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ALPAC 黑皮书 2/9: 人工翻译

已有 3039 次阅读 2013-10-5 15:30 |个人分类:立委科普|系统分类:教学心得| 机器翻译, ALPAC

人工翻译


   为了了解根本性质和翻译的困难,或现有资源和翻译问题,必须要知道一些关于人类的翻译和翻译人员。因此,早在其研究过程中,委员会听取一些翻译专家。这些专家们似乎同意翻译的三个必要条件,按重要性顺序是(1)良好的目标语言知识,(2)理解主题, (3)足够的源语言知识。

   因此,虽然一些译者的母语不是英语也能把外文翻译成不错的英语,一般来说译者的母语最好是英语。此外,好翻译可以由一些拥有普遍科学知识的人担任,但最好的技术翻译一般是技术领域专家。似乎也很清楚,有限的源语言能力是可以的,当译者是题材的专家的时候。

   有人对翻译委员会强调需要良好的词典和参考书。这对需要一个长期的工作特别重要,当翻译分给多人,在这种情况下,适当的字典或技术术语词汇表是必不可少的,才能保持翻译的一致性。

   翻译使用各种助力,包括听写机和打字机,但他们并不总是适合产生可以出版的最后版本。最终副本,加上插图和公式,通常是由中心服务部门完成。尽管联合出版物研究服务( JPRS ),或类似机构提供了主要服务,翻译费用更大的一部分通常还是翻译的人工。

   实验表明,迅速口述的翻译几乎与“全译本”一样好,而仅需约四分之一的时间(见附件1) 。



~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Human Translation





In order to have an appreciation either of the underlying nature and difficulties of translation or of the present resources and problems of translation, it is necessary to know something about human translation and human translators. Thus, early in the course of its study the Committee heard from a number of experts in translation. These experts seem to agree that the three requisites in a translator, in order of importance, are (1) good knowledge of the target language, (2) comprehension of the subject matter, and, (3) adequate knowledge of the source language.

Therefore, while good translations into English are made by some translators whose native tongue is not English, in general, translators whose native tongue is English are preferable. Furthermore, while good translations are made by some translators who have a general appreciation of scientific knowledge, the best technical translations are generally made by experts in the technical field covered. It also seems clear that a restricted competence in the source language is adequate when the translator is expert in the subject matter.

It was emphasized by several persons who made presentations to the Committee that translators need good dictionaries and reference books. This need is especially important when a long work is split up for translation, for in such cases adequate dictionaries or glossaries are essential if technical terms are to be translated consistently.

Translators use a variety of aids, including dictating machines and typewriters, but they do not always produce a final copy suitable for reproduction. The final copy, with figures and equations inserted, is usually produced by the central service. Despite the substantial services performed by the Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) or by similar agencies,  the greater part of the cost of translation usually goes to the translator.

One experiment that has come to the attention of the Committee indicates that a rapidly dictated translation is almost as good as a “full translation” and takes only about one fourth the time (see Appendix 1).



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译者从业类型


In addition, he has available to him better reference facilities than his free-lance counterparts.

译者就业的两种主要类型是编内翻译和合同翻译。每种类型都具有其特定的优点和缺点,对于需要翻译的个人或机构也是如此。


编内翻译

好处是全职工作,并享有所有休假和退休福利,与组织内其他全职员工同。此外,他有更好的参考资料,比起自由翻译工。

编内翻译对雇主而言,优势主要是以下几点:

1。在需要的时候,随时可以给译者现货或口头翻译。

2。译者和请求者之间的互利合作有更大的可能性。

3。翻译员可以在需要的时候,提供快捷服务。

4 。分类信息的安全性易于维护。


编内翻译对雇主来说,其缺点是:

1。计算开销和福利,比使用自由翻译一般较昂贵。

2。调度中的问题可能会不时出现,任务有时过多,有时不足。

3。既然编内翻译不可能是一个了解各个领域的专家,很难在机构内得到一直都好的技术翻译。


合同翻译

译者作为一名自由职业者的合同安排,其优点是:

1。如果他能处理一些更少见,因此支付更高的语言中比较广泛的题材,他可能获得大大超过了他作为一个编内翻译的收入。

2。他有相当多的自由决定何时工作和做多少工作。


对翻译的买方,合同安排的优点是:

1。在许多领域,他可以得到技术上胜任的翻译。

2。他从来不需要支付没非翻译的时间。

3。他有一个低得多的人头开销。


对买方,合同安排的缺点是:

