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生命之树、生物多样性与学科教育

已有 1296 次阅读 2017-3-21 09:50 |系统分类:论文交流|关键词:生命之树;生物多样性;分类学;教学

Walking and talking the tree of life: Why and how to teach about biodiversity  

  • Cissy J. Ballen ,Harry W. Greene


  • (http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2001630)

Abstract

Taxonomic details of diversity are an essential scaffolding for biology education, yet outdated methods for teaching the tree of life (TOL), as implied by textbook content and usage, are still commonly employed. Here, we show that the traditional approach only vaguely represents evolutionary relationships, fails to denote major events in the history of life, and relies heavily on memorizing near-meaningless taxonomic ranks. Conversely, a clade-based strategy—focused on common ancestry, monophyletic groups, and derived functional traits—is explicitly based on Darwin’s “descent with modification,” provides students with a rational system for organizing the details of biodiversity, and readily lends itself to active learning techniques. We advocate for a phylogenetic classification that mirrors the TOL, a pedagogical format of increasingly complex but always hierarchical presentations, and the adoption of active learning technologies and tactics.



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