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2013年小诺贝尔生理医学奖Lasker奖揭晓 精选

已有 9311 次阅读 2013-9-10 07:24 |个人分类:生活点滴|系统分类:海外观察

2013年诺贝尔生理医学奖预测

Lasker奖往往被称为诺贝尔生理医学奖的风向标或热身赛,今年Lasker奖基础研究给了从事神经突触研究的神经科学家,临床研究给了耳聋治疗的耳蜗移植。

拉斯克奖(英语Lasker Award),始自1946的年度奖,奖励取得了重大医学科学贡献的在世医学研究者。

化学信息传递是神经细胞之间最重要的信号联系方式,但神经细胞受到刺激发生动作电位时,可以导致神经末梢释放某种化学分子,这种化学分子释放后可以作用在细胞膜上,产生各种生物学效应。Richard Scheller就是研究神经递质快速释放机制的先驱,在他的研究前,这个过程属于黑盒子,细节不为人类了解。

他们的研究给这一过程提供了比较清晰的描述:

神经冲动传递到突触小体后,电压的改变使得电压敏感的Ca2+通道开放,大量的Ca2+内流。Ca2+与钙依赖蛋白激酶结合,引发一系列的使得细胞骨架发生变化,使突触小泡向细胞膜移动。当小泡膜上的synaptobrevin与细胞膜上的syntaxin还有SNAP-25结合后形成SNARE蛋白复合体。在突触小泡周围形成的成对的SNARE蛋白复合体会消耗ATP产生向两边的拉力,从而克服两层膜之间的排斥力。随着SNARE蛋白复合体的不断牵拉,突触小泡的膜和细胞膜会不断的接近,最后直至将两层膜融合在一起成为一体。突触小泡中的递质释放到细胞外。

 

相关阅读

拉斯克奖素有“美国的诺贝尔奖”之美誉,是美国最具声望的生物医学奖项,也是医学界仅次于诺贝尔奖的一项大奖,1946年,由被誉为“现代广告之父”的美国著名广告经理人、慈善家阿尔伯特·拉斯克(Albert Lasker)及其夫人玛丽·沃德·拉斯克(Mary Woodard Lasker)共同创立,旨在表彰医学领域作出突出贡献的科学家、医生和公共服务人员。而玛丽本人即为有影响力的医学研究者。自1962年起,获此项医学奖的科学家中有半数以上在随后的数年里又获诺贝尔奖。截至2005年,超过300人次获得拉斯克奖,其中至少已有71人相继获得过诺贝尔奖。

拉斯克奖最初设有三个奖项:基础医学研究拉斯克奖(Basic Medical Research)、临床医学研究拉斯克奖(Clinical Medical Research)和公共服务拉斯克奖(Public Service2000年被重新命名为玛丽·沃德·拉斯克奖,以纪念拉斯克夫人)。

1997年后,又增设特殊贡献拉斯克奖(Special Achievement Award)。位于美国纽约的阿尔伯特和玛丽·拉斯克基金会(Albert and MaryLasker Foundation)是拉斯克基金的管理机构,获奖者由25名来自世界各国的杰出科学家组成的评审委员会评选产生。

拉斯克奖的评选结果通常于9月公布,而诺贝尔奖通常是10月公布,因此拉斯克奖在医学界又被称作“诺贝尔奖风向标”。而且,获得基础医学研究奖后再获得诺贝尔奖的比例更高。1997年以来的诺贝尔生理学或医学奖获得者中,近一半也是拉斯克奖得主:1997年(诺贝尔奖)Stanley B. Prusiner1994,拉斯克奖),1998Robert F.Furchgott1996)、Ferid Murad1996),1999Gunter Blobel1993),2000Eric R. Kandel1983),2001Lee Hartwell1998)、Paul Nurse1998),2002Sydney Brenner1971),2003Paul C.Lauterbur1984),2005Barry J.Marshall1995)。而近几届诺贝尔化学奖,也有多位拉斯克奖获得者:2003RoderickMacKinnon1999),2004AaronCiechanover2000)、Avram Hershko2000)。

 Brain Signaling, Cochlear Implant Researchers Win LaskerPrizes

The Albert and MaryLasker Foundation

Winners. Lasker award winners Richard Scheller (left)and Thomas Südhof, who worked on brain cell signaling.

Two pioneers in the study of neuralsignaling and three researchers responsible for modern cochlear implants arewinners of The Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation’s annual prize,announced today. The prestigious award honoring contributions in the medicalsciences is often seen as a hint at future Nobel contenders. The prizes forbasic and clinical research each carry a $250,000 honorarium.

Richard Scheller of the biotech companyGenentech and Thomas Südhof of Stanford University in Palo Alto, California,got their basic research Laskers for discovering the mechanisms behind rapidthe release of neurotransmitters—the brain’s chemical messengers—into the spacebetween neurons. This process underlies all communication among brain cells,and yet it was “a black box” before Scheller and Südhof’s work, says theircolleague Robert Malenka, a synaptic physiologist at Stanford.

The two worked independently in thelate 1980s to identify individual proteins that mediate the process, and theirdevelopment of genetically altered mice lacking these proteins was “anambitious and high-risk approach,” Malenka says. Although “they weren’t settingout to understand any sort of disease,” their discoveries have helped unravelthe genetic basis for neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.

This year’s clinical research prizeswent to Graeme Clark, Ingeborg Hochmair, and Blake Wilson for their work torestore hearing to the deaf. In the 1970s, Hochmair and Clark of the cochlearimplant company MED-EL in Innsbruck, Austria, and the University of Melbourne,respectively, were the first to insert multiple electrodes into the humancochlea to stimulate nerves that respond to different frequencies of sound.Wilson, now at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, later refined thetechnology with a strategy known as “continuous interleaved sampling” (CIS), whichallowed the implants to process speech clearly. CIS continues to be the mosteffective way to translate acoustic information into electrical signals thatthe brain can interpret, says otolaryngologist Debara Tucci, who with Wilsonco-directs the Duke Hearing Center. Before modern implants, “patients werereally terrified” at the prospect of deafness, she says. These contributionshave “changed the lives of thousands and thousands of people for the better.”

The fivescientists, along with Bill and Melinda Gates, who won a Lasker public serviceprize, will be recognized at an award ceremony in New York City on 20September.




诺贝尔情结
http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-41174-723643.html

上一篇:生物材料镁释放氢气对肿瘤细胞作用的研究
下一篇:拉斯克奖得主Thomas Südhof教授

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