《镜子大全》《朝华午拾》分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/liwei999 曾任红小兵,插队修地球,1991年去国离乡,不知行止。

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【“剩女”的去向和出路(1)】

已有 4576 次阅读 2013-3-8 20:03 |个人分类:立委科普|系统分类:生活其它|关键词:剩女,大数据,社会调查,问答系统| 大数据, 社会调查, 问答系统, 剩女

在面目可憎的新词“剩女”流行之前,大龄单身女青年的问题就存在,只是问题到如今愈加严重。前文说过,尤其是高学历大龄女青年这个群组,在她们可以选择的年龄段,合适的结婚对象比大熊猫还珍稀,因此成为比哥德巴赫还要难解的社会问题。那么从历史上看,她们的去向究竟怎样?今后的出路应该如何?

我是搞语言处理和自动情报调查的,在评论人和问题之前,习惯于做个调查,看看舆论都是怎么说的,对我们论述有没有什么启示。圣人云,三人行,必有我师。如果是三百万人、三千万人的言论,只要不被淹死,其中必有高见/洞见/流行见解。这是大数据社会调查自动化的价值所在。

我们利用同样的语言技术(NLP)支持,不仅开发了舆情挖掘的工具,可以抽取对任一话题的褒贬情绪和优劣得失,在此之前我们还开发了一个产品,可以从大数据中抽取、分类和汇集任一问题的解决方案(solutions),answering how questions。既然大龄单身女青年被普遍认为是一个社会难题,何不先借助此工具挖掘一下大数据中提过怎样的解决方法。

可惜的是,那个工具目前只有英语的系统在运行。中文 NLP 技术开发以来,我们一直集中在舆情挖掘的应用上,解决方案的应用由于时间和资源的限制,还没有提到议事日程上来。所谓“剩女”现象,作为社会问题而被热议,很大程度上是中国独有的。外国当然也有大龄单身女青年这样的“剩女”,也有现代社会过度竞争催生剩女的共同的大背景,但是作为一个社会现象和社会话题,远远没有国人那么聚焦。因此,要在英语世界做这项寻找解决方案的自动社会调查,其结果可能有偏差,但也不妨一试。于是,我把 older unmarried women 作为问题提交给我们的问答系统,得到了下述解决方案的汇集,我们择要例示并附加翻译和简短评价如下:

问题:如何解决 older unmarried women 带来的问题?

【自动答案汇总】

embryo banking (胚胎库)
social support (社会支持:这个确很重要,要支持,不要压力)
support from friend (朋友的支持:对,亲友的支持安慰可以缓解压力)
WEDDING (结婚:废话,不是没有合适对象么?总不能太勉强自己吧,为结婚而结婚)
Age Insurance (养老保险:如果单身一辈子,这个可能确实要予以重视,否则晚景太凄凉)
Allowance (赡养费:到哪里去领?)
Combination chemotherapy (联合化疗:似乎没用,这个问题不是物理疾病,如果病了,也是心病)
Double-income retirement (双薪退休:还是单身退休问题)
Emergency Contraception (紧急避孕:大龄单身有孕,问题复杂了)
Fox competition (福克斯竞争:???)
Heroin Craving (海洛因:不建议,可以麻痹一时,情形只会更糟)
abortion (流产:似乎还是说单身有孕不能成婚的情形)
additional bare metal stent implantation (额外的裸金属支架植入术:有什么好处?)
adjuvant chemotherapy (辅助化疗:说了,化疗没用)
adoption (收养:这个建议非常好,结婚成家主要动因之一是子女绕膝,享受天伦之乐,如果不能成婚,收养孤儿是一个极好的选项)
age appropriate choice (年龄合适的选择:没有啊,问题不就在这里嘛)
age difference (年龄差异:似乎是建议跳过自己年龄段去寻找结婚对象,也许在特定情形下也是一个办法)
appropriate DNA probe (合适的DNA探针)
artificial insemination (人工授精:是为了要自己的孩子,可以考虑,可能太复杂,费用也贵)
assisted reproduction (辅助生殖技术:如上)
association (社交:很好的建议,多交往,做一个快乐的单身)
attempt to escape (试图逃脱:逃得了吗?父母亲友的催促、社会的压力,不容易)
attribute criticism to bias (视批评为偏见:不失为一个对策)
become mother (成为母亲:是的,无论收养也好,人工受孕也好,成为母亲是解决单身未婚困扰的一个很好的建议,虽然不能成婚,至少可以成家,不失为退而求其次的良策。子女绕膝的小家庭的温暖可以化解很多忧虑,当然,单亲家庭也有诸多经济压力,甜蜜中有超出常人的辛苦在,人生啊人生)

