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Synthesis of a novel anionic hydride organosiloxane presenting biochemical properties.pdf

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http://www.evitamins.com/encyclopedia/assets/nutritional-supplement/silica-hydride/~default

Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Jun;48(6):1644-53. Epub 2010 Mar 27.

Protective effects of silica hydride against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

Source

Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan.

Abstract

The protective effects of MegaHydrate silica hydride against liver damage were evaluated by its attenuation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Male ICR mice were orally treated with silica hydride (104, 208 and 520 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) daily, with administration of CCl(4) (1 mL/kg, 20% CCl4 in olive oil) twice a week for eight weeks. The results showed that oral administration of silica hydride significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver that were induced by CCl(4) in mice. Moreover, the silica-hydride treatment was also found to significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as increase the GSH content, in the liver. Liver histopathology also showed that silica hydride reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl(4). The results suggest that silica hydride exhibits potent hepatoprotective effects on CCl(4)-induced liver damage in mice, likely due to both the increase of antioxidant-defense system activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

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J Med Food. 2003 Fall;6(3):249-53.

Evaluation of hydroxyl radical-scavenging abilities of silica hydride, an antioxidant compound, by a Fe2+-EDTA-induced 2-hydroxyterephthalate fluorometric analysis.

Source

Flantech Group, Watsonville, California 95076, USA.

Abstract

The hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity and efficacy of a novel organosiliceous anionic hydride compound, silica hydride, were quantified by a recently developed method. The method measures a direct relationship between the hydroxyl radical scavenging capability of the antioxidant compound and the linear decrease in signal from a fluorescent 2-hydroxyterephthalate product created by reacting an Fe(2+)-EDTA complex in the presence of a potential radical scavenger. A fluorescence signal half-inhibition, IC(50), value of 1.4 +/- 0.1 muM was obtained for silica hydride compounds. The validity of the analysis was verified by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, spectrophotometric analysis of NAD(+)/NADH ratios, mitochondrial membrane potential measurements, and assays of both cytochrome c (Fe(3+)) to cytochrome c (Fe(2+)) and epinephrine to adenochrome reductions.

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Original contribution

Antioxidant capacity of silica hydride: a combinational photosensitization and fluorescence detection assay

Cory J. Stephanson*a, G.Patrick Flanagan* a

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 * Flantech Group, Watsonville, CA, USA

Received 24 April 2003; revised 27 June 2003; Accepted 24 July 2003. Available online 14 October 2003.

Abstract

Utilizing a novel combinational technique incorporating spectrafluorometry and photosensitization, this analysis determined cell viability and cytotoxicity through the introduction of reactive oxygen species and measurement of plasma membrane integrity. Chinese hamster ovary and mouse hybridoma cells were treated with silica hydride after being photosensitized with singlet oxygen, hydroxyl/superoxide, and hydroxyl reactive oxygen species through the use of rose Bengal diacetate, malachite green, and N,N¡ä-bis(2-hydroperoxy-2-methoxyethyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthaldiimide, respectively. The analysis resulted in an easy and effective method for quantifying reactive oxygen species reduction and characterized the radical reduction efficacy of silica hydride at 97% (¡À 0.68%, ¦Ò = 0.84) against singlet oxygen species and over 87% (¡À 0.56%, ¦Ò = 0.70) for the combination of hydroxyl and superoxide reactive species, and 98% (¡À 0.37%, ¦Ò = 0.47) effective for hydroxyl radical species. Nontreated photosensitized controls showed less than 1% viability under the same conditions.

Article Outline

¡¤

¡¤         Results

Fig. 1.

A scanning transmission electron micrograph (STEM) image of the silica hydride compound (A), as taken by a Phillips CM30 STEM illustrates the small organosiliceous spheres that act as colloidal carriers for the hydride anions of silica hydride. The simple drawing of silica hydride (B) illustrates the silsesquioxane, caged-structure that the hydride anions are interstitially embedded into through a plasma-generated reaction.