1。译者不在机构内,即时咨询困难。

2。机密文件的安全性更难以维持。




~~~~~~~~~~~~

Types of Translator Employment





The two main types of translator employment are in-house and contract. Each type has particular advantages and disadvantages for the translator and for the individual or organization requiring the translation.


IN-HOUSE

The advantages to the in-house translator are that he is employed full time and enjoys all the benefits (leave and retirement, for example) that are offered to other full-time employees in the organization. In addition, he has available to him better reference facilities than his free-lance counterparts.

The advantages to the employer of an in-house translator are chiefly the following:

1.The translator can give spot or oral translations when needed.

2.There is greater possibility for mutually beneficial collaboration between the translator and the requester.

3.The translator can provide fast service when needed.

4.The security of classified information is easily maintained. The disadvantages to the employer of the in-house translator are:

1.The arrangement (counting overhead and fringe benefits) is generally more expensive than using free-lance translators.

2.Problems in scheduling may arise from time to time, with the translator having either too much or too little to do.

3.Since it is impossible for the in-house translator to be an expert in all fields, it is difficult to get consistently good technical translations done in-house.


CONTRACT

The advantages of a free-lance contract arrangement for the translator are:

1.If he can handle a relatively wide range of subject matter in some of the more uncommon and therefore higher-paying languages, he may earn considerably more than he would as an in-house translator.

2.He has considerably more freedom in deciding when and how much he will work.

The advantages of the contract arrangement to the buyer of translations are:

1.He  can  obtain  technically  competent  translations  in  many  fields  of subject matter.

2.He never pays for time not spent in translating.

3.He has a much lower overhead.

The disadvantages of the contract arrangement to the buyer are:

1.The translator is not on the premises for immediate consultation.

2.Security of classified documents is more difficult to maintain.


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英语作为科学发表的语言


很容易高估翻译的需要,如果仅仅着眼于在世界各地出版的科学文献的数量的迅速增加。美国处于一个特别幸运的位置,因为英语为科学的主要语言。一项在【物理文摘】列出3000文摘以及在Referativny Zhurnal上列出350物理文摘调查 [R.T.拜尔,“跨栏语言障碍”, 【今日物理】18(1),46(1965)] 给出以下结果:


物理文摘语言    物理文摘    Referativny Zhurnal

英语                    76%            63%

俄语                    14%            24%

法语                    4%                3%

德语                    4%                2%

其他                    2%                8%


虽然英语语言的论文与非英语的论文之比不同的学科领域有所不同,通常以英语为母语的科学家较少需要读一门外语,或需要翻译,比起任何其他母语的科学家。



~~~~~~~~~~~~~

English as the Language of Science


It is easy to overestimate the need for translation if one simply looks at the rapidly increasing volume of scientific literature being published throughout the world. The United States is in a particularly fortunate position because English is the predominant language of science. A survey [R. T. Beyer, “Hurdling the Language Barrier,” Phys. Today 18 (1), 46 (1965)] of 3,000 abstracts listed in Physics Abstracts and 350 physics abstracts listed in Referativny Zhurnal gave the following results:

Language of Paper Abstracted

Physics Abstracts

Referativny Zhurnal

English

76 percent

63 percent

Russian

14 percent

24 percernt

French

4 percent

3 percent

German

4 percent

2 percent

Other

2 percent

8 percent

Although the ratio of English-language articles to non-English articles varies with the subject field, it is generally true that the English-speaking scientist has less need to read in a foreign language or to have translations made than does a scientist of any other native tongue.


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科学家学习俄语所需的时间


  委员会认为,在某些情况下,可能更简单更经济的办法是让严重依赖俄语翻译的人学会直接阅读俄语文献。 JG Tolpin ,在题为 “俄语技术出版物调查:简要教程” [【科学】146 , 1143 (1964) ]中指出,科学家在8至16个两小时课程单元中可以学会在俄语出版物中识别感兴趣的文章。有时候,他们可以从方程式,表格,图形和图示中提取他们所需要的资料。在其他许多情况下,只要部分口头翻译感兴趣的一点材料就足够满足需要了。公认的事实是,对于技术人员,为了利用本专业的外语期刊,只需要一点点的外语知识就可以了。*

  事实上,多家知名研究†表明,200个小时或更少,科学家能够获得在他的领域的足够的俄语阅读能力。美国科学家和工程师有这样的知识为数越来越多。

  教授政府人员阅读俄语科学读物的能力已经存在,但到目前为止,这项服务仍然未被充分使用。国防语言学院,西海岸分部(原陆军语言学校) ,已开发了两个课程的教学和用于此目的的特殊课本。一个课程运行6周,另一个需要10周。委员会获悉,国防语言学院欢迎学生入学。 10周的课程信息见附录2。


* 应给予更多重视的是,即使是最好的翻译也是没有用的,如果一个人不能充分了解专业内容,并把它放在国内和国外其他工作的背景下。

†R. D.伯克合格,发展科技俄语合格翻译的一些独特问题,P-1698,兰德公司(1959年5月12日)。

W. N.洛克,【化学教育期刊】27,426(1950)。

M·菲利普斯,科技中的外语障碍,Aslib,伦敦,英国(1962年),15页。


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Time Required for Scientists to Learn Russian




The Committee believes that in some cases it might be simpler and more economical for heavy users of Russian translations to learn to read the documents in the original language. An article by J. G. Tolpin, titled, “Surveying Russian Technical Publications: A Brief Course” [Science  146, 1143 (1964)], indicates that in eight to sixteen 2-hr class periods scientists can learn to identify articles of interest in Russian publications. Sometimes they can extract what they need from equations, tables, graphs, and figures. In many other cases, a partial oral translation of the material of interest is all that is needed. These are illustrations of the generally acknowledged fact that the technically competent reader needs only a little knowledge of a foreign language in order to make use of foreign journals in his field.*

Indeed, several well-known studies † indicate that in 200 hr or less a scientist can acquire an adequate reading knowledge of Russian for material in his field. An increasing fraction of American scientists and engineers have such a knowledge.

