《镜子大全》《朝华午拾》分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/liwei999 曾任红小兵,插队修地球,1991年去国离乡,不知行止。

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《立委科普:汉语只有完成体,没有过去时》

已有 4909 次阅读 2011-5-19 10:36 |个人分类:立委科普|系统分类:教学心得|关键词:时态,汉语 时 体 tense aspect voice| 时态

回答:老友关于动词加“了”还是不加“了”的争论:又见师姐 vs 又见了师姐

汉语语言学界比较共识的是,汉语只有完成体,没有过去时
作者: 立委 (*)
日期: 05/18/2011 04:33:11

(tense)和(aspect)是两个不同的语法范畴。因为其反映语言时间概念的角 度不同,实际应用中有些纠缠不清,但作为一个语言整体,还是可以论证两者之间的有无和关系的。

英语有非常规整、独立的时和体,看上去很逻辑。简单说来,就是4个时,4个体,两个态(voice: 主动语态,被动语态),构成32种时(体)态的组合:如,主动态现在完成时态包括主动态(active)、现在时(present)和完成体(perfect),被动态一般过去时态包括被动态(passive)、过去时(past)和一般体(simple)。英语动词的形式32种,元素周期表那样规整漂亮,尽管实际使用的动词形式只有约20种形式(下列时态表格的左上部分)。用二维图表达这种组合颇一目了然:常常是主动语态一个表,被动语态一个表,好反映三维关系(图表见下)。

Tense/Aspect

1 Simple

2 Perfect

3 Progressive

4 Perfect Progressive

1 Present

study, studies

have/has studied

is/am/are studying

have been studying

2 Past

studied

had studied

was/were studying

had been studying

3 Modal

will/can study

will/can  have studied

will/can be studying

* will/can have been studying

4 Past Modal

would/could study

would/could have studied

* would/could be studying

* would/could have been studying

Table  1: English verb forms for 16 tenses in active voice

 

Tense/Aspect

1 Simple

2 Perfect

3 Progressive

4 Perfect Progressive

1 Present

is/am/are studied

have/has been studied

is/am/are being studied

* have been being studied

2 Past

was/were studied

had been studied

was/were being studied

* had been being studied

3 Modal

will/can be studied

will/can have been studied

* will/can  be being studied

* will/can have been being studied

4 Past Modal

would/could be studied

would/could have been studied

* would/could be being studied

* would/could have been being studied

Table  2: English verb forms for 16 tenses in passive voice

Note: * represent theoretical forms which are not practically used in the language community due to the forms being too complicated.  

现代汉语可以用虚字表示“体”,显性表达动词的某种与时间相关的语法意义(譬如“了”之于完成体)。但汉语与英语不同,原则上虚字可用可不用。英语的动词必须使用一种表达“体”的形式,汉语不搞这个形式主义。换句话说,汉语对于使用不使用表达“体”的虚字没有语法上的强制性,使用与否更多地决定于文体和风格。英语则不然,对于谓语动词,必须要使用上表32种动词形式之一来显性表达“时”、“体”和“语态”。

上表列举的是英语谓语动词(finite verbs)的形式,英语还有一种非谓语动词(non-finite verbs),在句子里不需要语法主语,通常是句子里的连带成分。非谓语动词,主要是不定式(infinitive)和分词(participle) 两类 (也有语法学家把非谓语动词分为三类四种:不定式,动名词,现在分词,过去分词;考虑到动名词与现在分词同形,本文采用的是二分法:ING form and participle form,后者专指过去分词), 形式上虽然没有“时”(其原因是,非谓语一般是附着在句子谓语上的附加成分,所以它的“时”的语法意义不是独立的,而是由相关的谓语动词决定的。非谓语动词虽然没有“时”的形式,但其对“时”的意义仍有隐性的表达,是从谓语动词 carry 过来的。非谓语动词必须显性表达“体”和“语态”的语法意义,见下表。

Voice/Aspect

1 Simple

2 Perfect

3 Progressive

4 Perfect Progressive

1 Active

to study

to have studied

to be studying

to have been studying

2 Passive

to be studied

to have been studied

to be being studied

to have been being studied

Table 1: English infinitive verb forms for 8 aspect/voice combinations

 

Voice/Aspect

1 Simple

2 Perfect

3 Progressive

4 Perfect Progressive

1 Active

studying

having studied


studying

( * being studying)


* having been studying

2 Passive

studied

having been studied

being studied

* having been being studied

Table 2: English participle forms for 8 aspect/voice combinations

Note: Since the Active-Progressive participle form (being studying) is not really used in the community, the simple ING form (studying) in effect has to represent both Simple and Progressive aspect: in a context when it is understood as representing Simple aspect, it is also called gerund; otherwise it is called Present Participle.  Note also that the Simple Passive participle form (studied) is often called Past Participle or Perfect Participle.  


当年立委做中学教师前,从高中开始就特别爱画这类表,给“学生”讲解英语时态的逻辑美(屈指算来35年多了,回头看似乎是冥冥之中注定要做“语言学家”的)。表格中带星的右下形式太过复杂,实际上较少使用(譬如 will have been studying)。尤其是被动语态,其动词形式更复杂了一层,因此其中一多半理论上的繁复形式(譬如 would have been being studied)在语言中几乎绝迹。

但是,一般认为,汉语的虚字表达的语法概念属于的范畴,而汉语没有语法的区分。汉语的体类似于英语的体,分类略有不同,大体说来:完成体(了),经验体(过),进行体(着)。换句话说,英语有不同的语法形式来区分现在完成时(have V-ed)和过去完成时(had V-ed),现在进行时(am/is/are V-ing)和过去进行时(was/were V-ing), 但汉语不做这种区分。

关于“了”字的用法,汉学家写过一车文章。譬如,只是动词后的了
看了电影)才表达完成体,而句末的了2看电影了)则表达语气,如果恰好遇到一个不及物动词位于句末,则有歧义,具体表达体还是语气或者两者都沾点儿,需要具体情况具体分析。关于了字的用法,钻牛角尖没大意思。二位的争论听上去太小儿科。



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