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巴甫洛夫对青年人的忠告

已有 9668 次阅读 2012-4-12 20:29 |个人分类:虫人|系统分类:教学心得|关键词:巴甫洛夫,,青年,,忠告| 青年, 忠告, 巴甫洛夫

 

       

巴甫洛夫是俄国第一个诺贝尔奖获得者,也是世界上第一位获得诺贝尔奖的生理学家。他先后从事血液循环生理、消化系统生理和高级神经活动生理研究。获得诺贝尔生理学和医学奖是基于他在消化生理方面的杰出成就。他还是一位伟大的心理学家,他用狗做的经典条件反射实验无人不晓,是行为主义学派的先驱。

 
巴甫洛夫在86岁高龄的时候曾写给青年科学家一封信。这封信简明扼要,语言平实,警句连篇,凝聚了他从事科学研究的宝贵经验。今天读来,不仅对青年人,对于从事科研的人,甚至其他行业的人都很有教益。为了与我的研究生们交流,我在网上找到一个中文译本,但感觉翻译得不够到位(尽管我不懂俄文),于是又花功夫找了一个,是中国科学院心理研究室翻译的。我还在网上找了个英文版本(http://www.ml-shopping.com/advice_ippavlov.html)今天一并推荐给大家。中英文对比着看,可了解其确切的含义。 

 

给青年的一封信

 

伊万 彼特诺维奇 巴甫洛夫

 

对于我们祖国献身于科学的青年,我希望些什么呢?

首先,是循序性。我从来也不能够不带感情来提起这个对有成果的科学工作的最重要的条件。循序性,循序性,更大的循序性。从你们一开头工作起,就训练你自己在积累知识时要有严格的系统性。

想去攀登科学的高峰之前,先去学习科学的ABC。没有掌握了前一步时,决不要去跨第二步。

绝不要用些甚至是很大胆的臆说和假设来填补你知识的空隙。不管这个水泡的色彩可以使你多么悦目,它不可避免地总会爆裂,除了使你惶惑以外,不会有别的什么。

训练你自己要谨慎和耐心。学习科学中的手工操作。研究、比较和累积事实。

不管鸟翼是多么完好,如没有空气支持绝不能使鸟升腾起来。事实是科学家的空气,没有事实,你再也不能翱翔。没有事实,你的“理论”都是徒劳的。

然而,在研究、实验、观察时,要力求不只停留于事实的表面。不要成为事实的保存者。要深入窥探事实起源的奥秘。坚持地追寻支持事实的规律。

其次,虚心。绝不要以为你已经知道了一切。不论你是受到多大的尊重,要常有勇气对自己说:“我无知”。

不要让你自己被骄傲所累。因为骄傲,在需要调和的地方你也会固执;你会拒绝有用的忠告和友谊的帮助;你会丧失你对事实看法的客观性。

在要我领导的一群人中,风气就是一切。我们全体都为一个共同事业而努力,每一个人都尽其全部力量和能力来推进这个事业。我们常常不能区分什么是我的,什么是你的,但通过这种风气,我们的共同事业就只会胜利。

第三,热情。要记住,科学需要你整个的生命。纵使你再有两个生命贡献出来,还会不够。科学要求人的努力和至高的热情。

要热情于你的工作,热情于你的钻研。

我们的祖国给科学开辟了广阔的远景,我们必须公正地说,科学正被广泛地介绍到我们国家的生活中去。广泛到极度广泛的程度。

关于我国一个青年科学家的地位还有什么可说的呢?那是非常清楚的。给予他的很多,但要求于他的也很多。不辜负我们的祖国所寄托于科学的那些伟大的希望,是青年们的光荣,也是我们大家的光荣。

 

A LETTER TO THE YOUTH

 

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

 

What would I wish for the young people of my motherland who dedicated themselves to science?

First of all - consistency. Of this very important condition for fruitful scientific work I cannot speak without emotion. Consistency, consistency and again consistency. Right from the very beginning inculcate in yourself the habit of strict consistency in acquiring knowledge.

Learn the ABC of science before you attempt to scale its peaks. Never embark on what comes after without having mastered what goes before. Never try to cover up the gaps in your knowledge, even by the boldest guesses and hypotheses. No matter how this bubble may delight the eye by its profusion of colours, it is bound to burst, and you will be left with nothing but confusion.

Develop in yourself restraint and patience. Never funk the hard jobs in science. Study, compare, accumulate facts.

No matter how perfect a bird’s wing may be it could never make the bird air-borne without the support of the air. Facts are the air of the scientist. Without them you will never be able to take off, without them your "theories" will be barren.

But when studying, experimenting and observing, do your best to get beneath the skin of the facts. Do not become hoarders of the facts. Try to penetrate into the secrets of their origin. Search persistently for the laws governing them.

The second thing is modesty. Never think that you know everything. No matter in what high esteem you are held, always have the courage to say to yourself: "I am ignorant."

Do not let pride take possession of you. It will result in you being obstinate when you should be conciliatory. It will lead you to reject useful advice and friendly help. It will deprive you of the ability to be objective.

In the team of which I am leader, everything depends on the atmosphere. All of us are harnesses to a common cause and each pulls his weight. With us     it is often impossible to discern what is "mine" and what is "yours," but our common cause only gains thereby.

The third thing is- passion. Remember, science requires your while life. And even if you two lives to give, that would not be enough. Science demands of a man the utmost effort and supreme passion. Be passionate in your work and your quests.

Our country is opening wide vistas before scientists, and - it must be owned - science in our country is being fostered with a generous hand.

What is there to say about the status of our young scientist? Here, it would seem, everything is quite clear. Much is given to him, much is expected from him. For him, as for us, it is a matter of honour to justify the great trust that our country puts in science.

 

(特此向不知姓名的中英文译者致谢。图片来自网络。)



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