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Theories of Accident Causation

已有 857 次阅读 2018-9-18 11:12 |个人分类:安全科学|系统分类:科研笔记

Theories of Accident Causation

Chapter 3

  • Industrial work place accidents

  • 3/100 persons per year

  • One accidental death every 51 minutes

  • One injury every 19 seconds

Why do accidents happen?

  • Is there a theory that explains the causes of accidents?

  • To prevent accidents we need to know the causes.

  • Six widely used theories for accident causation

Domino theory

  • Early theory, not widely held to today

  • Two central points

  • Injuries caused by the action of preceding factors

  • Removal of the central factor negates the action of the preceding factor

Domino theory

  • Five factors leading to an accident

  • Ancestry & social environment

  • Fault of person

  • Unsafe act/mechanical or physical hazard

  • Accident

  • Injury

Human Factors theory

  • Chain of events ultimately caused by human error

  • Three factors

  • Overload

  • Inappropriate response

  • Inappropriate activities

Human factors theory

  • Overload

  • Capacity - abilities

  • Load

    • Environmental factors (e.g noise)

    • Internal factors (e.g. personal problems)

    • Situational factors (e.g. risk)

Human factors theory

  • Inappropriate response

  • How a person responds given certain conditions

  • Incompatibility with workstation

Human factors theory

  • Inappropriate activities

  • Doing a task without training

  • Misjudging the degree of risk

Accident/incident theory

  • Human factors theory plus

  • Ergonomic traps

  • Decision to err

  • System’s failure

Accident/incident theory

  • Overload + Ergonomic traps + Decision to err lead to human error

  • System’s failure link

  • a causal relationship to management

  • establishes management’s role in health and safety

Epidemiological theory

  • Causal relationship between environmental factors and disease

  • Extended to accidents

  • Study causal relationships between environmental factors and the accident

Epidemiological theory

  • Predisposition characteristics

  • People, perceptions, environment

  • Situational characteristics

  • Risk assessment, peer pressure, priorities of supervisor, attitude

  • Cause or prevent accidents

Systems theory

  • System - interacting components intended to meet a common goal

  • A change in any component affects the entire system

Systems theory

  • Components

  • Person

  • Machine

  • Environment

  • Collect information, weigh risks, make decisions

Systems theory

  • Stressors cloud judgment

  • Job requirements

  • Worker’s abilities & limitations

  • Benefit if task accomplished

  • Loss if task is tried but fails

  • Loss if task is not attempted

Combination theory

  • In many cases, one theory is not sufficient

  • Need to use several models to explore the causes of accidents

  • Don’t rely on one theory

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