蒋高明的博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/蒋高明 中国科学院植物研究所研究员,从事植物生态学研究

博文

中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之二十五:秸秆的命运

已有 329 次阅读 2018-4-17 10:21 |个人分类:生态科普|系统分类:科普集锦| 秸秆, 循环经济, 中国生态文明, 连载

 

中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之二十五

秸秆的命运

本书由北京语言大学出版社出版,2014(教学课件光盘版) 作者 蒋高明

3.2发展低碳循环经济

3.2 Developing low-carbon-oriented and circular economy

3.2.1秸秆的命运,三任总理的关心

3.2.1 The fate of straw, the concern of three premiers

李鹏总理:“凡是有条件的地方,都要把秸秆过腹还田作为实现农业可持续发展的一件大事来抓。”

The then Premier Li Peng said: “In any place where condition permits, manure fertilizer treatment should be given much importance to realize the sustainable development of agriculture.”

 

朱镕基总理:“科技部在十五计划中把加强秸秆综合利用的科学技术研究列入重点,要下定决心解决秸秆焚烧问题。”

The then Premier Zhu Rongji stated: “The Ministry of Science and Technology put the comprehensive utilization of straw on the list of key scientific and technological research in the 15th Five-year Plan, and expressed his determination to solve the problem of straw burning.”

 

温家宝总理:“秸秆危害,此事强调多年,仍未得到解决。看来,关键要给秸秆找个出路。农业部要予以重视,在总结经验的基础上继续研究治本的措施。”

The then Premier Wen Jiabao pointed out: “The problem that crop straw can do a lot of harm has been emphasized for many years, but remains unsolved. It seems that the most important thing is to figure out how to recycle crop straw. The Ministry of Agriculture should pay attention to it, and continue to find out the fundamental solution on the basis of past experience.”

 

秸秆,就是农作物收获后剩下的地上植株部分。这么普普通通的秸秆,在中国竟然成为让国家领导人头疼的事情,三任总理都在不同的场合做出指示,呼吁大家解决秸秆问题。这是为什么呢?

After crops are harvested, the part of the plant left in the fields can be called straw. Straw, though trivial, has become a headache for State leaders. The three premiers gave instructions on different occasions, appealing to people for a solution. Why?

 

中国是一个有13亿人口的大国,而且是有5000年农业传统的国家,农业区域广阔,产业量巨大,每年能够产生6~7亿吨秸秆。秸秆作为农业产品的剩余,本来可以通过生态过程进入农业生态循环过程中,不构成任何危害。但是,由于当前中国农业普遍采用化学农业模式,大量使用除草剂和化肥,农业收获后的秸秆成为了废物。加上农村生产力不足,农时紧张,大量地区的农民都将秸秆一把火焚烧掉。秋收季节,秸秆大量集中焚烧,狼烟四起,造成大面积的粉尘污染。焚烧秸秆不但危害居民的身体健康,而且由于粉尘遮天蔽日,空气能见度严重降低,造成高速公路无法通车,飞机无法起降,影响了国民经济的正常运行。这就难怪总理们要为小小的秸秆发愁了。

China is a country with a population of 1.3 billion and its traditional agriculture has a history of 5,000 years. With vast farmland and great yield, 600 to 700 million tons of straw are produced every year. Straw, as a farm leftover, should have done no harm by going through the ecological cycle. However, the chemical agricultural mode is widely used in China based on herbicides and fertilizers. Thus, straw after the harvest becomes a waste. What’s more, at busy time when labor force is running short, farmers will burn the straw into ashes in most areas. During the harvest season in autumn, excessive burning of straw results in heavy smoke and massive dust pollution. Straw burning not only is harmful to health, but also causes haze badly affecting the traffic. Highways will have to close up and planes cannot take off or landing due to poor visibility, thus thwarting the normal operation of the national economy. No wonder the premiers were worried.

 

2008729日,《国务院办公厅关于加快推进农作物秸秆综合利用的意见》发至各省、自治区、直辖市、国务院各部委和直属机构。其指导思想是:以科学发展观为指导,认真落实资源节约和环境保护基本国策,把推进秸秆综合利用与农业增效和农民增收结合起来,以技术创新为动力,以制度创新为保障,加大政策扶持力度,发挥市场机制作用,加快秸秆综合利用,促进资源节约型、环境友好型社会建设。

On July 29, 2008, The Views of the General Office of the State Council on Promoting the Comprehensive Utilization of Crop Straw was issued and distributed to the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities, ministries and the departments directly under the ministries. The guidelines are: guided by scientific outlook on development, it is necessary to conscientiously implement the basic national policy of resource conservation and environmental protection; it is significant to integrate the promotion of comprehensive utilization of straw with agricultural efficiency and farmers’ income. Taking technology innovation as power and system innovation as guarantee, it is important to enhance policy support, and give play to the role of market mechanisms. It is also desirable to speed up the comprehensive utilization of straw and quicken the construction of a resource-conserving and environmentally friendly society.