...........

(原始结果很长,列于文末的【附录】;如果想认真研究的话,每个解决方案都可以 drill down 去看这种提法的上下文,然后予以总结对比;不过本文不过借此作为引子谈生活中所观察到的剩女去向的话题,就不再深入探究西方世界的说法了)。


【待续 ......】



【附录:英文世界大数据调查,针对older unmarried women问题的解决方案的原始结果】

简单说明一下:我们的解决方案自动问答系统偏重查全(recall)而不是查准(precision),因此不免有 noise 混杂进来。这个策略是因为一个自动问答系统是不可能真正提出如何解决问题的答案来。系统的结果只是提供给研究者作为参考,他们要在众多的结果中遴选有启发的子集进行进一步探究,最后消化酝酿出研究报告作为决策的参考。

How to solve the issues involving older unmarried women?

embryo banking
social support
support from friend
WEDDING
Age Insurance
Allowance
Combination chemotherapy
Double-income retirement
Emergency Contraception
Fox competition
Heroin Craving
abortion
action of gothic
additional bare metal stent implantation
adjuvant chemotherapy
adoption
age appropriate choice
age difference
appropriate DNA probe
artificial insemination
assisted reproduction
association
attempt to escape
attribute criticism to bias
become mother
birth control access
blessing
break lifelong promise
breast cancer mortality reduction
bring together younger man
burden of unpaid work
cardiorespiratory endurance
catch-up vaccination
cell migration
central figure
cesarean delivery
change in voting system
change.org petition
channel diverse talent
channel experience
channel material resource
charm
chemotherapy
child care
choice
choose personal combination of old
circuit training
classic impression
clinical diagnosis of suspected multiple sclerosis
cohabitation in old age
collectivization
comment
commit horror
communication
composition as migraine
composition of example 1
composition of example 7
comprehensive plan
comprehensive study of large segment
conclusion
conjunction with Pap testing
connection
conservation
conservative treatment
consideration
constipation
contraception
conversation
cooking
correction to pre-1984 data
courtney love
crash
cultural exchange between Argentineans
cumulative achievement win all four major championship
date
date married woman
date over 50
debut
decent education
decline mental functioning
deep intuition
definition
delicious twist
delight
depression
design
detailed study of large segment
detection of cervical cancer
diagnosis
disrupt iron III metabolism
dissemination of potential risk
distribution of pill
divorce
draw district
dress
earlier diagnosis
early detection
early detection of potential malignancy
education
education of woman
effective treatment for specific subgroup
elegant impression
eligibility requirement
emotional support
employment
emulsion of invention
engaging look at outspoken woman
eternal-bachelor stereotype
evaluation of potential risk
exceptional help in never-ending endeavor
exchange
exercise
exercise older woman
experience
experience in artificial abortion
experience on single case
experience with AAI
expression
extend retirement age
extra financial help
facilitate ministry
facilitate program
fantastic tour through mind
fat transfer to face
fight
fight against violence
finance
financial support
find romantic partner
finest
fish
floor exercise
following
fun loving
future research
general operating support
goal setting case management
good advice
good match
good role modeling for daughter
good start
graft
granddaughter try
grant
great catch
great progress
greatest drop in 25 to 29 year old group
guidance
gynecologic care
harassment
have age
have component
have large German Shepherd-mix mutt
heal
health care coverage
heart failure
helicopter landing
help of class
help people
help woman
hold themselves
honor
hope
hormonal therapy
housing assistance
hug
hunger
hunting
iconic look
ideal introduction for couple
imagination
important innovation in two respect
impression
impressive display of diversity
improve production
improve quality
in vitro fertilization
increase participation
increase to A 2
incredible feeling
indication
influenza vaccination
informal care
informed consent
inspiration
instant reality check
insurance
interaction with people
internally consistent teaching on matter
intervention
intimate look at story
invest in beauty merchandise
invitation
journey
keep ticker in top shape
killing of priest
labor supply
latter change in family