The capability for teaching government personnel to read Russian scientific text already exists, but so far this service has remained largely unused. The Defense Language Institute, West Coast Branch (formerly the Army Language School), has developed two courses of instruction and special texts for this purpose. One course runs 6 weeks, the other 10. The Committee has been informed that the Defense Language Institute would welcome the enrollment of students. Information concerning the 10-week course is presented in Appendix 2.


*A corollary that should be given more emphasis is that even the best translation is of no use to a man who cannot fully understand the subject matter and place it in the context of other work here and abroad.

†R. D. Burke, Some Unique Problems in the Development of Qualified Translators of Scientific Russian, P-1698, The RAND Corp. (May 12, 1959).

W. N. Locke, J. Chem. Educ. 27, 426 (1950).

M.Phillips, The Foreign Language Barrier in Science and Technology, Aslib, London, England (1962), p. 15.


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美国政府机关里的翻译


  应该强调的是没有一个统一的政府官方翻译系统。事实上,不同的政府机构采用各种不同的方法来填补他们的翻译需求。使用的方法包括合同翻译,编内翻译,联合出版物研究服务社的服务(附录3),以及这些方法的组合。

  一些机构使用PL480的配套资金,以增强其在国内获得的翻译(附录4)。其他机构,主要是美国空军,利用赖特 - 帕特森空军基地外国技术部后编辑过的机器输出(附录5)。

  此外,美国国家科学基金会,虽然不是主要的翻译生产者,支持着30种期刊的全文翻译(附录6,表1)。



~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Translation in the United States Government




It should be emphasized that there is no single official government translation system. Indeed there is considerable variety in the methods used by the various government agencies for filling their translation needs. The methods used include contract only, in-house translation, the services of the Joint Publications Research Service (Appendix 3), and a combination of these methods.

Certain agencies are using PL 480 counterpart funds to augment their domestically obtained translations (Appendix 4). Others, principally the U.S. Air Force, utilize the postedited machine output of the Foreign Technology Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Appendix 5).

In addition, the National Science Foundation, while not a primary producer of translations, is supporting the cover-to-cover translation of 30 journals (Appendix 6, Table 1).


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政府译员的数量

 

  政府内部翻译的确切数目是无法确定的,虽然它的数量本来可以从公务员分类“译员”中简单确定。 有时为了改善经济状况,翻译必须首先争取确保一个更负盛名的职业称号。这样的方式为晋升打开大门,尽管其翻译职责可能保持不变。

  更复杂的是,其他职业类别的双语人士经常被要求为他们的同事或上司做粗糙或口头的翻译。这种情况当然不是美国政府机构特有的。

  虽然实际上分类为“译员“的人的数量有不确定性, 我们从公务员服务委员会获得的1962年10月的数字如下:

翻译和办事员在美国雇用的翻译  262

翻译和办事员译者采用全球 453


(译员数量在各部门,在每个机构和CSC工资的表, 1964年, CSC资格标准,见附件7 )。


  从由CSC提供的数据,我们已经得知联邦翻译(店员翻译不包括在内)平均年薪在美国约6850美元 。

  当政府科学家( 9 000美元的年薪中位数比较,这个数字与1962年,美国科学统筹,科学和技术人员国家注册的报告, NSF 64-16 ,美国国家科学基金会,华盛顿特区, 1964年) ,很明显,有技术培训背景的双语人士将获得更多的优势,比作为在各自领域的技术翻译工作的科学家和技术人员。

  尽管事实上,政府科学家的平均,平均工资为政府翻译不高,似乎是一个非常低的流动率政府翻译。事实上,供给超过需求。虽然没有现在手头上在美国就业服务网(华盛顿特区)单个请求一个全职翻译,渴望工作的人在其卷约500翻译(兼职或全职)。 (翻译和他们的语言的可用性,见附录8)。


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Number of Government Translators

The exact number of government in-house translators is impossible to determine, although it is a simple matter to determine the number of persons in the Civil Service classification, “Translator.” It sometimes happens that the translator who decides to better his economic situation must first contrive to secure a more prestigious occupational title. Thus the way is open for advancement, even though the bulk of his duties might remain the same.

The picture is further obscured by the fact that bilingual persons in other job categories are often called upon to produce rough or oral translations for their colleagues or superiors. This situation is not, of course, peculiar to agencies of the U.S. Government.

Keeping in mind the indefiniteness of the number of persons actually classified under “Translator,” we give the figures obtained from the Civil Service Commission for October 1962:

Translators and clerk-translators employed in the United States  262

Translators and clerk-translators employed worldwide  453

(For the number of translators in each division and grade, in each agency, and for the CSC salary schedule for 1964, and CSC qualification standards, see Appendix 7.)

From the data supplied by the CSC, we have figured the average yearly salary of the federal translator (clerk-translator not included) employed in the United States to be approximately $6,850.