 

国务院给解决秸秆问题制定了明确的目标:到2015年,基本建立秸秆收集体系,形成布局合理、多元化利用的秸秆综合利用产业化格局,秸秆综合利用率超过80%

The State Council set clear goals for solving the recycling problem of straw: establishing of a straw collecting system, and forming a rational layout of the comprehensive utilization of straw that is diversified and industrialized. And the rate of comprehensive utilization of straw should exceed 80% by 2015.

 

2015年很快就要到了,80%的秸秆综合利用率能够达到吗?

The year 2015 is not far away. Can we achieve the goal of 80%?

 

现在看来有些困难。2013年秋天,我像往年一样到农区去调研。现场发现,由于各级政府重视,烧秸秆的少了,但在有些地方农田里的“狼烟”还是能够见到。

Under the present situation, it seems difficult. In autumn of 2013, I carried out my usual on-the-spot rural investigation. In the place where I was staying, I found that straw burning had become less frequent because the government at all levels have attached enough importance to it; but, in some farm areas, “smoke” can still be seen.

 

秸秆焚烧为什么“禁而不止”呢?这主要是由于没有为秸秆找到一个合理的出路。过去的秸秆,是重要的薪柴,作为做饭的能源一点点燃烧使用,不会产生严重的污染。现在农民生活变了,改烧煤炭和天然气这些不可再生的化石资源,秸秆就没有了用武之地。过去,秸秆还是牲畜的饲料,但是现在,农民种地基本都实现机械化了,畜力被拖拉机取代,农民不再饲养大牲口,秸秆的另一项重要使命也被剥夺了。秸秆还可以用来造沼气。尽管政府连续十几年推广沼气技术,但是,真正实现使用的总量非常小,仅占不到目前秸秆总量的0.5%。虽然秸秆量非常大,但非常分散,收集和运输需要投入大量人力和物力,如果农民赚不到钱,就会选择在地头“一烧了之”,以免耽误农时和进城打工。就这样,原来身价金贵的秸秆变成了可怜的废物,没有了出路,成为了祸害。

Why can’t straw burning be prohibited completely? It’s because we haven’t figured out a good way to recycle straw. Straw in the past was an important fuel wood for cooking. Thus, no serious pollution ever occurred. Now, farmers’ lives have changed. Coal and natural gas as non-renewable fossil fuels have replaced straw and rendered it useless. Straw was once the fodder of domestic animals, but many of these animals have been replaced by machines like tractors, and not raised by farmers any more. Straw can be used to produce biogas. Though the government has been popularizing the technique of biogas production for more than a decade, the total straw utilization rate remains quite low—less than 0.5%. Every year, a great amount of straw is produced, but it is so scattered that a lot of money and manpower are needed for its collection and transportation. If the farmers cannot earn money from it, they will burn it in the field so their farm work will not be delayed or they will have time to find a temporary job in the city. As a result, the straw which is supposed to be valuable has become waste. With no way to recycle it, it has become a curse to farmers.

 

实际上,被农民们烧掉的不是秸秆,而是“粮食”。

Actually, the straw burned by the farmers is a kind of “grain”.

 

中国每年生产粮食6亿吨,仅1.8亿吨供人消费,多达1.2亿吨是作为饲料供给畜牧业的。我们经常讨论农业产量,依此看来,农业产量问题的关键不是粮食增产的技术问题,而是肉的来源问题。中国秸秆可支持的动物鲜重达1.82.1亿吨,按照40%的保守屠宰率,以及“5斤粮1斤肉”的比率估算,秸秆可以贡献3.64.2亿吨粮。

China’s annual grain production is 600 million tons. Only 180 million tons are for human consumption, and more than 120 million tons are supplied to animal husbandry. Agricultural production is a frequently discussed problem, but it can be inferred that the increase of meat production rather than grain production is the key. The animal fresh weight supported by straw in China can reach 180 million to 210 million tons. If the slaughter rate is calculated conservatively as 40%, and the proportion of grain production to meat production is 5:1, straw can contribute 360 to 420 million tons of grain production.