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Fig. 2.

The photosensitizers used in this analysis. N,N¡ä-bis(2-hydroperoxy-2-methoxyethyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthaldiimide (NP-III), also known as a photo-Fenton reagent, produces near quantitative hydroxyl radicals. Malachite Green isothiocyanate (MG) produces a mixture of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals when excited. Rose Bengal diacetate (RBDA) produces near quantitative amounts of singlet oxygen ROS.

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Fig. 3.

The photochemical mechanisms of the photosensitizers. The Type-I photochemical mechanism malachite green (A), stimulates the ground-state, MG0 with 632 nm light producing the excited state, MG1, which transfers a hydrogen or an electron, producing hydroxyl radicals or superoxide ROS, respectively. (B) The rose Bengal ground-state, RBDA0, is excited as a Type-II mechanism by 543 nm light producing RBDA1, which further binds with molecular oxygen to produce singlet oxygen ROS. (C) The ground-state N,N¡ä-bis(2-hydroperoxy-2-methoxyethyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthaldiimide, NP-III0, is excited as a Type-I mechanism to NP-III1 at 355 nm to directly transfer a hydrogen to produce hydroxyl radicals.

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Fig. 4.

Chart of the percent viability of silica hydride treated NS-1 and CHO cells as determined by calcein AM spectrafluorometric analysis at 530 nm.: (¡ö) NS-1 RBDA, (¡õ) CHO RBDA, () NS-1 MG, ()CHO MG, (•) NS-1 NP-III, and (¡ð) CHO NP-III assays were performed in six replicates with consistent overall results, 87.9% (¡À 0.56%, ¦Ò = 0.70) for MG, 97.1% (¡À 0.68%, ¦Ò = 0.84) for RBDA and 98.2% (¡À 0.37%, ¦Ò = 0.47) for NP-III, cumulatively, for both cell types.

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Fig. 5.

Chart of percent viability of the photosensitized, but nontreated CHO and NS-1 cells. The representation of the cells are as follows: (¡ö) NS-1 RBDA, (¡õ) CHO RBDA, () NS-1 MG, () CHO MG, (•) NS-1 NP-III, and (¡ð) CHO NP-III. The overall viability statistics for RBDA, MG, and NP-III, respectively, are 0.70% ¡À 0.46% (¦Ò = 0.45), 0.51% ¡À 0.31% (¦Ò = 0.40) and 0.50% ¡À 0.41% (¦Ò = 0.55).

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Fig. 6.

In an aqueous solution, the interstitially embedded hydride anions dissociate (A) into the solution where the 1 s' electron of the anion is donated (B) to the unpaired electron of the radical species, in this example, the hydroxyl radical. The product of this reaction (C) produces water from the neutralized postradical species.

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Table 1. Overview of the Experimental Parameters for the Analysis

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Table 2. Results of the Photosensitization Assay for the Analysis of ROS Reduction by the Silica Hydride Compound

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http://www.tuberose.com/Hydrogen_and_Oxygen.html

Everyone knows that the body needs oxygen in order to live. So much emphasis has been placed on oxygen as the essential element allowing us to exist on the planet, that we tend to forget the other equally essential element namely hydrogen. Without hydrogen to combine with oxygen we wouldn't have water. Oxygen burns hydrogen in the living system, releasing the energy that runs our bodies. Hydrogen is "the fuel of life." It is essential to most biological processes in its atomic form, positive proton form or negative ion form. Studies have shown that the human body stores hydrogen in its tissues. As we age, tissue hydrogen-depletion may lead to many of the symptoms of the aging process. This may cause sub-clinical dehydration since it appears that hydrogen may play a role in hydrating our cells. Hydrogen makes up 90% of the matter in the known Universe; helium makes up 9%. All the other elements in the Universe are found in the remaining 1%. Since hydrogen is so abundant, you would think that we know all there is to know about it, but we are just now learning about its importance in the living system.

