沉闷科学的掘墓人分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/Bearjazz

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每日翻译20190619

已有 359 次阅读 2019-6-19 07:54 |个人分类:翻译作品|系统分类:科研笔记| 更新世, 冰期, 遗传结构, 分布区变化

#编者信息

熊荣川

明湖实验室

xiongrongchuan@126.com

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/Bearjazz

There are perhaps two ways of approaching   the effects of Pleistocene ice ages on the genetics of speciation, and like   deduction and induction they are complementary. Firstly, we may ask what can   palaeoenvironmental sciences tell us about these climate changes? How was the   distribution of fauna and flora affected by them in the Tropical and   Temperate regions? How would these changes operate in regions with different   topographies, where mountains, plains, lakes and seas are variously   distributed? What would all this do to the genetic processes and structure of   the species? Secondly, from the other end, we ask what is the genetic   structure of populations, races, species and species complexes, both locally   and geographically? How diverged are sister species, subspecies and races,   and can we date these? How much hybridization and introgression is there   between sister taxa, and what are its consequences? What is the power of gene   flow among populations? Is there equilibrium locally or broadly? What can   recent invasions tell us about the genetic consequences of range changes?   What can we learn from the field and laboratory experiments about the rate   and limits of adaptation to changed environments? Having gathered such   information, the next step is to join the two sets. Are there common points?   Do certain historical events predict observed patterns? Can past processes be   inferred from current genetic distribution? And then where do we need more   data?

研究更新世冰期对物种形成遗传学的影响,可能有两种互补的方式,一种是演绎法,另一种是归纳法。首先,我们可能会问,古环境科学能告诉我们关于这些气候变化的什么?热带和温带地区动植物的分布如何受其影响?在山区、平原、湖泊和海洋分布不同的地区,这些变化将如何运作?所有这些对物种的遗传过程和结构有什么影响?第二,从另一个角度,我们问在区位和地貌尺度上,种群、种族、物种和物种复合体的遗传结构是什么?姐妹物种、亚种和种族有多大的差异,我们能确定这些分化的日期吗?姐妹分类群之间有多少杂交和渗入,其后果是什么?种群间基因流动的动力是什么?存在局部平衡或广域平衡吗?最近的入侵能告诉我们分布区域变化的遗传后果吗?关于适应环境变化的速率和极限,我们可以从实地和实验室实验中学到什么?在收集了这些信息之后,下一步就是整合这两者。有共同点吗?某些历史事件预测观察到的模式吗?过去的过程能从当前的遗传分布中推断出来吗?那么我们在哪里需要更多的数据呢?  

Hewitt G M . Some genetic consequences of   ice ages, and their role in divergence and speciation[J]. Biological Journal   of the Linnean Society, 2010, 58(3):247-276.




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