化作用;Anammox,厌氧氨氧化作用;DNRA (Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium),硝酸盐异化还原为氨;nifH,固氮酶(Nitrogenase)铁蛋白(催化N2→NH4+)基因;amoA,氨单加氧酶(Ammonia monooxygenase) (催化NH4+→NO2)基因;hao,羟胺氧化酶(Hydroxylamine oxidoreductase) (催化NH2+OH→NO2)基因;nxrA,亚硝酸盐氧化还原酶(Nitrite oxidoreductase) (催化NO2→NO3)基因;narG,膜靠硝酸盐还原酶(Membrane‒bound Nitrate Reductase) (催化NO3→NO2)基因;napA,可溶性细胞质硝酸盐还原酶(Periplasmic‒bound nitrate reductase) (催化NO3→NO2)基因;nirK,含铜离子的亚硝酸盐还原酶(Copper‒containing nitrite reductase) (催化NO2→NO)基因;nirS,含细胞色素cd1亚硝酸盐还原酶(Cytochrome cd1‒containing nitrite reductase) (催化NO2→NO)基因;norBNO还原酶(Nitric oxide reductase) (催化NO→N2O)基因;nosZN2O还原酶(Nitrous oxide reductase) (催化N2O→N2)基因;nrfA,异化氮还原氨(Dissimilatory nitrate reductase) (催化NO2→NH4+)基因;hzo,厌氧氨氧化酶(Anaerobic ammonium oxidase) (催化NH4+→N2)基因。



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