Stephen Hawking没拿到诺奖,James Peebles却拿到了,为什么?

已有 945 次阅读 2019-10-8 18:53 |个人分类:科学感想|系统分类:观点评述

宇宙学或天体物理学,虚无飘渺,本不是诺奖青睐的领域,原来名头很大的Stephen Hawking没拿到诺奖,百度上都没有介绍的James Peebles却拿到了,为什么?

James Peebles’ insights into physical cosmology have enriched the entire field of research and laid a foundation for the transformation of cosmology over the last fifty years, from speculation to science. His theoretical framework, developed since the mid-1960s, is the basis of our contemporary ideas about the universe.

The Big Bang model describes the universe from its very first moments, almost 14 billion years ago, when it was extremely hot and dense. Since then, the universe has been expanding, becoming larger and colder. Barely 400,000 years after the Big Bang, the universe became transparent and light rays were able to travel through space. Even today, this ancient radiation is all around us and, coded into it, many of the universe’s secrets are hiding. Using his theoretical tools and calculations, James Peebles was able to interpret these traces from the infancy of the universe and discover new physical processes.

The results showed us a universe in which just five per cent of its content is known, the matter which constitutes stars, planets, trees – and us. The rest, 95 per cent, is unknown dark matter and dark energy. This is a mystery and a challenge to modern physics.

Breaking Nobel Prize in Physics awarded James Peebles ...

What Came Before the Big Bang? -

An earlier universe collapsed into the singularity that started our own.This idea, known as the Big Bounce, was first proposed in the 1960s by Princeton researchers Robert Dicke and James Peebles

In the middle of the 1960’s, at Princeton University, the theorists Robert Dicke and James Peebles studied oscillatory universe models in which a closed universe in expansion-contraction, instead of being infinitely crushed in a big crunch, passes through a minimum radius before bouncing into a new cycle. They calculated that such a hot bounce would cause blackbody radiation detectable today at a temperature of 10 K. It was then that they learned that radiation of this type had just been detected, at the Bell Company laboratories in New Jersey. There, the engineers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson had been putting the finishing touches on a radiometer dedicated to astronomy, and they had found a background noise which was higher than expected. After subtracting the antenna noise and absorption by the atmosphere, there remained an excess of 3.5 K. This background noise had to be of cosmic origin : it was the fossil radiation. The teams of the Bell Company and Princeton University published their articles separately in the same issue of the Astrophysical journal (July 1965).

The Big BounceWhy our universe might be eternal - Big Think


Cold dark matter - Wikipedia

The theory of cold dark matter was originally published in 1982 by three independent groups of cosmologists: James Peebles; J. Richard Bond, Alex Szalay, and Michael Turner; and George Blumenthal, H. Pagels, and Joel Primack.

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