The word hydrogen comes from the Greek language and it means "water-former." Indeed, we all know that water, the matrix or mother of life, is made from hydrogen and oxygen. In fact, water is formed when hydrogen is burned by oxygen. We create pure water every day as a product of our metabolism. When we burn hydrogen in our cells, the energy that is released is used to run our bodies. Hydrogen is the lightest and smallest element known to science. Due to its small size, hydrogen easily travels throughout the body. It can also loosely hold another electron (in its outer shell), in which case it is called H minus (H-) or reduced hydrogen. No electron moves in the living system unless it is accompanied by hydrogen. In the absence of an adequate supply of negative hydrogen ions, intracellular function, intercellular communication and energy production are inhibited, toxins and free radicals accumulate and health deteriorates.

ATP

Inside all cells are varying numbers of small energy factories, known as mitochondria. The more active the tissue the greater the number of mitochondria. These mitochondria produce the energy currency of the body called ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Adenosine triphosphate is a biochemical energy battery that supplies almost all the energy needs of the human body. Hydrogen produces ATP molecules by moving electrons along the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Our purpose of eating food is to ultimately create ATP, which could be called the source of life's energy. Hydrogen from food supplies the needed protons and electrons for the mitochondrial electron transport chain to make ATP. We each use about one-half pound of pure hydrogen every day just for the production of ATP. Attaching hydrogen to a molecule means lending energy to it. Since in hydrogen the electron and proton are loosely coupled, by attaching a hydrogen we essentially attach an electron.

High levels of free radicals are a major cause of aging, as well as many acute and chronic diseases. A free radical is a toxic compound that has lost a negatively charged electron, produced in the body as a by-product of metabolic oxidation. It therefore carries a positive charge and is unstable. It is capable of attracting an electron away from a vital cellular site such as the electron-rich DNA. Loss of an electron can damage a cell and alter its ability to perform its special function or to replicate itself normally. Levels of free radicals are higher in people exposed to air or water pollution, commercial animal products, toxic chemicals, or cigarette smoke. An antioxidant is a compound, which has a weak attraction to one of its electrons. It therefore readily surrenders an electron to a free radical, stabilizing and neutralizing the free radical, which then becomes a stable compound. Having surrendered an electron, the antioxidant itself may temporarily become a free radical, but a less aggressive one until it captures an electron from another antioxidant, to replace the one given up, in a cascade of electron transfers to milder, and milder, and less damaging compounds.

Mega Hydrate, however, is the one, unique antioxidant that does not become a free radical. The electron it surrenders is an extra electron. The hydrogen ion in Mega Hydrate becomes stable hydrogen, balanced with one electron and one proton. Antioxidant compounds are produced by the body, but are also obtained either from food or from dietary supplements. Vitamin C, Beta-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium are well known as water and fat soluble antioxidants, found in fruits, vegetables and phytonutrient supplements such as spirulina plankton. Another antioxidant compound is proanthocyanidins, extracted from grape seeds, or pine bark. It is significant to this discussion to realize that each molecule of an antioxidant compound, no matter how large the molecule, surrenders only one electron. The hydrogen atom is the smallest of all elements and has as much antioxidant power as the large, complex compounds described above. Since the H- form is prevalent in nature it could be called an ever present antioxidant. Hydrogen when in the hydride (H-) state is found in most fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as in actively moving water.

Cellular Conductivity

The living system contains numerous chemical messengers that carry information and trigger events in metabolism. Virtually every action that takes place in the body requires communication of chemical messages from one cell to another, conducted by electrons passing through extra cellular fluids. An optimal level of conductivity in these fluids is essential to life and all activity. Abert Sent-Gyorgyi, the Nobel laureate who discovered Vitamin C, found that the tissues of the animal body store hydrogen in vast quantities. Different organ tissues "pool" hydrogen in different amounts. For example, he found that the order of hydrogen-pooling is the following:

Liver > Intestine > Kidney > Heart > Lung > Spleen

Liver tissues store the most hydrogen, while the spleen stores the least. This is interesting in view of the fact that the liver is the body's first line of defense and needs a supply of the most antioxidants in order to do its work of detoxification.

