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科技写作(106):避免名词堆砌

已有 6522 次阅读 2013-3-14 07:16 |个人分类:科技写作|系统分类:论文交流| style, exactly, Yellow, 106

        当名词一个紧接一个出现时,让人很难判断它们彼此间的关系,以及这一组词到底表达什么意思。如果你在单个名词前加上不止一个的修饰语,或者在一组名词前添加修饰性名词和/或形容词,结果一定混乱不堪,有时甚至让人完全无法理解。

1:名词堆砌的表达 

a  sparse matrix crystallization

b  cultured rat tracheal endothelial cells

c  When the strips were exposed to Leishmaniasis diseased patients’ sera, we found the bands of 112 and 45 kDa.

d  Peter Carri is a condensed matter and quantum many-body theoretical physicist.

        修改方式是使用介词连接各个名词。介词能增加短语的清晰度(其能充分表明各名词间的关系),所以能使词意更明确。

修改后的例 1

a  crystallization by sparse matrix

b  cultures of endothelial cells from the tracheas of rats

c  When the strips were exposed to sera of patients with Leishmaniasis disease, we found the bands of 112 and 45 kDa.

d  Peter Carri is a theoretical physicist studying condensed matter and quantum many-body physics.

        有些名词组合被约定俗成地认为是单个名词,如:“water bath,” “cell wall,” “egg receptor,” “sucrose density gradient”。所以,当清理名词堆砌时,要排除这些词,必要时通过查阅字典或近年的期刊论文来判断。

 对于科技术语(如:pyrophosphate dependent phosphofructo-1-kinase apo form structure),可以通过三种方式帮助读者理解:

1. 使用连字符表明词之间的联系(pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructo-1-kinase apo-form structure)。

2. 对术语进行解释(the structure of the apo-form of pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructo-1-kinase)。

3. 使用缩略形式并予以说明(the apo-form structure of pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructo-1-kinase, short PPi-PFK apo-form)。

连字符最为常用,通常用于以下三种情况:

Ÿ 由两个词构成的表达方式(high-pressure chamber, ATP-dependent

Ÿ 由三个以上的单词组成的形容词(four-to-one ratio

Ÿ 由大写字母或数字与名词构成的表达方式(C-terminal end, 10-fold increase

 

练习:根据需要借助适当的介词和其他单词分解以下各句中的名词集群

1.       The results are compared using a high-quality plane-wave basis set.

2.       The negative penicillin skin test result group showed no allergic rash.

3.       We analyzed a particle flux time series.

4.       The spinach culture callus tissue produced no shoots in 1999.

5.       With this unconventional technique, we could easily define the aromatic hydrocarbon liquid crystal transition temperatures.

6.       In 10 of the 15 patients, we observed a chronic depression syndrome.

7.       Previous work suggested that vitamin A-rich fish oil dies protect mice against certain mosquitoes.

8.       The quantity of the TCR signal is directly related to the time for which a T-cell remains in contact with the APC-expressing MHC-peptide complex.

9.       Our study involved human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines.

10.   In particular, their extraordinary low density (1.00-0.20 g/cm3) and high surface area (500-4500m2/g) make them ideal storage and separation of gases candidates.

11.   Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy do not provide adequate information on structural adsorption site details.

12.   The different mobility samples spin susceptibility behaves critically near the transition.

13.   Ecological community abundance distributions need to be considered in these studies.

 

参考答案

1. The results are compared using a plane-wave basis set of high quality.

2. The result group that tested negative in the penicillin skin test showed no allergic rash.

3. We analyzed a time series of particle flux.

4. The callus tissue of the spinach culture produced no shoots in 1999.

5. With this unconventional technique, we could easily define the transition temperatures for the liquid crystal of aromatic hydrocarbons.

6. In 10 of the 15 patients, we observed a syndrome of chronic depression.

7. Previous work suggested that fish oil diets rich in vitamin A protect mice against certain mosquitoes.

8. The quantity of TCR signal is directly related to the time for which a T-cell remains in contact with the MHC-peptide complex that expresses APC.

9. Our study involved lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed with the human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

10. In particular, their extraordinar.y low density (1.00-0.20 g/cm3) and high surface area (500-4,500 m2/g) make them ideal candidates for the storage and separation of gases.

11. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy do not provide adequate information on the structural details of the adsorption site.

12. The spin susceptibility in samples of different mobilities behaves critically near the transition.

13. Abundance distributions in ecological communities need to be considered in these studies.

摘编自《科技写作与交流》(任胜利 . 科学出版社, 2012年出版)



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