When one compares this figure with the median annual salary of government scientists ($9,000. American Science Manpower, 1962, A Report of the National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel, NSF 64-16, National Science Foundation, Washington, D. C., 1964), it is apparent that technically trained bilingual persons would derive more advantages from working as scientists and technologists in their subject specialties than from serving as technical translators in their respective fields.

Despite the fact that the average pay for government translators is not as high as the average for government scientists, there seems to be a very low rate of turnover among government translators. Indeed, the facts are that the supply exceeds the demand. Although there is not now on hand at the U.S. Employment Service (Washington, D. C.) a single request for a full-time translator, there are approximately 500 translators on its rolls who desire work (part time or full time). (For the availability of translators and their languages, see Appendix 8.)


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翻译花费金额


考虑到安全的翻译使用的各种方法,并不奇怪,联邦机构已支付了许多不同的翻译价格 - 由$ 9至每千字66元不等的价格。 (不是完全闻所未闻的,翻译买方支付翻译格外好工作比他实际做的更多的话)。

在第一次会议上,委员会决定,这将是非常有用的相当可靠估计的金额,政府花费的翻译。委员会所收集的构成虽然这些数字只是一个估计值 - 一个粗略的估计 - 我们觉得这是到这个时候政府的翻译支出的最佳估计数。

花费金额由政府机构所做的翻译:


                                                                       百万美元

JPRS                        财政年度1964                     1.3

商业机构                   财政年度1964                     3.6

                    (估价H. R.专责委员会)

PL 480                       财政年度1965                    1.5

NSF国内                    财政年份1965                     1.1

内务                          财政年度1963                     5.3

FTD MT                     3月1 - 10月2 1964             0.27

                                   总计                               13.07


政府翻译的大部分事业在政府支持研究和开发中是一个非常小的活动领域,很显然,从以上数字看。

伯纳德·比尔曼,美国翻译协会在纽约的翻译机构的所有者和董事估计,在美国做商业翻译的机构每年约有7.5百万美元的商业价值。加入由政府花费1300万美元,这个数字的总和约2000万美元。对此应加非政府内部翻译花费的金额2百万美元。因此花在翻译上的钱的数额估计将提高到约2200万元。


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Amount Spent for Translation


Considering the various methods used to secure translations, it is not surprising that federal agencies have paid many different prices for translation – prices ranging from $9 to $66 per 1,000 words. (It is not altogether unheard of for a translation purchaser to pay a translator who does exceptionally good work for more words than he actually translates.)

At its first meeting, the Committee decided that it would be useful to have a fairly reliable estimate of the amount of money the government was spending for translation. Although the figures collected by the Committee constitute only an estimate – and a rough estimate, at that – we feel that it is the best estimate of the government's translation expenditures made up to this time.

Amounts spent by government agencies for translations done by:


                                                                       $ Millions

JPRS                            Fiscal Year 1964                1.3


Commercial Agencies    Fiscal Year 1964                 3.6

                    (Est. by H. R. Select Committee)

PL 480                         Fiscal Year 1965                1.5

NSF Domestic               Fiscal Year 1965                1.1

In-House                       Fiscal Year 1963                5.3

FTD MT                        1 March - 2 October 1964   0.27

                                   Total                                   13.07


It is clear from the above figures that translation in the government is a very small field of activity when compared with most undertakings in which the government supports research and development.

Bernard Bierman, a New York translation agency owner and a director of the American Translators Association has estimated that the commercial translation agencies in the United States do about $7.5 million worth of business each year. When this figure is added to the $13 million spent by the government, the sum is

about $20 million. To this should be added perhaps $2 million for the amount spent for nongovernment in-house translators. Thus the estimate of the amount of money spent on translation would be raised to approximately $22 million.




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是否短缺翻译或译员?


在过去,有人表示,有翻译或译员短缺的需要尚未得到满足。对于其他语言翻译成英语,委员会认为,事实并非如此。这一结论是基于以下数据:

1。翻译供应大大超过需求。美国就业服务,提供的翻译工作价格低至6元1000字(或更低) ,与翻译交谈都确认了委员会的结论。

2。联合出版物研究服务的容量可以增加一倍的输出(办公室的工作人员只要一个非常小的增加) ,如果需要。 JPRS拥有4000名合同译员,平均一个月只有大约300人被利用。 JPRS选择一个重要的语言作为一个例子,中文翻译可以处理多达两个半倍于目前的需求,这没有困难。

3。美国国家科学基金会的公开支持计划将慎重考虑,通过适当的专业社会,任何外国的杂志,这样的社会提名的翻译支持。 30期刊被翻译盖覆盖在1964年财政年度(见附录6表1 ) 。一个翻译有一个流通的只有200份。这是接近的,以提供个性化的服务。在12年的美国国家科学基金会的支持,已经成为自收自支的19个翻译期刊(见附录6 ,表2 ) 。

委员会拒绝任何翻译短缺的说法,如果这种短缺是根据这样的事实,对PL 480翻译的需求超出其能力5倍以上。这种说法被拒绝的理由是,几乎任何免费商品的需求都是无法满足的。