Aging

Transport of hydrogen is the missing factor in the search for the cause of the aging process and the secret to age reversal. As we grow older, our cells become dehydrated and our hydrogen pool becomes depleted. The hydrogen pool protects our cells from free-radical damage. Free radicals are responsible for the aging process. There is a paradox in medicine, and that is the fact that oxygen is the source of all life and is also the major cause of aging. Much effort is being expended to find powerful antioxidants that may control or reverse cell damage by oxidative free-radicals. The single factor that is common to all antioxidants is that they are sources of hydrogen. Hydrogen is the ultimate antioxidant.

Carbon Cycle

We have all heard about the carbon cycle in biology. The carbon cycle is the process by which plants use sunlight and water to create carbohydrates and other food stuffs. These are then used as food by animals who eat the plants. Animals exhale carbon dioxide gas which is then taken up by plants. The plants then use the carbon to make more carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (fats) which then serve as animal food. The carbon cycle could actually be renamed the hydrogen cycle. Plants create carbohydrates, proteins and lipids by attaching hydrogen to carbon atoms like hats on a hat-rack. Carbohydrates contain an equal amount of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. We can say that all the foods that nourish us are primarily sources of hydrogen. We can see that the life cycle is really a hydrogen cycle. The "burning of the hydrogen" is a secret of life. Life energy is controlled by burning hydrogen.

Free hydrogen that is released from the carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are carried into the mitochondria (power plant in each cells) by a process known as the hydrogen shuttle where they are used to make ATP. In this process, hydrogen is burned by oxygen, releasing energy. The final product from the burning of hydrogen is water. This extra water is eliminated from the body and is eventually taken up by plants and split by photosynthesis to make more carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. In biological systems, hydrogen and electrons travel together in pairs. When this combination meets up with a positively charged cell-damaging free radical, the hydrogen may react with the free radical and neutralize it so that no further cell damage may occur.

By consuming large quantities every day a new transport system is created that makes hydrogen available to the cells without first having to be attached to food. These electrons are available in the gastrointestinal tract to neutralize free radicals that occur from poor digestion and microbial imbalance.

Since hydrogen bonds are the "glue" that holds together the molecules in the DNA double helix, these bonds can be activated and energized. As we age, the DNA helix coils tighter and tighter, loosing flexibility. This contraction of the DNA coil may reduce the number of times that our cells can divide. Normally, our cells can only divide about 50 times before they cease reproduction. If we are able to loosen the DNA helix by activating the DNA hydrogen bonds, it will have a profound effect on our ability to increase the regeneration of our cells. The DNA helix floats in water and is therefore hydrated. The tightening of the helix with aging may be a reflection of the loss of the hydrogen pool with aging. By restoring a plentiful supply of the hydrogen pool, these spirals naturally unwind and regain their ability to stimulate cellular reproduction. Symptoms of hydrogen depletion include chronic fatigue, depression, hormone imbalances and indigestion. As our tissues are depleted of hydrogen, they become stiff and lose flexibility. Dehydrated tendons and muscles tear more easily, and dehydrated bones become brittle. Loss of lung flexibility leads to loss of oxygen. By replenishing our hydrogen stores, we can relieve many of these conditions brought about by hydrogen depletion.

Colloidal Mineral Clusters

Colloid minerals are minerals that are insoluble in water. Colloidal minerals are not ionized into anions and cations like mineral salts. Colloid minerals are so tiny that they cannot be seen except with powerful microscopes. Instead of being ionized, they're suspended in water by a force known as zeta potential. Zeta potential represents a basic law of Nature, and it plays a vital role in all forms of plant and animal life. It is the force that maintains the discreteness of the billions of circulating cells which nourish the organism. If zeta potential is low, toxins cannot be suspended for elimination, and nutrients cannot be suspended for transportation to the cells. The whole system becomes clogged.