 

其次,农民烧掉的不是秸秆,而是肥料。

Secondly, straw burned by farmers is actually a kind of “fertilizer”.

 

种植小麦、玉米两季作物,每亩需要化肥200公斤。通过一定的技术措施实现秸秆过腹还田,土地自身形成健康的生态系统,营养能力和保水能力加强,化肥用量必然下降,对水的需求也将减少,可大大降低种植业成本。非常可惜的是,这些优质的“有机肥”经过焚烧后,仅变成了一点非常容易流失的矿物质,和大量恼人的污染物。毛泽东曾经说过,一头猪就是一座小化肥厂。猪牛羊这些流动的“化肥厂”制造的有机肥量是巨大的。如果将全国50%的秸秆利用起来,就可以支撑3.64.2亿头牛,全国可增加牛粪32.838.3亿吨,折合28353310万吨硫酸胺,逼近全国化肥的总需求量(3390万吨)。

Growing double-cropping wheat and corn will consume 200 kilograms of chemical fertilizers per mu. Manure fertilizer treatment can be realized by means of certain techniques: the land itself forms a healthy ecosystem with its ability of nutrient absorption and water storage enhanced, and the land’s need for more fertilizer and water will certainly be reduced. In this way we can greatly decrease the costs of the planting industry. However, it is a pity that straw that could have been used as “organic fertilizer” of high quality is being burnt to become a little amount of easily-lost minerals and troublesome pollutant. Mao Zedong once said that a pig was a small fertilizer plant. The organic fertilizer produced by “moving fertilizer plants” (pigs, cattle, and sheep) can be added up to a tremendous amount. Half the straw in China can feed 360 million to 420 million heads of cattle, and the amount of cow dung will increase to 3.28 to 3.83 billion tons, which is equivalent to 28.35 to 33.1 million tons of ammonium sulfate, close to the total national demand of fertilizer (33.90 million tons).

 

再次,农民烧掉的不是秸秆,而是宝贵的能源。

Moreover, the straw burned by the farmers is valuable energy.

 

目前沼气制造技术和沼气发电技术都已成熟,可以实现“秸秆-饲料-能源-肥料-种植”的完整循环,大幅度降低农村对化石能源的依赖性,缓解能源危机,并对减缓全球变暖做出贡献。因为沼气(发电)的能量来自植物中固定的碳水化合物所携带的太阳能,并没有增加对碳的排放,沼气实际上实现了污染物零排放。沼气和天然气的有效成分均为甲烷,采用一定的技术可以实现沼气取代液化气,实现工业化开发农村沼气。因此,养殖场和农户都是亟待开发的“天然气矿”。

Now the techniques of biogas production and biogas power generation have become mature, and so it is possible to realize the complete circulation of “straw-feed-energy-fertilizer-planting” and to greatly decrease rural area’s needs for fossil fuels. What’s more, the energy crisis can be alleviated, which will help solve the problem of global warming. This is because the energy released by biogas to generate power comes from solar energy carried by fixed carbohydrates in plants. The process of generation doesn’t give off carbon dioxide and, in fact, it realizes the goal of “zero discharge of pollutants”. The effective component of both biogas and natural gas is methane, so certain techniques can be adopted to realize the industrialization of   rural biogas generation. Therefore, livestock farms and the houses of farmers can be natural gas producers.

 

可见,秸秆具有非常大的潜在利用价值,围绕秸秆综合利用可以建成生态循环农业,让农田“狼烟”烟消云散。

It is apparent that straw has a big potential value. The comprehensive utilization of straw can give rise to a circular ecological farming and get rid of farmland smoke for good.

 

那么,这个美好的描述能否实现呢?

Will this beautiful scene described above come true?

 

答案是非常肯定的。7年前,我在山东平邑县开始了一个长期试验,建成了这样一个生态农场。试验取得了巨大的成功。不仅全村农田狼烟没有了,还得到了大量意想不到的收获。下面我就带大家了解一下我们的生态农场。

There is no doubt that the answer is “yes”. 7 years ago, I started a long-term experiment in Pingyi County, Shandong Province, by building an ecological farm with a great success. The smoke in the whole village disappeared and many other unexpected benefits cropped up. In the following part, our ecological farm will be introduced.

 




http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-475-1109414.html

上一篇:中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之二十四:生态空间优美
下一篇:中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之二十六:生态农场告别农业六害
收藏 分享 举报

0

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (0 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备14006957 )

GMT+8, 2018-4-27 12:47

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007-2017 中国科学报社

返回顶部