蒋高明的博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/蒋高明 中国科学院植物研究所研究员,从事植物生态学研究

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产量与经济效益共赢的高效生态农业模式: 以弘毅生态农场为例

已有 333 次阅读 2019-11-13 08:02 |个人分类:建言新农村|系统分类:科研笔记| 产量, 经济效益, 弘毅生态农场, 生态效益, 害虫防治

产量与经济效益共赢的高效生态农业模式: 以弘毅生态农场为例


蒋高明、郑延海、吴光磊、刘慧、池云花、冯素飞、李勇、李彩虹、李宗奉、苏本营、董群、乌云塔娜、LUCAS Mario、LEFORT Zoe、REGOLINI Margot、曾祥伟、贺新华、郭立月、战丽杰、唐海龙、韦继光、周平、曾彦、杨煜、宋守宽、刘秀、甄珍、刘海涛、孟杰、李静、李霄、李占、丁娜、博文静、程达、梁啸天、徐磊、谷仙、宋彦洁、MUMINOV A. Mahmud、刘滨扬、赫晓霞、刘美珍、宁堂原、王空军、徐玉新、陈文浩

中国科学院植物研究所; 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院; 山东农业大学农学院; 山东农业大学资源与环境学院; 河北农业大学林学院; Natural Sciences at RWTH Aachen University, German; Forestry School of Engineers, France; 弘毅生态农场有限公司; 中国农业大学生物学院


科学通报, 2016, 62: 289-297


摘要 化学物质的大量投入以及元素不能循环导致农田生态系统退化, 耕地质量和产量均呈下降趋势, 食物链 受到污染. 本研究从低产田开始, 通过秸秆养牛,腐熟牛粪还田恢复地力; 以物理+生物方法控制虫害; 以人工+ 机械管理杂草, 停用农药,化肥和除草剂, 同时不用地膜, 人工合成激素,转基因种子生产优质安全食品, 并在线上与线下销售. 10年的长期实验结果表明, 所在村庄农田生态环境改善, 减少农药用量58.3%; 物理+生物控虫效果明显, 每盏灯年捕获量从2009年的33 kg下降到2014年的2.1 kg, 下降93.8%; 年消耗秸秆1000 t, 秸秆利用率从1.1%提高到62.5%. 有机肥还田提高了土壤生物多样性, 有机果园蚯蚓数量317条 m2, 而普通果园只有16条 m2; 大量有机肥还田(75 t hm2), 土壤有机质从实验初期的0.7%提高到2.4%. 粮食产量从最初的11.43 t hm2提高到目前的17.43 t hm2, 其中冬小麦(Triticum aestivum),夏玉米(Zea mays),大豆(Glycine max (Linn.) Merr.)和花生 (Arachis hypogaea Linn.)产量分别超出山东省平均水平42.6%, 60.9%, 32.2%和38.1%. 由于质量好, 产品已销售往除西藏以外的30个省,市,自治区, 经济效益明显, 平均每公顷效益是普通农田的3~5倍, 带动所在村庄67户农民从事高效生态农业. 本研究可为国家制定生态农业发展规划,精准扶贫,农村环境保护等提供科学依据.

关键词:高效生态农业 秸秆 害虫控制 杂草管理 产量 经济效益


High efficiency eco-agriculture model obtain both larger yield and economic benefit:A case study in Hongyi Organic Farm

JANG GaoMing1,2, ZHENG YanHai1, WU GuangLei1, LIU Hui1,2, CHI YunHua1,2, FENG SuFei3, LI Yong1,2, LI CaiHong1, LI ZongFeng3, SU BenYing3, DONG Qun4, WUYUN TaNa5, LUCAS Mario6, LEFORT Zoe7, REGOLINI Margot7, ZENG XiangWei3, HE XinHua3, GUO LiYue1,2, ZHAN LiJie1,3, TANG HaiLong4, WEI JiGuang1,2, ZHOU Ping8, ZENG Yah8, YANG Yu8, SONG ShouKuan8, LIU Xiu8, ZHEN Zhen1,2, LIU HaiTao1,2, MENG Jie1,2, LI Jing1,2, LI XJao1,2, LI Zhan3, DING Na3, BO WenJing1,2, YU XiaoFan1,2, CHENG Da1,2, LIANG XiaoTian1,2, LI LiJun1,2, XU Lei3, GU Xian1,2, SONG YanJie1,2, MUMINOV A. Mahmud1,2, LIU BinYang1,2, HE XiaoXia1,2, LIU MeiZhen1, NING TangYuan3, WANG KongJun3, XU YuXin4 , CHEN WenHao9

1 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China;

2 College of Resources and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100040, China; 3College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China;

4College of Natural Resource and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China;

5 College of Forestry, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071001, China;

6 Natural Sciences at RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52074, Germany;

7 Forestry School of Engineers, Nancy 54000, France;

8Hongyi Organic Farm Co., LTD, Pingyi 273305, China;

9College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China)

 

Abstract:Due to the input of a large number of chemical substances and the termination of elements cycling, the farmland ecosystem has been seriously degraded, with the quality of farmland and yield being decreased. High efficiency eco-agriculture has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical agriculture. However, debates also exist on whether eco-agriculture can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on high efficiency eco-agriculture may produce adequate foods and reduce environmental pollutions from chemical agriculture. This study began with feeding cattle by bio-processed corn straw, restoring the soil fertility by manure returning in Hongyi Organic Farm 2 hm^-2 low yield cropland. We applied physical+biological methods for pest control; artificial+mechanical for weed management, thus to put an end to pesticides, fertilizers and herbicides pollution. Meanwhile, without using plastic films, synthetic hormones, genetically modified seeds, we guaranteed the food quality and safety, and soled the products online and offline. The results of the 10 years experiment are as follows: The weight of pests captured by insect-trapping lamp reduced from 33 to 2.1 kg, reducing the amount of pesticide by 93.8%. The annual consumption of straw by cattle reached to 1000 t per year, increasing straw utilization rate from 1.1% to 62.5%. Organic fertilizer has be tested to improve soil biodiversity, for instance, the number of earthworms in organic orchard was 317 earthworms m^-2, while only 16 earthworms m^-2 in ordinary orchard. The soil organic matters in 0–20 cm depth layer increased from 0.7% to 2.4%, thank to great amount of cattle manure being applied(75 t hm^-2). The grain production also increased greatly from the initial 11.43 t hm^-2 to 17.43 t hm^-2. The wheat, corn, soybean and peanut yield were 42.6%, 60.9%, 32.2% and 38.1% higher than ordinary farmland around. Due to its good quality, the products have been sold to 30 provinces, cities and autonomous regions other than Tibet, with obvious economic benefits. The average benefit per hectare is 3-5 times that of ordinary farmland, driving 67 farmers in their villages to engage in efficient ecological agriculture. This study can provide scientific basis for the country to formulate the development plan of ecological agriculture, targeted poverty alleviation, rural environmental protection, etc

Keywords: high efficient  ecological agriculture  straw  pest control weed management  yield  economic performance




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