let in non-ceo/cfo/coo
let in single dwelling 32 year olds
little white cloak
logistic regression
loose definition of sex worker
love
lubrication
lumpectomy
make affirmative commitment
mammography
marry
mass treatment
mastectomy
material support
maternal aging
meaning
medical care
meet man
meet woman
men's team pursuit
middle finger tip amputation
momentary help
monthly supply to missionary
more support
mounted cowboy action shooting
mumbled blessing
natural progression for cowgirl
need for Kingdom publisher
new exhibit
new war
nicer looking smile
observation
offer
optimal care for individual
order
overcome multifaceted challenge
ovulation
pacemaker
pedigree analysis
pension-like plan
perfect match
perfect match for criterion
permanent pacing
permit old habit to re-emerge
permit provision
personalized marriage
pick personal combination of old
plan annihilate
plan to provide appropriate support
poet-laureatic explosion of colored firework
powerful health punch
powerful sibling rivalry
practical advice
preference to drug-free woman
prepare/ enrich Premarital Survey
private treatment
produce offspring
proliferation of infectious microorganism
proper nutrition
prophylaxis
proposal
prospective study
prostitution
protection
public lecture
put garter stitch
put on stocking
quantify stressful life event
quick recovery
radiation
rape
rape use as weapon
real love
reasonably good looking loving
recent multicenter study
recent victimization
recently funded renewal application
recognition
reconstruction
recording
recovery
reduction
reflex HPV testing
regard
relief
replace thyroid hormone
reproduction
reputation
requirement
retirement
retreat
revascularization
review
rubella infection
ruin what
runway debut
safeguard
same focus
save compensation for remainder
screening
second look
secure lone spot
seeking inspiration
segmentation of data set
serve God
serve woman
setting
sex difference
share picture
share tip
show
single
single CRP measurement
single embryo transfer
single glance
single important social institution
single intrapleural instilation of bleomycin
single letter change in genome
single license
single measurement of free testosterone
single modern innovation
single mother
single oral dose study
single pass
single teaching on matter
single-case analysis
solace
solid defense of US Open title
special supervisory care
spiritual growth
sponsorship
stable employment
standard whole breast external beam radiation
stress
strong reassurance
study for pregnant woman
study single
subject
suffer
suffering of poor
supervision
support to serve woman
support to woman
surgery
sympathy
systematic comparison of income
target human papillomavirus
technological improvement over older direct preparation
therapy
thermography
timeless teaching on matter
timing
timing of infection
travel
unanimous decision over Colleen Schneider
understanding of single
universal coverage
universal rubella screening of military recruit
unpaid care
user friendly financial education
vaccinate
vaccination
valuable advice to potential rower
valuable dance
visual perception distortion after zolpidem
visualization
vocational education of woman
volunteer
volunteer action
wage growth of older college-educated man
walk
war
warm reaction
wartime health education campaign
watch old Egyptian movie
water damage
water use
week-long campaign
weight bearing exercise
weight training
welfare policy change under TANF
well researched study of homelessness
whole new meaning
wholesale degradation of sacred institution of marriage
wide selection of possibility
win
win Bavarian Open title
win double
win double title
win title
witness
woman
woman help
wonder
wonderful experience
wonderful revelation of Rule
wonderful timing
work in orphanage
work with teen population
world-wide recognition
worth modeling
wreak knavery upon sign board
write
written informed consent
written informed consent to participate
wry look at son
wry smile
xenograft
yearning for education
yoga
young figure

younger looking smile



【置顶:立委科学网博客NLP博文一览(定期更新版)】



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