四十五个(主要是政府)的信息设施,以响应政府研究专责委员会,第88届国会(众议院)发出一份问卷,表明其设施的工作已经有限,缺乏翻译。这45家工厂再次询问他们的设备是否已限制缺乏翻译语言自动处理咨询委员会,如果是这样,这是否是由于缺乏翻译者缺乏合格的译员缺乏授权的位置。委员会共收到25篇。有些人说,他们的设施有没有翻译功能。一位代表说,它已不仅限于译者缺乏,这种情况是由于缺乏授权的位置。六表示,他们并不仅限于缺乏翻译。九设施的回答显然是肯定的,他们已经翻译缺乏的限制,七表示,这是由于缺乏授权的位置。剩下的两个,只有一个,非政府研究中心,说是由于其缺乏缺乏合格的译员。其他人简单地回答说,他们没有足够的服务请求来证明永久职位。

调查结果证实了委员会的信念,不存在短缺的翻译,虽然有可能有一个短缺的翻译授权职位。那么,这是一个财政问题,机构和公务员制度委员会的问题,而不是一个支持机械翻译研究的研究和开发办公室的问题。

委员会得出结论,所有的苏联文献,任何明显的需求是被翻译[ AG奥汀的“征文在信息检索或一个神话的诞生, ”信息与控制8 (1) , 64 (1965)关于一个要求重复研究] ,而且,虽然不容易评估需求或开放或封闭的情报材料覆盖,委员会认为这是决定性的,但遇到了一个单一的情报组织,要求更多的钱用于人类翻译。委员会听取了使用翻译分析师有限,也就是说,即使有更多的材料被翻译,分析师不会利用它。因此,具有讽刺意味的是,一些机构建议花更多的钱,做 “机器翻译”。委员会感到困惑的是,没有理由花费大量的金钱在一个小而已经经济不景气的行业,这个行业只有全职及部分时间劳动力总数不到5000 。



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Is There a Shortage of Translators or Translation?


In the past, it has been said that there is an unfulfilled need for translation or a shortage of translators. With respect to translators of other languages into English, the Committee finds that this is not so. This conclusion is based on the following data:

1. The supply of translators greatly exceeds the demand. The rolls of the U.S. Employment Service, the availability of translators to work at rates as low as $6 per 1,000 words (or lower), and conversations with translators confirm the Committee's conclusion.

2. The Joint Publications Research Service has the capacity to double its output immediately (with a very small increase in office staff) if called upon. The JPRS has 4,000 translators under contract, and in the average month it utilizes the services of only some 300 of them. To choose one important language as an example, the JPRS could with no difficulty handle up to two and a half times the present demand for Chinese translation.

3. The National Science Foundation's Publication Support Program will carefully consider, through a proper professional society, the support of the translation of any foreign journal that such a society nominates. Thirty journals were being translated cover to cover in Fiscal Year 1964 (see Appendix 6, Table 1). One translation has a circulation of only 200 copies. This comes close to providing individual service. In 12 years of NSF support, 19 translated journals have become self-supporting (see Appendix 6, Table 2).

The Committee rejects any argument, based on the fact that the demand for the PL 480 translations is five times greater than the program can satisfy, that there is a shortage of translation. Such an argument is rejected on the grounds that the demand for almost any free commodity is insatiable.

Forty-five (mostly government) information facilities, in response to a questionnaire issued by the Select Committee on Government Research (House of Representatives, 88th Congress), indicated that the work of their facilities had been limited by a lack of translators. These 45 facilities were again asked by the Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee whether their facility had been limited by a lack of translators, and if so whether this lack was attributable to a lack of authorized positions for translators or to a lack of qualified translators. The Committee received 25 replies. Some said that their facilities had no translation function. One said that it had not been limited by a lack of translators and that this situation was attributable to a lack of authorized positions. Six indicated that they were not limited by a lack of translators. Of the nine facilities that answered clearly in the affirmative that they had been limited by a lack of translators, seven indicated that this was attributable to a lack of authorized positions. Of the two remaining, only one, the nongovernment research center, said its lack was attributable to a lack of qualified translators. The others simply replied by saying that they did not have sufficient requests for services to justify permanent positions.

The results of the survey confirm the Committee's belief that there is no shortage of translators, although there may be a shortage of authorized positions for translators. This, then, is a fiscal problem for the agencies and the Civil Service Commission, and not a problem for research and development offices supporting research in mechanical translation.

The Committee concludes that all the Soviet literature for which there is any obvious demand is being translated [see A. G. Oettinger's “An Essay in Information Retrieval or the Birth of a Myth,” Information and Control 8 (1), 64 (1965) concerning a claim of duplicated research], and, although it is less easy to evaluate the needs or coverage of open or closed material for intelligence, the Committee regards it as decisive that it has not encountered a single intelligence organization that is demanding more money for human translation. The Committee has heard statements that the use of translation is analyst-limited; that is, even if more material were translated, analysts would not be available to utilize it. Thus, it is ironic that several agencies propose to spend more money for “machine translation.” The Committee is puzzled by a rationale for spending substantial sums of money on the mechanization of a small and already economically depressed industry with a full-time and part-time labor force of less than 5,000.