Mega H-

In 1984 Patrick and Gael Crystal Flannagan created a new type of colloidal mineral cluster that is only 50 angstroms in diameter. These minerals are so small (10 to 12 atoms in diameter) that 1,600 of them would fit side by side on a red blood cell. These have since been trade marketed under the name of Mega H-. These clusters act like tiny magnets, drawing water molecules to their surface, creating liquid crystals in the process. The electrical charge on these minerals alters the properties of water so that they produce the properties of Hunza water (the Hunza normally live to more than 100 years)--that is significantly different from water found anywhere else.

A new emerging science, known as cluster chemistry, has shown that minerals in this size range have profound, unusual properties not found in any other form of matter. These tiny mineral clusters energize practically all nutrients with which they come in contact. When a substance is reduced in size to this dimension, electrons travel all over the surface of the mineral instead of being confined to localized areas like electrons found on ordinary colloids. These electron clouds form a zeta potential or negative electrical charge that attracts and organizes water molecules, thus building a liquid crystal structure. Negatively ionized hydrogen atoms are not found in ordinary water. All water contains hydrogen atoms with a positive charge. The hydrogen protons that are found in ordinary water control the pH or acid-alkaline balance. The negatively charged hydrogen protons are the most powerful electron donors known to chemistry. These atoms are extremely powerful free-radical scavengers. This can be measured with a pH meter.

Water

Together, hydrogen and oxygen combine to create water (H2O). Water constitutes four-fifths (80%) of the body's weight and performs and supports the internal functions of animals and plants. Body temperature is regulated through water. Water makes up 92% of the blood of the body and nearly 98% of intestinal, gastric, salivary and pancreatic juices. Water holds all nutritive factors in solution and acts as a transportation medium of these substances. Water is necessary for proper digestion of food. One most important function of water is to flush toxins and salt from the body. Negative hydrogen ions are normally found in the fluids of healthy living systems rather than water that is found in ordinary mineral or tap water. When we drink ordinary water, we have to convert it into cellular water before the cells can use it. If we cannot convert water into the structure of cellular water, it passes through our bodies and may leave our cells dehydrated. The consumption of oxidized foods and beverages tend to affect unfavorably the chemical characteristics of the body fluids. Many foods and beverages are highly oxidized and devoid of electrons. Likewise, the addition to one's diet of negative hydrogen ions, found to be especially high in organically grown vegetables, tends to affect the body fluids in a favorable manner.

Water has been called the mother and matrix of all life. Water is so much a part of life that we tend to ignore it and look elsewhere for the magic bullet, the secret herb or nutrient that will increase health and vigor and extend life-span. Water affects our health more than any other nutrient. Recent discoveries about the significance of water and its function in the living system may forever change our view of water. All the symptoms of aging are in one way or another accompanied by slow dehydration of the cells of vital tissues associated with free-radical oxidative damage. Dr. Alexis Carrel received the Nobel prize for keeping the cells of a chicken heart alive for 34 years. Dr. Carrel said: "The cell is immortal. It is merely the fluid (water) in which it floats that degenerates. Renew this fluid at intervals, give the cells what they require for nutrition, and as far as we know, the pulsation of life may go on forever." No matter how much tap water we drink, we cannot seem to slow down the inevitable starvation of vital tissues for the fluid; that is everywhere. There is much more to tissue hydration than simply drinking ordinary water. Tissue water is as different from spring water as milk is from apple juice.

Oxidation/Reduction Potential

The oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) is a measurement of the potential for a reaction to occur, and represents electron concentration and activity level. An ORP in the plus range indicates oxidation, i.e. the absence of energy, and an inability to perform additional chemical reactions. An ORP in the negative range indicates chemical reduction, i.e. the presence of electrons, potential energy, and the ability to generate additional chemical reactions. ORP is therefore a measure of energy potential. The more negative the ORP, the more electrons present (in relation to the number of protons), and the more energy available. Biological redox reactions are a result of hydrogen being the essential electron donor, and oxygen being the essential electron acceptor. This can be measured with an ORP meter. The water we drink from the tap differs substantially from the water which bathes the tissues and cells in our bodies. Tap water has a surface tension of approximately 73 dynes/cm. The water around our cells has a surface tension of approximately 45 dynes/cm. It is necessary, therefore, that the body reduce the surface tension of water we consume in order for nutrients to pass through cell walls, and for toxins to pass out of the cells. Mega H- in water expedites this process. The negative hydride ions in Mega H- alter the water consumed with the food and supplements in our diet, to have a lower surface tension and an increased conductivity.

A low surface tension in the extra cellular fluids is also important in the removal of toxins from the cells and into lymph and venous blood for removal from the body. When one 250 mg capsule of Mega H- is added to water the pH increases to approximately 8.5 and the ORP decreases to -650 millivolts, having tremendous implications for health. First the increased alkaline pH neutralizes the acid terrain of the body, so prevalent due to today's artificial and fast paced life style. Second, the -650 millivolts means the solution is rich in electrons loosely bound to hydrogen.

When these special colloidal mineral clusters are added to ordinary distilled water, a number of extremely complex physical changes occur, including:

1) The high zeta potential attracts water molecules to the vicinity of the colloid where the water molecules are strongly polarized into forming hollow cages that resemble geodesic domes.

2) This ordering of molecules reduces the entropy of water. This means that there is an increase in free energy in water and the water can now support chemical reactions more easily and with less energy than before.

3) The surface tension or energy required to break the surface of water is greatly reduce. The phenomenon known as "wetting" is dependent on surface tension. The lower the surface tension the wetter the water. This means that the water requires less energy to wet substances.

4) The colloidal mineral cluster can act as vast reservoirs of negatively ionized hydrogen atoms.

When these mineral clusters are taken on a daily basis, a significant increase in both aerobic and resistance training performance is experienced. Also, due to increased mitochondrial efficiency, one experiences rapid recovery from infections, inflammations and injuries, both acute and chronic. These geodesic dome-like cages were first predicted by two-time Nobel Prize winner, Linus Pauling, in 1959 in his classic book, The Hydrogen Bond.

The following test has been performed and replicated by several groups of scientists with the same results. It provides yet more data indicating that Mega H- is a contributor to good health.

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PHOTO 1 below shows a microscopic view of a blood sample from a subject with low zeta potential. The blood cells are clustered together and trap waste elements between them. Note the clustering effect may be a result of dehydration from caffeine, alcohol, heat, and stress: all commonly found in people today.

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The test subject was given 500 mg (or two 250 mg capsules) of Silica Hydride - the active ingredient in Mega H- - mixed with 8 oz of water.

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Twenty minutes later, another blood sample taken from the test subject was viewed under a microscope (as seen in PHOTO 2 below). The evenly-dispersed blood cells indicates high zeta potential. The blood cells appear pristine, as if the substances trapped between the cells have been cleansed. The surface area of the cells has increased allowing exponentially more nutrients into the cells and more toxins to be removed.

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Mega H-¡¯s Silica Hydride is the only known supplement to dramatically increase zeta potential.

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Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys have shown that a portion of the population may be dehydrated. Why do people lack hydration? This may be due to a poor thirst mechanism as we get older, dissatisfaction with the taste of water, the consumption of caffeine and alcohol, climate controlled environments (both heated and air conditioned), and excessive exercise. With water loss at 2% of body weight, individuals experience impaired physiological and mental performance. Double blind placebo studies clearly demonstrate that the Silica Hydride in Mega H- dramatically increases total body water in just four weeks!

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