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关于可能的超额翻译


虽然委员会没有关注任何缺乏的翻译,它确实有一个翻译可能超过有些担心。翻译的材料,其中有没有一定的前瞻性读者不仅造成浪费,但它堵塞翻译和信息流的渠道。应限于日常翻译期刊或书籍,放心合理的有偿流转和额外的翻译应仅针对具体要求。支持这一立场,我们引述国防部的一个研究组织,研究委员会收到的一封信:

我们已经发现,提供翻译服务,一般不包括我们的技术领域,我们需要为我们的研究的深度。因此,我们不断地把额外的期刊文章和诸如苏联专利翻译请求。我们的问题一直无法获得快速反应,这些特殊的要求,正是这个因素,阻碍我们的工作,而不是限制。如果我们有一个建议,如你做出的一项调查显示,这将是一个更好的平衡之间应建立常规翻译和翻译的特殊的用户请求。我们发现,许多文章被翻译在我们地区不值得的努力,它的出现让我们可以放弃一些日常翻译,以便使更多的特殊要求的快速反应提供翻译服务。

盖盖翻译中,除了许多有价值的信息,这是可能的,许多平庸的研究报告,美国科学家可能已发慈悲放过。

,在1962年进行的一项有趣的研究,研究的价值包含在苏联医学/公共卫生服务翻译程序[ NLM / PHS俄语翻译项目的研究报告(在国家图书馆期刊翻译的文章合同PH -86- 62 -9) ,提高医疗通讯研究所( 1962年1月15日) ] 。评估采用的方法是平行的社论裁判的苏联对口美国期刊的文章。翻译的文章的复印件被发送到对口首席美国期刊编辑分配给他们的裁判。初步结果如下。

谢切诺夫生理杂志苏联取自两个问题总数的36篇文章,31 %的人判断是可以接受的,发表在美国生理学杂志或应用生理学杂志。

共41篇文章,从生物物理两个问题(苏联) ,23 %的人判断是可以接受的生物物理学杂志“发表。此外,裁判员表示,另外八条应该是可以接受的,以适当的美国杂志。

取自肿瘤的问题,这两个问题的论文25篇,有76%被认为是可以接受的癌症。裁判表示,另外两篇文章已经接受的一次,但“现在不会被认为是新的,足以值得出版。 ”

进一步的证据是可以找到的翻译可能超过在美国化学家,由Herner及本公司( 1962年6月4日)的美国化学学会的一份报告中的极品苏联翻译:

另一方面,最大的论点,即受访者目前提供给他们的翻译是不是与他们的品质,但在其发行的时间滞后。盖盖翻译过程中,尤其是当涉及翻译是一个比较缓慢的一个。鉴于医学编辑发现,人们可能会怀疑是否平庸或伪劣论文的比例相对较高,不拖延一小部分的外观优势和显着的论文。

也许更揭露真相,除了明确表示不使用苏联翻译的原因是接收苏联的科学信息的首选媒体方面的调查问卷中的问题的答案。三种方法级别比所有其他人。这些国家是:俄罗斯的出版物,定期的英语评论苏联在特定领域的发展,个别文章和翻译的英语摘要。这三种方法当然不是相互排斥的,而是互补的。有趣的是,一些人宁愿盖盖翻译的形式得到他们的苏联信息的受访者数量只有一半的人更需要得到他们的翻译。

。 。 。唯一的东西,可能会做圆了苏联的覆盖面,目前在化学是,第一,确保取水或编辑认为是值得的,苏联的论文,给出了详细的抽象,因为他们很可能不现成的英语第二获得廉价的拷贝引用苏联的论文,可能通过化学文摘社提供手段;和第三选定可用的翻译要求建立一个机制,可能再次通过化学文摘服务。所有这三个领域的改善可能会要求由政府补贴。然而,这将可能意味着小得多的支出比将需要盖盖翻译支持的扩展程序。它也可能会产生更大的回报。

这是委员会的信念,总的技术文献,不值得翻译,它是徒劳的尝试猜测什么人可以在一段时间内要翻译。应该强调的是速度,质量和经济上的要求提供这样的翻译。

如联合出版研究服务,其中收费用户翻译服务翻译不使用少,有利于比如美空军系统司令部的外国技术部,这在一定区域内提供免费的翻译服务。



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Regarding a Possible Excess of Translation


While the Committee is not concerned with any lack of translation, it does have some concern about a possible excess of translation. Translation of material for which there is no definite prospective reader is not only wasteful, but it clogs the channels of translation and information flow. Routine translation should be confined to journals or books with reasonably assured paid circulation and additional translations should be made only in response to specific requests. In support of this position we quote from a letter received by the Committee from a research organization of the Department of Defense:

We have found that the available translation services generally do not cover our technical areas to the depth that we require for our studies. As a result, we are continually putting in requests for translations of  additional journal articles and such things as Soviet patents. Our problem has been the inability to obtain quick reaction to these special requests and it is this factor that has hampered rather than limited our work. If we had one recommendation to make to a survey such as yours, it would be that a better balance should be established between what is routinely translated and the special translation requests of users. We have found that many articles are being translated in our area that do not warrant the effort and it appears to us that some of the routine translations could be abandoned in order to make more translation services available for quick reaction to special requests.

It is possible that the cover-to-cover translations contain, in addition to much valuable information, many uninspired research reports that the U.S. scientist could have been mercifully spared.

An interesting study, conducted in 1962, investigated the value of the articles contained in the Soviet journals translated in the National Library of Medicine/Public Health Service translation program [Report of Study of NLM/ PHS Russian Translation Program (Contract PH-86-62-9), Institute for Advancement of Medical Communication (Jan. 15, 1962)]. The method of evaluation used was parallel editorial refereeing of the Soviet articles by counterpart American journals. Copies of the translated articles were sent to the editors in chief of counterpart American journals for distribution to their referees. The preliminary results were as follows.

Of the total of 36 articles taken from two issues of the Sechenov Physiological Journal of the USSR, 31 percent were judged acceptable for publication in the American Journal of Physiology or the Journal of Applied Physiology.

Of the total of 41 articles taken from two issues of Biophysics (USSR), 23 percent were judged acceptable for publication in the Biophysical Journal. In addition the referees indicated that another eight articles should be acceptable to the appropriate American journal.

Of the 25 papers taken from two issues of Problems of Oncology, 76 percent were considered acceptable to Cancer. The referees indicated that another two articles would have been acceptable at one time but “would not now be considered new enough to merit publication.”

Further evidence of a possible excess of translation is to be found in The Need for Soviet Translations Among American Chemists, a report to the American Chemical Society by Herner and Company (June 4, 1962):

On the other hand, the biggest argument that the respondents had with the translations presently available to them was not with their quality but with time lags in their issuance. The translation process–particularly when cover-to-cover translations are involved–is a relatively slow one. In view of the finding of the medical editors, one might well wonder whether a relatively high proportion of mediocre or inferior papers are not delaying the appearance of a small proportion of superior and significant papers.

Perhaps even more revealing than the specifically stated reasons for nonuse of Soviet translations are the answers to the question in  the questionnaire in regard to preferred media for receiving Soviet scientific information. Three methods outranked all others. These were: English-language abstracts of Russian publications, regular English-language reviews of Soviet developments in specific fields, and translations of individual articles as needed. These three methods are of course not mutually exclusive but complementary. Interestingly, the number of respondents who preferred to get their Soviet information in the form of cover-to-cover translations was only half the number who preferred to get their translations as needed.

. . . The only things that might be done to round out the Soviet coverage that is presently available in chemistry is, first, to make sure that Soviet papers that are worthwhile in the opinion of the abstractors or editors are given detailed abstracting because they are likely not to be readily available in English; second to provide means of obtaining cheap copies of cited Soviet papers, possibly through the Chemical Abstracts Service; and third to develop a mechanism for making selected translations available on request, again possibly through the Chemical Abstracts Service. All three areas of improvement would probably require subsidization by the Government. However, it would probably mean a far smaller expenditure than would be required to support an expanded program of cover-to-cover translations. It would also probably produce a far greater return.

It is the Committee's belief that the total technical literature does not merit translation, and it is futile to try to guess what someone may at some time want translated. The emphasis should be on speed, quality, and economy in supplying such translations as are requested.

A service such as the Joint Publications Research Service, which charges the user for a translation, is less conducive to translation without use than is a service such as the U.S. Air Force Systems Command's Foreign Technology Division, which supplies translations free within certain areas.



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翻译的关键问题


有没有在翻译领域的紧急情况。问题不在于满足一些不存在需要通过不存在的机器翻译。然而,有几个关键问题的翻译。这是质量,速度和成本。


质量

委员会强烈认为,翻译的质量,必须有足够的请求者的需求。一个完美无瑕的生产和抛光翻译为用户有限的读者是浪费时间和金钱。另一方面,当一个档案质量要求生产劣质的翻译更浪费资源。它似乎很清楚的是,在许多情况下,充足,高质量的翻译不提供委员会。

尽管有足够的质量是至关重要的,政府有没有可靠的方法来衡量翻译的质量。鉴于此,该委员会的一名成员已经成立了一个实验质量的评价。这项工作是简要介绍附录10 。一种可靠的方法来衡量质量的重视,在确定正确的翻译费用。成本和质量之间的关系是远远精确。关于这种相关性,我们报价从演示文稿,向委员会提出, 1964年, 9月30日,美国翻译协会会长博士库尔特Gingold :

没有绝对的成本和质量之间的关系。有一些优秀的翻译谁收取适度的利率,而一些不称职的管理至少暂时收取高得多的价格。存在这样的相关性可能是更好的,在高端比在低,换句话说,是一种廉价的翻译几乎总是以某种方式的缺陷,而昂贵的翻译并不总是质量优越。和大,然而,一个得到支付。


速度

合理的速度和及时的翻译是必不可少的。委员会相信,在这方面有很大的改进余地。

2,258名科学家,响应关于翻译的苏联杂志的问卷中,有1,407评论出版的滞后时间; 24.5%的影响,滞后时间应减少(美国翻译的苏联科学期刊的使用,用户编写的研究报告的意见雪城大学的美国国家科学基金会和交换从联邦科学和技术信息研究所,报告号: TT -65- 64026 ) 。

AN / GSQ -16( XW- 2 )自动语言翻译美国空军外国技术部( FTD )为109天(44天为高优先级项目)对于一般的文件处理的延迟时间(收据) 。此外,在FTD ,外部承包商的文件翻译的平均处理时间通常为65天加1.3天,每1000字的俄语翻译。

最快速的翻译服务习惯的基础上提供定期的价格已经到了委员会的关注的是,联合出版研究服务( JPRS ),的,保证50页, 15天, 30天100页。

滞后时间(从收到)出版翻译期刊,由美国国家科学基金会支持的范围从15到26周。平均来说,这种滞后的一半时间花费在翻译和编辑(附录6 ,表3) 。

因此,我们看到,许多延误“翻译”在翻译的过程中,本身不会说谎,但而在编辑和制作花费的时间,有时在避免延误。 FTD的机器辅助翻译,延误生产和后期编辑,队列中的许多操作都必须在串联在这个特殊的形式,机器辅助翻译造成的延误。

应该提到的是高优先级的项目分割成段长文本就可以了额外的快速翻译服务,或支付额外的费用可能从基准利率的25 %至50 % ,甚至更高不等,取决于特定的的情况。


成本

成本是很重要的,因为在许多情况下,它是唯一的措施,政府能够明智地使用在决定如何将其翻译是必须要做的。正如我们所看到的,变化很大,由$ 9至每千字66元。机可能不适用于某些形式的翻译,如非常高品质的外交翻译与文学翻译。但科学材料可以做或没有机器辅助翻译。至于质量和速度,可以实现额外的成本,更好的质量和更高的速度,如果长文本分割成段。因此,一个特定的结果是成本的标准,政府应适用于决定翻译手段。 (见附录9各种类型的翻译的成本的估算。 )



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The Crucial Problems of Translation


There is no emergency in the field of translation. The problem is not to meet some nonexistent need through nonexistent machine translation. There are, however, several crucial problems of translation. These are quality, speed, and cost.


QUALITY

The Committee believes strongly that the quality of translation must be adequate to the needs of the requester. The production of a flawless  and polished translation for a user-limited readership is wasteful of both time and money. On the other hand, production of an inferior translation when one of archival quality is called for is even more wasteful of resources. It seems clear to the Committee that, in many cases, translations of adequate quality are not being provided.

Despite the fact that adequate quality is essential, the government has no reliable way to measure the quality of translation. In view of this, one member of the Committee has set up an experiment in the evaluation of quality. This work is described briefly in Appendix 10. A reliable way to measure quality would be of great importance in determining proper cost of translation. The correlation between cost and quality is far from precise. Concerning this correlation, we quote from the presentation made to the Committee on September 30, 1964, by Dr. Kurt Gingold, President of the American Translators Association:

There is no absolute correlation between cost and quality. There are some excellent translators who charge moderate rates, while some incompetents manage–at least temporarily–to charge much higher prices. Such correlation as exists is probably better at the low than at the high end; in other words, a cheap translation is almost always defective in some way, while an expensive translation is not always of superior quality. By and large, however, one gets what one pays for.


SPEED

Reasonable speed and promptness are essential in translation. The Committee is convinced that in this regard there is considerable room for improvement.

Of 2,258 scientists responding to a questionnaire concerning translated Soviet journals, 1,407 commented on lag time of publication; 24.5 percent of the comments were to the effect that lag time should be reduced (American Use of Translated Soviet Scientific Journals, a user study prepared by the Syracuse University Research Institute for the National Science Foundation and available from the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Report No. TT-65-64026).

The lag time (from receipt) for the average document processed by the AN/ GSQ-16 (XW-2) Automatic Language Translator of the USAF Foreign Technology Division (FTD) is 109 days (44 days for high-priority items). Also at FTD, the average processing time for documents translated by outside contractors was usually 65 days plus 1.3 days for each 1,000 words of Russian translated.

The most rapid translation service offered on a customary basis at regular prices that has come to the attention of the Committee is that of the Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS), which guarantees 50 pages in 15 days, 100 pages in 30 days.

The lag time (from receipt) in publication of the translated journals supported by NSF ranges from 15 to 26 weeks. On the average, half of this lag is accounted for by time spent in translation and editing (Appendix 6, Table 3).

Thus, we see that many of the delays in “translation” do not lie in the process of translation itself, but rather in time spent in editing and production, and sometimes in avoidable delays. In the FTD machine-aided translation, the delays are in production and postediting, together with the delays caused by queues in the many operations that must be done in tandem in this particular form of machine-aided translation.

It should be mentioned that for high-priority items extra fast translation service can be had by splitting long texts into segments, or by paying an additional fee that may range from 25 to 50 percent of the base rate or even higher, depending on the particular circumstances.


COST

Cost is important because in many cases it is the only measure the government can sensibly use in deciding how its translation is to be done. As we have seen, it varies considerably–from $9 to $66 per 1,000 words. Machines are probably inappropriate for some forms of translations, such as very high-quality diplomatic translation and literary translation. But translations of scientific material can be done with or without machine aids. As to quality and speed, at extra cost, better quality and higher speed can be attained if long texts are split into segments. Thus, cost for a particular result is the criterion that the government should apply in deciding on means of translation. (See Appendix 9 for estimates of the costs of various types of translation.)



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